Roman Amphorae: a digital resource

University of Southampton, 2005 (updated 2014)

Data copyright © University of Southampton unless otherwise stated

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Primary contact

Dr David Williams
Dept of Archaeology
University of Southampton
Avenue Campus
SO17 1BJ
Tel: 080 593032

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Resource identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers

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University of Southampton (2014) Roman Amphorae: a digital resource [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor]

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Dressel 21-22

Dressel 21-22

Courtesy of Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology
Donald Frey

Distinctive Features

This has a wide mouth normally with a single, sometimes a double rounded rim underneath which there is a deep groove. The handles are oval-shaped with a broad neck cylindrical body and solid spike. Panella (2002: 252, Nos. 9 and 10) distinguishes two subtypes, one slightly smaller and slimmer than the other with less arched handles and a junction between shoulder and body.
See characteristics

Date Range

The earliest date is no later than the last quarter of the first century BC (Van der Werff, 1986: 114; Hesnard, 1980: 150 and Note 100 (Longarina). The latest date is to the end of the first century AD.
Search: [1st century BC] [1st century AD]


Tituli picti suggest an origin in Italy, possibly in Campania or Lazio (Zevi, 1966; Panella, 2002), a conclusion borne out by petrological analysis (see below), while it has also been suggested that the form may also have been produced along the Adriatic coast and in Bruttium(Panella, forthcoming). The form also seems to have been copied on a small scale in Baetica (Sotomayor, 1969; √Čtienne & Mayet, 1994; Mayet, 1999), and in Tarraconensis (Beltr√°n Lloris, 2000: 450).
Search: [Italy] [North West Europe] [Spain] [Western Mediterranean]


Central Italian production seems to have been distributed within Tyrrhenian Italy and in north Africa (Carthage), while that in the Adriatic is distributed to Sicily and the eastern Mediterranean (Panella & Moizio, forthcoming).
Search: [Eastern Mediterranean] [Italy] [North Africa] [Tunisia]


Tituli picti from Pompeii suggest that amongst other commodities, this amphora type may have carried fruit: apples, cherries from Cuma and honey (Callender, 1965; Zevi, 1966; Panella, 2002). It has been suggested that the southern Spanish version may have carried garum (Etienne & Mayet, 1994).
Search: [Fish Sauce] [Fruit] [Honey]


Principal contributors: David Williams and Clementina Panella


Callender 4
Ostia 54
Peacock & Williams 7
Schoene 4


The following link will take you to the Centro para el Estudio de la Interdependencia Provincial en la Antiguedad Clásica CEIPAC database. In the CEIPAC system this amphora has the ID KE51+BYZ. Note: access to CEIPAC requires registration, which is possible via