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Excavations at Segontium (Caernarfon) Roman Fort, 1975-1997

P J Casey and J L Davies with J Evans

CBA Research Report No 90 (1993)

ISBN 1 8724 14 35 4


Abstract

Title page of report 90

The report describes the excavations carried out in the south east quarter of the fort of Segontium (Caernarfon) in Gwynedd, North Wales. Approximately 2,000 square metres were explored by area excavation to natural sub soil levels.

The 2.27 hectare fort was erected in the governorship of Gnaeus Iulius Agricola (AD 77-83). The original garrison was either a cohors milliaria peditata or two cohortes quingennariae peditatae.

Timber barrack blocks of three structural phases were examined dating from the late Flavian to the Trajanic periods and plans of significant parts of these structures were obtained. Between the second and third barrack phases the praetentura was cleared of buildings and a heavy fence erected across the east-west axis of the site approximately half way between the southern rampart and the via principalis.

A study of the coin sequence indicates that military occupation extended beyond the reign of Magnus Maximus; the withdrawal of the garrison may be associated with troop movements initiated by the magister militum Arbogastes during the short lived revolt of Eugenius.

Specialist reports discuss the full sequence of coarse pottery, Samian, glass, coins, metal objects, slags, and environmental remains. The site is considered in the context of Wales from the 1st to 4th centuries and within the historical framework of the Roman world at all periods. Special emphasis is placed on problems of military supply and consumption of both organic and inorganic material.

Contents

  • Title Pages
  • Contents (pp v-ix)
  • List of illustrations (pp x-xi)
  • List of plates (p xii)
  • List of tables (pp xii-xiii)
  • Acknowledgements (p xiii)
  • Summary (p xiv)
    • Introduction (pp i-v)
      • Location and setting (p 1)
      • The structure of the report (p 1)
      • History of previous work (pp 1-7)
      • Excavation strategy 1975-79 (pp 7-9)
    • Synthesis (p 10)
      • Historical discussion (pp 10-17)
      • The dating of the periods (p 17)
    • Structural report (p 18)
      • Introduction (p 18)
      • Period phase components (pp 18-27)
      • Period 1 (pp 27-30)
      • Period 2 (pp 30-33)
      • Period 3 (pp 33-36)
      • Period 4 (pp 36-38)
      • Period 5 (pp 38-40)
      • Period 5A (pp 40-42)
      • Period 5B (p 42)
      • Period 6 (pp 42-47)
      • Period 6A (pp 47-51)
      • Period 7 (pp 51-57)
      • Period 7A (pp 57-60)
      • Period 7b (pp 60-62)
      • Period 8 (pp 62-65)
      • Period 9 (pp 65-67)
      • Period 10 (pp 67-70)
      • Period 10A (pp 70-73)
      • Period 11 (pp 73-74)
    • Sources of supply (p 75)
      • Supply and consumption (p 75)
      • Finds synthesis, by J Evans (pp 80-81)
    • Botanical report, by Sandra Nye (p 82)
      • Introduction (p 82)
      • Ecology (pp 82-83)
      • Economy (p 83)
      • Distribution (pp 83-84)
      • Summary (p 84)
      • Acknowledgements (p 84)
    • Bones of larger mammals, by B N Noddle (p 97)
      • Proportions of species (p 97)
      • Anatomical analysis (pp 97-98)
      • Ages of individuals (p 98)
      • Type of animal (pp 98-103)
      • Pathology and abnormalities (p 103)
      • Comparison with other sites (p 103)
      • Summary (p 103)
    • Bird bones, by T P O'Conner (p 119)
    • Mollusca, by J G Evans (pp 120-121)
    • Coins, by P J Casey (pp 122-164)
    • Small finds, by L Allason-Jones (p 165)
      • Discussion (p 165)
      • Acknowledgements (p 165)
      • Catalogue (pp 165-210)
    • Metal slag, by Michael Heyworth (p 211)
      • Iron-working (p 211)
      • Lead working (pp 211-212)
      • Cooper-alloy working (p 212)
      • Summary (p 212)
      • Acknowledgments (p 212)
      • Appendix: contextual analysis of the slag and crucibles (p 213)
    • Objects of stone, by J C N Codston (p 214)
      • Artefacts (p 214)
      • Sculpture (pp 214-218)
    • Roman glass, by Denise Allen (p 219)
      • Introduction (p 219)
      • Acknowledgement (p 219)
      • Beakers, bowls and cups (pp 219-222)
      • Flasks (pp 222-223)
      • Jugs (p 224)
      • Bottles (pp 224-226)
      • Beads (pp 226-227)
      • Objects (pp 227-228)
    • Brick and tile, by J L Davies (p 229)
      • Discussion (pp 230-231)
    • Graffiti, by R S O Tomlin (p 232)
    • Samian ware, by Anthony King and Martin Millett (p 234)
      • Introduction (p 234)
      • Catalogue (p 234-243)
      • Discussion (pp 243-249)
    • Coarse pottery, by P V Webster (p 250)
      • Introduction (p 250)
      • General (pp 250-256)
      • Periods (pp 256-308)
      • Functional trends in the ceramics (pp 308-309)
      • The mortaria, by K F Hartley (pp 309-316)
    • Architectural reconstructions, by Kate Wilson (p 317)
      • Courtyard building (p 317)
      • Bath-house (pp 317-319)
    • List of finds by context (pp 320-327)
  • Bibliography (pp 328-335)
  • Index, compiled by Lyn Greenwood (pp 336-346)

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