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Hereford City Excavations: Volume 3: The finds

R Shoesmith

CBA Research Report No 56 (1985)

ISBN 0-906780-53-5


Abstract

Title page of report 56

This is the final volume of the report on the excavations which took place in Hereford between 1965 and 1976.

The only common factor to the excavations is that they were all funded, to a greater or lesser part, by the Department of the Environment or its predecessor, the Ministry of Public Building and Works. Several directors were involved in the work on behalf of various bodies and the general policy, which evolved as sites became available, was the development of the city defences from the origin of the city until after the Civil War.

The excavations between 1965 and 1969 were mainly organized or coordinated by the Hereford Excavations Committee. Different directors were employed on individual projects and the site records, which were eventually collected together, varied from interim reports to full dossiers with well-indexed finds. The Hereford Excavations Committee was disbanded in 1969, when the work of constructing the inner relief road was completed, and its records and remaining assets were transferred to the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. Unfortunately no provision was made for post-excavation work or publication of the Committee's researches and, apart from work published during the life of the Committee (Stanford 1966; Noble 1967; Shoesmith 1967; 1968), the reports and finds were stored pending a new policy.

The report of the excavations was the first volume to be tackled and summaries were written, plans amended, and a new cross-referencing system introduced to allow reference from and to the microfiche sections in both the excavation report volume and the finds volume. Excavations on and close to the defences, complete with microfiche section, was eventually published in 1982 as Research Report no 46 in the CBA series.

The finds section was even more difficult to split into printed text and microfiche than the excavation section had been as there were many contributors involved. It was agreed that the printed text should include a fair summary of all the reports but that items of national interest should be given some priority over sections which had a local or regional bias. Several reports and many tables which had originally been considered as archival material were edited and included in the microfiche section thus creating a further degree of confusion in the, by then, complex cross-referencing system.

Contents

  • Title pages
  • Contents (p v)
  • Illustrations (p vii)
  • Cross-references for selected contexts (p ix)
  • Introduction to Volume 3 (p x)
    • The microfiche section (p xi)
    • Volume 1 - finds references (p xi)
    • Volume 2 - corrections to microfiche (p xi)
    • Acknowledgements (p xi)
  • The sites (p 1)
    • Castle Green (p 1)
    • Victoria Street (p 1)
    • Cantilupe Street (p 1)
    • Berrington Street (p 2)
    • Bewell House (p 2)
    • The Brewery (p 2)
    • Minor sites (p 3)
  • Part 1: the small finds (p 4)
    • Introduction (p 4)
    • Metal objects (p 4)
      • Iron objects (p 4)
        • Arrowheads (p 4)
        • Keys (p 4)
      • Copper alloy objects (p 4)
        • Comment: the late Saxon strap clips (p 10)
      • Pewter objects (p 10)
      • Lead objects (p 10)
    • Stone objects (p 14)
      • Large worked stone (p 14)
      • Quernstones (p 14)
      • Small worked stone (p 14)
        • Comment: the limestone spindle whorls from Berrington Street 4 by A G Vince (p 14)
      • Moulds (p 17)
      • Flint objects by R Pye (p 21)
    • Jewellery (p 21)
      • Brooches (p 21)
        • Comment: the medieval brooches by J Cherry (p 21)
      • Beads and rings (p 24)
        • Comment: the glass beads and ring by J Bayley (p 24)
    • Glass objects by M G Boulton (p 24)
      • The wine bottles (p 26)
      • Window glass (p 26)
    • Worked bone (p 29)
      • Comment: the Saxon bone combs (p 29)
    • Coins (p 33)
      • Coins from the excavations by M M Archibald, G C Boon, and R H M Dolley (p 33)
      • Roman coins found in Hereford by M Rhodes (p 33)
  • Part 2: the ceramic finds by A G Vince (p 34)
    • Introduction (p 34)
    • The pottery (p 35)
      • Group A: Herefordshire wares (p 35)
        • Introduction (p 35)
        • A2: Cooking pots, tripod pitchers, and jugs (p 37)
        • A3: Cooking pots, tripod pitchers (p 39)
        • A4: Tripod pitchers and jugs (p 39)
        • A5: Jugs (p 41)
        • A6: Jugs and a costrel (p 41)
        • A7a: Early pitchers (p 41)
        • A7b: Later wares (p 43)
        • A7c: Fine wares (p 44)
        • A7d: 17th century kilns (p 44)
        • A7e: Newent and Whitney wares (p 45)
        • A8: Cooking pots (p 45)
        • A9 and A10: Floor tiles and roof furniture (p 45)
      • Group B: Malvernian wares (p 45)
        • Introduction (p 45)
        • B1: Cooking pots (p 46)
        • B2: Tripod pitchers (p 48)
        • B3: Tripod pitchers and jugs (p 48)
        • B4: Oxidized, glazed wares (p 48)
      • Group C: Worcester wares (p 52)
        • Introduction (p 52)
        • C1: Cooking pots (p 52)
        • C2: Jugs (p 53)
        • C3: Floor tiles (p 54)
      • Group D: Cotswold wares (p 54)
        • Introduction (p 54)
        • D1: Cooking pots (p 54)
        • D2: Cooking pots and pitchers (p 55)
        • D3: Tripod pitchers (p 56)
      • Group E: Non-local wares (p 56)
        • Introduction (p 56)
        • E1a: Red-painted Stamford ware by K Kilmurry (p 56)
        • E1b: Stamford ware (p 57)
        • E2a: Bristol, Ham Green ware (p 58)
        • E2b:Bristol, Redcliffe ware (p 58)
        • E3: Oxford late medieval wares (p 59)
        • E4: North Devon gravel-tempered and fine wares (p 59)
        • E5: Surrey/Hampshire wares (p 59)
        • E6: Staffordshire wares (p 59)
        • E7: Donyatt ware (p 59)
        • E8: Winchester ware (p 59)
      • Group F: Imported wares (p 60)
        • Introduction (p 60)
        • F1: French wares (p 60)
        • F2: German stonewares (p 60)
        • F3: Spanish wares (p 62)
        • F4: Oriental porcelain (p 62)
        • F5: Alkaline glazed ware (p 62)
      • Group G: wares of unknown origin (p 62)
        • Introduction (p 62)
        • G1: West Midlands early medieval ware (Chester-type ware) (p 62)
        • G2: Shell-tempered wares (p 63)
        • G3: Miscellaneous unglazed vessels (p 63)
        • G4: Miscellaneous glazed wares (p 63)
        • G5: Tin-glazed wares (p 64)
        • G6: Tudor Green ware (p 64)
        • G7: Late medieval jugs (p 64)
        • G8: Black-glazed cups (p 64)
      • Pottery groups (p 65)
        • Introduction (p 65)
        • Victoria Street-periods 5a, 5c, and 8 (p 65)
        • Victoria Street-subway sections, periods 4, 5, and 7 (p 65)
        • Berrington Street 1-3-period 2a (p 65)
        • Berrington Street 1-period 3 (p 65)
        • Berrington Street 1-period 5 (p 65)
        • Berrington Street 2-period 6, F407 (p 65)
        • Berrington Street 4-periods 2a,2b, and 2c (p 65)
        • Berrington Street 4-period 6, pit 730, layer 704 (p 65)
        • Brewery-periods 2a, 2b, and 2c (p 65)
        • Brewery-periods 2a, 2c, 3a, and 4a (p 65)
    • Roof furniture and building materials (p 65)
      • Introduction (p 65)
        • A2: Ridge tiles (p 65)
        • A5: Ridge tiles (p 68)
        • A6: Finial (p 68)
        • A7: Roof furniture (p 68)
        • A10: Flat roof tiles and bricks (p 69)
      • Comment (p 69)
    • Floor tiles (p 70)
      • Introduction (p 70)
        • A9: Bredon-type (p 70)
        • B4: Malvern Chase (p 70)
        • C3: Droitwich-type (p 70)
      • Comment (p 70)
    • Fired daub and clay objects (p 70)
      • Introduction (p 70)
        • Fired daub-Victoria Street, period 1 (p 70)
        • Fired clay slabs-Victoria Street, period 2 (p 70)
        • Mould fragments-Brewery, periods 2b and 4b (p 70)
        • Berrington Street 4, period 5, loom weights (p 70)
    • The photomicrographs (p 73)
    • The ceramic sequence (p 73)
      • Roman pottery (p 73)
      • Post-Roman to 10th century (p 73)
      • The 10th and 11th centuries (p 79)
      • Late 11th to early 12th century (p 79)
      • 12th century (p 79)
      • Late 12th to 13th centuries (p 79)
      • Late 13th to mid 15th centuries (p 80)
      • Late 15th to 16th centuries (p 80)
      • The 17th century (p 80)
      • The 18th and 19th centuries (p 81)
    • Conclusions (p 81)
      • Function (p 81)
      • Source (p 81)
      • Summary (p 82)
    • Clay pipes by A A Peacey (p 82)
  • Part 3: the environmental evidence (p 84)
    • Introduction (p 84)
    • The animal bones by B A Noddle (p 84)
      • Introduction (p 84)
      • Conclusions (p 90)
        • The complete assemblage (p 90)
        • A comparison of the four sites (p 90)
    • The bird bones by D Bramwell (p 94)
    • The fish bones by A K G Jones and P J Spencer (p 95)
    • Mollusca by J G Evans (p 96)
    • The insect fauna (p 96)
      • Berrington Street site 4, pit 651 by H K Kenwood (p 96)
      • City Arms, trench 6, layer 3 by M A Girling (p 96)
    • Wood and charcoal (p 96)
      • Victoria Street, periods 1 and 5a by J S R Hood (p 97)
      • Berrington Street by J S R Hood (p 97)
      • City Arms by C A Keepax (p 97)
    • Seeds, grasses, and grain (p 97)
      • Victoria Street by J R B Arthur J S R Hood (p 97)
      • Berrington Street by J S R Hood and D Williams (p 97)
      • Bewell House by J S R Hood (p 97)
      • City Arms by J R B Arthur and P J Paradine (p 98)
    • Inorganic samples by J S R Hood (p 98)
      • General: Berrington Street by J S R Hood (p 98)
      • Metalworking residues by L Biek and R F Tylecote (p 98)
  • Bibilography (p 101)

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Hereford City Excavations: Volume 3: The finds (CBA Research Report 56) PDF 6 Mb
Hereford City Excavations: Volume 3: The finds (microfiche) PDF 20 Mb