The Excavation of the Cleatham Anglo-Saxon Cemetery, North Lincolnshire

Kevin Leahy, 2007 (updated 2014)

Data copyright © Kevin Leahy unless otherwise stated


North Lincolnshire Council logo

Primary contact

Kevin Leahy
North Lincolnshire Council
North Lincolnshire Museum
Oswald Road
Scunthorpe
DN13 7BD
England
Tel: 01652 658 261

Send e-mail enquiry

Resource identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are persistent identifiers which can be used to consistently and accurately reference digital objects and/or content. The DOIs provide a way for the ADS resources to be cited in a similar fashion to traditional scholarly materials. More information on DOIs at the ADS can be found on our help page.

Citing this DOI

DOIs should be the last element in a citation irrespective of the format used. The DOI citation should begin with "doi:" in lowercase followed by the DOI with no spaces between the ":" and the DOI.

doi:10.5284/1000011

DOIs can also be cited as a persistent link from another Web page. This is done by appending the DOI Resolver with the DOI. This would look like:

http://dx.doi.org/10.5284/1000011

However, if it is possible it is best to hide the URL in the href property of the <a> tag and have the link text be of the form doi:10.5284/1000011. The HTML for this would look like:

<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5284/1000011">doi:10.5284/1000011</a>
Sample Citation for this DOI

Kevin Leahy (2014) The Excavation of the Cleatham Anglo-Saxon Cemetery, North Lincolnshire [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] (doi:10.5284/1000011)

Overview

The individual tables that make up the Cleatham Anglo-Saxon cemetery database are described in detail below:

Find

Field name Format Description Terms used
Urn Number Number The unique reference number by which each urn is known
Inhumation number Number The unique number issued to a grave.
Find number Number The unique number assigned to each find, from urns, inhumations and archaeological contexts, including unstratified material.
Find Text 30 The find type, selected from table FindLUT Accessory vessel Animal bone, Annular brooch, Bead, Bead complex, Belt Plate, Bowl, Bracelet, Brooch, Buckle, Charcoal, Clasp, Coin, Comb, Copper alloy melt, Cowrie shell, Cremation, Cruciform brooch, Cruciform brooch knob, Cruciform brooch pin, Finger ring, Firesteel, Gaming piece, Girdle hanger, Glass fragment, Glass melt, Glass vessel, Ivory ring, Knife, Latch lifter, Lead plug, Metal complex, Metal mount, Metal plate, Metal rod, Metal sheet, Metal strip, Metal tube, Metal wire, Misc - bone strip, Misc - button, Misc - casket mount, Misc - chain, Misc - clay, Misc - decorated fragment, Misc - ear scoop, Misc - escutcheon/mount, Misc - fitting, Misc - fossil, Misc - fragment, Misc - handle, Misc - ivory plate, Misc - lace tag, Misc - limestone fragment, Misc - pin beater, Misc - pot boiler, Misc - saddle fitting, Misc - sandstone fragment, Misc - scraper, Misc - spear butt, Misc - stone, Misc - strap, Misc - stud, Misc - sword pommel cap, Misc - tanged implement, Misc - terminal, Misc - weight, Nail, Pebble, Penannular brooch, Pendant, Pin, Plate brooch, Razor, Ring, Rivet, Roman masonry/tile, Shears, Sherds (Anglo Saxon), Sherds (Roman), Shield boss, Shield mount, Silica frit, Slag, Sleeve clasp, Small-long brooch, Spearhead, Square headed brooch, Staple, Strapend, Struck flint, Textile traces, Toilet set, Tweezers, Unidentified, Unidentified fragments, Vessel edging, Whetstone, Whorl
Confidence Text 1 Indicator of any uncertainty in the identification ?
Unstratified True/False Was the find stratified or not
Xcoord Number The X coordinate (easting) from the site baseline origin, in metres
Ycoord Number The Y coordinate (northing) from the site baseline origin, in metres
Description Memo Free text description of the find
Purpose Text 10 Whether the find purely functional, or had some other use Functional
Dummy
Miniature
Votive
Condition Text 15 Whether the find is whole, or part of the original Complete
Fragment
Burnt True/False Whether the find had been cremated
Context Text 25 Location of the find, relative to the linked urn Neck of urn
On top of cremation
On base of urn
At side of cremation
Beside urn
Below urn
Mixed True/False Whether the find was mixed with the cremation deposit
Drawing Text 12 The drawing number of the find
Classification
Field name Format Description Terms used
Find number Number The unique number assigned to each find, from urns, inhumations and unstratified contexts.
Classification Text 30 External and internal classification systems, relevant to the find. Selected from table ClassLUT
Aberg 1926
Brugmann 2004
Cleatham Bead Classification
Cleatham Comb Classification
Dickinson and Härke 1992
Drinkall 1998
Hines
Hines 1993
Leeds 1949
McNiell, 2001
Swanton 1974
Class number Text 20 The specific terms used by both external and internal classification systems. Refer to bibliography for full references.
The terms listed here are for the internal Cleatham Comb Classification and the Cleatham Bead Classification
Comb Classification :

Comb type
d - Double sided
s - Single sided
m - Model

Terminal type
p - Pointed
r - Rounded
s - Square
v - Vertical

Form
a - Angled back
b - Bowed
c - Compound
i - Incurved
o - Ogive
q - Square ended
s - Straight
t - Stepped

Missing element
X

Bead Classification :

Bead Type
as - Ring-spot
b - Banded
bw - Band and wave
cw - Crossed wave
cws - Cross wave spot
mb - Mottled blue
parti - Parti-coloured
s - Spotted
tl - Traffic light
Find properties
Field name Format Description Terms used
Urn Number Number The unique reference number by which each urn is known
Metallic True/False Was the find made of metal
Lithic True/False Was the find made of flint, crystal or other stone
Glass True/False Was the find made of glass
Organic True/False Was the find organic
Ceramic True/False Was the find made of fired clay
Metal type Text 15 The type of metal Composite
Copper Alloy
Iron
Lead
Silver
Gilded True/False Was a metallic object gilded
Silvered True/False Was a metallic object silvered
Lithic type Text 15 The type of material a lithic object was made from Amber
Chalk
Crystal
Flint
Fossil
Garnet
Igneous
Jet
Limestone
Opus signinum
Quartz
Quartzite
Sandstone
Silica frit
Slag
Slate
Stone
Glass colour Text 12 The colour of glass, as selected from table GlassLUT Bichrome
Black
Blue
Brown
Clear
Green
Green/grey
Polychrome
Red
Terracotta
Turquoise
White
Yellow
Glass colour density Text 5 The density of the glass colour Dark
Mid
Pale
Glass clarity Text 15 The clarity or opacity of the glass Opaque
Translucent
Transparent
Glass monopoly Text 15 The number of colours, where more than one is present Bichrome
Monochrome
Polychrome
Organic type Text 15 The object material that had recently formed part of a living organism. Bone/Antler
Charcoal
Coral
Cowrie
Ivory
Width Number Width of object in millimetres
Length Number Length of object in millimetres
Thickness max Number Maximum thickness of object in millimetres
Thickness min Number Minimum thickness of object in millimetres
Mass Number Mass (weight) in grammes
Tooth pitch Number Number of teeth in a comb, per centimetre
Bead shape Text 32 Shape of a bead, selected from table BeadShapeLUT Annular
Barrel
Biconical
Biconvex
Bun
Conical
Cube
Cylinder, long
Cylinder, polygon
Cylinder, short
Cylinder, square
Disc
Drum
Egg
Facetted
Globular
Irregular
Lobed
Melon
Nicked
Oblate
Plano-convex
Segmented
Uncertain
Unknown
Bead OD Number Outer diameter of a bead in millimetres
Bead ID Number Inner diameter of a bead in millimetres
Bead length Number Length of a bead in millimetres

Inhumation

Field name Format Description Terms used
Inhumation Number Unique number from 1 - 62 assigned to each inhumation
Sex Text 12 The biological sex of the human remains as established by the osteologist. Male
Male?
Female
Female?
Undetermined
Age Text 10 The age at death in bands, as estimated by the osteologist. Adol
Adult
C/Adol
Child
MA
OA
YA
Stature Number Estimated stature in millimetres
Position Text 50 The way in which the body lay in the grave. Crouched
Extended
Flexed
Prone
Alignment Number The orientation of the skeleton in degrees clockwise from north.
Depth Number The depth of the bottom of a grave from the surface of the field, in millimetres
Xcoord 1 Number The easting coordinate from the site baseline to the centre of the grave, measured in metres.
Ycoord 1 Number The northing coordinate from the site baseline to the centre of the grave, measured in metres.
Pathology Memo Free text field, noting any anomalies observed by the osteologist.
Grave goods Memo ****Free text field
Stones Text 20 Whether stones were found in the fill of a grave. Wall in fill
Stones in fill
No stones in fill
Date Text 4 An estimate of the calendar date range of a burial, in centuries, based on the grave goods. 5-0
5-6
6-6
6-7
7-7
Number of finds Number Number of finds associated with the inhumation.
Number of find types Number Number of find types associated with the inhumation.

Urns

Field name Format Description Terms used
Urn Number Number The unique reference number by which all urns are known. Urn numbers have been assigned to classifiable sherds found in archaeological contexts, and to accessory vessels found with the inhumations.
Store Code Text 8 The alphanumeric code under which urns are stored at North Lincolnshire Museum. All are in the MT sequence for Manton parish.
Included in stats True/False Was the urn complete enough to be included in statistical calculations ?
Xcoord The easting coordinate from the site baseline, measured in metres.
Ycoord The northing coordinate from the site baseline, measured in metres.
Depth Depth of base in millimetres from the top of the plough soil
Completeness An estimate, as a percentage, of the proportion of an urn which survives
Sherds True/False Was the urn represented by sherds only ?
Lugs True/False Presence or absence of perforated projections added to the sides of an urn
Perforations True/False Presence or absence of holes purposefully chipped through the sides or base of an urn
Lead plug True/False Presence or absence of a cast lead plug filling a perforation
Window True/False Presence or absence of a hole through the side or base of an urn, containing a piece of glass.
Stones True/False Presence or absence of stones deliberately placed on or around an urn at time of deposition
Rim form Text 10 Description of the form of the rim Beaded
Body line
Everted
Vertical
Base form Text 10 Description of the form of the base Decorated
Flat
Foot ring
Plinth
Rounded
Sagging
Fabric finish Text 16 Surface finish of the urn at the time of manufacture Burnished
Wiped
Unfinished
Competence Text The skill with which a pot has been created. Excellent
Average
Poor
Bone mass Number The mass (weight) of burnt bone found within an urn, in grammes
Decoration True/False Presence or absence of decoration
Notes Memo Free text field containing notes on the urn and the context in which it was found. Some details such as the presence/absence of sooting or barley grains were also included in this field..
Classification Text 10 The Cleatham decorative urn group into which a particular urn was assigned

The decoration used on the urns is presented as a suffix to the Group number

a. Plain incised or impressed decoration
b. Vessels decorated with bosses.
m. Vessels with modelled decoration
n. Vessels decorated with both stamps and bosses
p. Vessels bearing perforated bosses
q. Vessels related to a group but which cannot be assigned to it with full confidence.
s. Vessels decorated with stamps
x. Vessels with complex decoration
00 - Urns which are not reconstructable
01, a b p - Plain, undecorated vessels
02, a b s - Horizontal rings around the vessel's neck
03, a b s - Defined horizontal band containing decoration
04, a b n s - Multiple horizontal bands containing decoration
05, a b n s - Continuous band of vertical, or angled grooves or bosses around vessel
06, n q s - Massed or random stamping
07, a b n s - Grouped vertical and angled grooves or bosses
08, a b m s - Counter angled lines or matting
09, b n s - Urns decorated with bows which contain decoration
10, a b s x - Rings and chevrons, not defined in a band
11, a q s - Hanging bows
12, a b n s - Standing bows
13, b n - Panelled decoration
14, a b n - Incised cursive designs
15, s - 'Daisy/grid iron pots' often with filled pendant triangles
16, b - Sancton-Elkington style
17, s - Sancton-Baston urns
18, a s - Urns decorated with chevrons and hanging bows
19, b n - Asymmetrical band of decoration, non- repeating
20, n - Chevron and boss decoration
21 - 'Roman' vessels
22, n s x - Unclassified urns with no parallels on site
Class Fabric Text 10 A code describing the non-clay additions made to the clay body of the pot. Lower case letters = less than 10%: Upper case letters = more than 10%. A - Angular quartz
C - Calcareous filler, chalk or limestone
D - Chaff
E - Chamocite
F - Feldspar, (plagioclase or orthoclase)
G - Grass
H - Haematite
J - Gypsum
L - Glauconite
M - Mica, (biotite or muscovite)
Q - Sub-angular quartz grains
R - Rounded quartz grains
S - Slag
T - Shell
U - Compound quartz grains
W - Grog
Earliest phase Number The earliest phase that the urn could belong to
Latest phase Number The latest phase that he urn could belong to
Urn complex Number The reference number of the related urn complex in which a vessel was found, as defined on the Harris matrix
Number of finds Number The rumber of recorded finds associated with an urn
Number of find types Number Number of different types of object found within an urn; 50 glass beads would count as one type.
Number of beads Number The number of beads associated with an urn
Decoration
Field name Format Description Terms used
Urn Number Number The unique reference number by which each urn is known
Elements Number The number of components which make up the decorative scheme
Complex True/False Presence/absence of an elaborate arrangement of elements
Groups True/False Presence/absence of repeated sets of components spaced around the vessel.
Interwoven True/False Presence/absence of alternating decoration, with the lines offset to give the appearance of being woven.
Medallions True/False Presence/absence of defined fields containing other elements.
Bosses True/False Presence/absence of protrusions from the surface of the vessel.
Boss Form Text 10 Form of boss Round
Oval
Elongated
Perforated
Multiple
Angular
Non repeating True/False Presence/absence of a decorative scheme that does not repeat the same pattern of elements.
Freestyle True/False Presence/absence of a decorative scheme which lacks any formal structure.
Alternating True/False Presence/absence of a decorative scheme in which two or more elements or groups, which are repeated around the circumference of the vessel.
Rings True/False Presence/absence of repeated horizontal lines around the circumference of the vessel.
Ring location Text 15 Location of rings on the vessel Neck
Body
Neck and body
Linear True/False Presence/absence of an elongated element executed by means of incision, grooving or stamping.
Linear form Text 50 The form of the linear elements Angled
Horizontal
Vertical
Chevron
Zig zag
Multiple
Running True/False Presence/absence of a continuous band of decoration around a vessel.
Curvilinear True/False Presence/absence of an element consisting of curved lines.
Curvilinear form Text 50 Form of the curvilinear element Hanging bows
Standing bows
Waves
Multiple
Around bosses
Motif True/False Presence/absence of a discrete element complete in itself, for example a swastika or a wyrm
Grooved True/False Presence/absence of a wide line either impressed into or excised from the surface of the vessel.
Incised True/False Presence/absence of a line cut into the surface of the vessel
Modelled True/False Presence/absence of an element made by distorting the wall of the vessel to form a hollow or protrusion.
Modelled form Text 10 Form of the modelled element Bosses
Bands
Hollows
Folded
Facetted
Multiple
Applied True/False Presence/absence of an element made by adding plastic clay to the surface of the vessel
Applied Form Text 10 Form of the applied element Bosses
Bands
Linear
Multiple
Stamped True/False Presence/absence of decoration impressed into the surface of the vessel by means of carved stamps or an object.
Scratched True/False Presence/absence of decoration lightly incised into the surface of the vessel
Dimensions
Field name Format Description Terms used
Urn Number Number The unique reference number by which each urn is known
Diameter Number The maximum diameter
Height Number The maximum height. In many cases, urns had been truncated and their heights could not be established
HeightGroup Number Urns have been assigned to 13 bands, depending on height. Each band spans 20mm, ranging from Band 1 (60-79mm) to Band 13 (>300mm)
Height MD Number The height, above its base, at which an urn achieved its greatest diameter.
Rim diameter Number The outside diameter of the rim.
Shoulder radius Number The radius of the curve forming the basic part of an urn's profile
Wall thickness max Number The maximum distance between the inner and outer faces of an urn.
Wall thickness min Number The minimum distance between the inner and outer faces of an urn.
Ratio1 Number Height / Maximum Diameter
Ratio2 Number Height of Maximum Diameter / Height
Ratio3 Number Maximum Diameter - Rim Diameter / Height - Height of Maximum Diameter
Ratio4 Number 2 x Shoulder Radius / Maximum Diameter
Estimated? True/False Have dimensions been estimated from remaining sherds ?
Fabric
Field name Format Description Terms used
Urn Number Number The unique reference number by which each urn is known
Inclusion Text 12 A non-clay addition made to the body of a vessel Shell
Quartz
Slag
Feldspar
Mica
Grass
Chaff
Haematite
Calcareous
Gypsum
Glauconite
Chamocite
Barley
Percentage Number The proportion of the vessel fabric made up by a specified non-clay material.
Angularity Text 12 The shape of the particles of non-clay additions to vessel fabric. Angular
Sub-Angular
Rounded
Compound.
Sorting Text 10 The degree of variation in the size of the non-clay additions to a vessel fabric Good
Poor
Grain size Number The maximum size of the non-clay particles added to a vessel fabric, in millimetres
Stamps
Field name Format Description Terms used
Urn Number Number The unique reference number by which each urn is known
Brisco no Text 11 Classification used by Briscoe
Stamp class Text 11 An alphanumeric code, classifying stamp impressions, formulated by Leahy. The coding consists of two or three elements, an upper case letter defining the shape of the stamp, a lower case letter defining its internal detail and a final digit. This digit allows some of the more common stamps to be differentiated. In the case of a grid the total number of lines is given (4 horizontal lines and five vertical lines, gives 9). With annular stamps and the ubiquitous ringed-cross, a diameter is given. While this is subject to the problems caused by variable shrinkage described above it does at least make in clear that an Rc5 impression and an Rc12 impression are not off the same stamp. Stamp shapes :

A - Annular
B - Bow
C - Cross
D - Diamond
F - Framed
G - Gear Wheel (toothed)
H - Horseshoe
I - Object impression
L - Shield
M - Motif
O - Oval
P - Palm/hand
Q - Miscellaneous shapes
R - Round
S - Square/rectangular
T - Triangular
V - Rectangular
W - Wave
X - Rouletted
Y - Whorl
Z - Star

Internal elements :

b - Barred
c - Cross
d - Double lines
f - Flower, petalled
g - Grid
m - Motif
p - Plain, undecorated
s - Segmented
v - Void
y - Whorl
Total applications Number Number of stamp impressions
Object Text 25 Shape of the object which made the impressions Angular
Angular point
Dots
Finger
Hollows
Irregular
Kidney
Kite
Knife point
Oval
Pinched
Pyramid
Rouletted
Round
Rounded
Saw-like
Shield
Spring
Square
Stab
Triangular
Two lines
Unknown