Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 2015

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950
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Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2015) Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2008) Series: 3, Volume 8.


Table of Contents

Frontispiece
Anon. (pp. i-iv)
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Contents
Anon. (pp. v)
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Greenwell's Lost Barrow "CLXXIV" in Crosby Garrett.
T. Clare, H. J. O'Regan and D. M. Wilkinson Parish (pp. 1-18)
Abstract

Abstract

Greenwell's Lost Barrow "CLXXIV" in Crosby Garrett.
T. Clare, H. J. O'Regan and D. M. Wilkinson Parish (pp. 1-18)

In 1877 Canon William Greenwell (1820-1918), the Durham archaeologist and collector, published his book British Barrows, a record of digging hundreds of burial mounds in northern England. Most of the records were brief and did not include plans, sections, or drawings of the objects found. One of the few illustrations was, however, that of an antler macehead from a mound he had dug in Crosby Garrett parish and denoted simply 'Barrow CLXXIV' (Figure 1a). This and the other objects from the site now in the Greenwell Collection in the British Museum demonstrate high status burial and a late Neolithic date (see Kinnes, 1979, 64-65 for discussion). Unfortunately the precise location of the site, described as an oval mound denuded by stone robbing, was lost, although it cannot have been far from the Rayseat Pike long cairn, which he had also dug. The signifi cance of this is that the latter appears to have affi nities with the long barrows of eastern Yorkshire and Lockhill in South West Scotland (Clare, 2008 for discussion), just as the objects from the lost site are best paralleled in eastern Yorkshire. Consequently the two sites appear to represent continuity both of cultural linkages and of land use within the area, raising questions about the contemporary environment.

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Excavation of two Romano-British Pottery Kilns and Associated Structures, Fisher Street, Carlisle .
Melanie Johnson and Sue Anderson (pp. 19-36)
Abstract

Abstract

Excavation of two Romano-British Pottery Kilns and Associated Structures, Fisher Street, Carlisle .
Melanie Johnson and Sue Anderson (pp. 19-36)

Fisher Street lies at the heart of historic Carlisle, within the large Roman civilian settlement attached to the fort (Figure 1). Over the last 50 years many excavations have taken place, allowing a detailed picture of Roman Carlisle to emerge; much of this evidence has recently been synthesised by McCarthy (2002). The Roman fort was established in A.D. 72-3 and continued in use until c.A.D. 320-30. An annexe was added to the fort, encompassing the excavation area at Castle Street (McCarthy, 1991), and it is possible that Fisher Street lies within the annexe, or just to the east of it.

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Excavations at Carlisle Cathedral in 1985 .
Graham Keevil (I. Caruana and D. Weston eds) (pp. 37-62)
Abstract

Abstract

Excavations at Carlisle Cathedral in 1985 .
Graham Keevil (I. Caruana and D. Weston eds) (pp. 37-62)

This report was drafted in the late 1980s or early 1990s and was intended to be included as part of a larger monograph focused upon Graham Keevil's 1988 excavations on the site of the proposed Treasury (Trenches G and H, Figure 1). Since the demise of the Carlisle Archaeological Unit no work has beencarried out on any aspects of the report. An attempt is now being made to move the publication process on. Since the report on the 1988 excavation requires considerable work to draw it to completion, this 1985 section, which was substantially complete, has been extracted for independent publication with some additional input from the editors, Ian Caruana and David Weston.

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Civil Government in the North: the Carvetii, Brigantes and Rome .
David J. Breeze (pp. 63-72)
Abstract

Abstract

Civil Government in the North: the Carvetii, Brigantes and Rome .
David J. Breeze (pp. 63-72)

The discovery of the Langwathby milestone, providing the third reference to the civitas Carvetiorum, draws attention to the civil administration of the frontier areas of Roman Britain, a subject rarely considered. Partly, this is because of the relative lack of evidence within the province. Yet inscriptions, literary sources and some archaeological evidence enable us to identify and locate some cities and their territories. Further, as Britain was part of an empire with a broadly uniform administrative framework, evidence by analogy can be used to illuminate our relative gloom. The purpose of this paper is to consider the evidence for civilian administration in the northern frontier area within its empire-wide framework. It is possible to demonstrate that a pattern of cities existed in northern Britain, interspersed with military land, and, to some extent, map their territories. It is probable that Carlisle was the city of the Carvetii, with an extensive territory, Corbridge possibly the city of the Votadini, while a further city may have lain in the Tees Valley, restricting the Brigantes to the Vale of York and south-west Yorkshire. There is some knowledge of the offi cials of these cities, a senator and quaestor of the Carvetti, and an aedile of the Parisii, indicating that the cities were governed in the normal way. It is a particularly appropriate that this lecture was given in honour of Dorothy Charlesworth in view of her work at Carlisle.

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Roman Milestones in North-West England .
B. J. N. Edwards (pp. 73-84)
Abstract

Abstract

Roman Milestones in North-West England .
B. J. N. Edwards (pp. 73-84)

Roman milestones are familiar objects, and there is a tendency to think of them as readily explicable. The standard text is by Mommsen (1881), and this text, in Latin, has stood for one and a quarter centuries, and is much quoted. But our well-entrenched ideas about Roman milestones are frequently derived from our none-too-precise memories of what we know of turnpike and other recent milestones. We remember that milestones were placed alongside Roman roads; that they carried the name and some of the titles of the Emperor, and a mileage measured from a place, sometimes stated, sometimes not. We tend to think of them, therefore, as useful objects which would tell Roman travellers how far they had to go. But is this the case? Were there enough of them for this?

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Francis Webster and the Kirkland Tan-Yards at Kendal, with a contribution towards his ancestry .
Blake Tyson (pp. 85-104)
Abstract

Abstract

Francis Webster and the Kirkland Tan-Yards at Kendal, with a contribution towards his ancestry .
Blake Tyson (pp. 85-104)

Angus Taylor's research published in The Websters of Kendal provides an excellent base from which to study other aspects of the work and lives of that branch of the family.1 This article is written in two parts. The first part will examine the background to an aspect of Kendal's history when Francis Webster (1767-1827) was asked for advice about removing some old tan-yards near Nether Bridge, followed by landscaping work and the design and building of a small lodge. Taylor's book notes the scheme briefly, but the way in which it was instigated and developed is worth much closer inspection, especially regarding Francis's contribution, the personalities involved and their interactions. In the second part, his family will be traced back to before 1650 to complement recent research by Janet Martin.

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Kingmoor House, Estate and Gardens, Carlisle .
Denis Perriam (pp. 105-126)
Abstract

Abstract

Kingmoor House, Estate and Gardens, Carlisle .
Denis Perriam (pp. 105-126)

Kingmoor is two miles north-west of Carlisle and on the east bank of the river Eden. The moor was granted to the citizens of Carlisle for their general benefit but from 1682 onwards the Corporation leased out parts for private use. This article chronicles the succession of owners and tenants for one such part and discusses the date of Kingmoor House and its gardens. Kingmoor House was built on land leased to Joseph Read, who was mayor of Carlisle in 1682. Its exact date is not known but it was in existence by 1712. A plan of 1750 shows it as the focus of a small estate with farm buildings and pleasure grounds nearby. The 1750 plan also shows a small formal garden across the road from the house with paths through a planted area, bases for urns or statuary at intersecting points and a summer house in an elevated position. Little is known about the character of gardens attached to smaller Cumbrian houses such as Kingmoor and this makes the documentation here of great interest. In 1794, or shortly after, the house was remodelled and enlarged, and in this form it still survives. Its surrounding farmland, however, has all but disappeared, cut through by railways and built over by a marshalling yard and a military maintenance depot. The site of the historic garden, long neglected, is on the line of the Carlisle Northern Development Route and so unlikely to survive.

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The Decline of the Cumbrian "Yeomen" Revisited .
David Uttley (pp. 127-146)
Abstract

Abstract

The Decline of the Cumbrian "Yeomen" Revisited .
David Uttley (pp. 127-146)

This paper attempts to chart the fortunes of the Cumbrian 'yeoman' from the end of the 18th century over the next 100 years, fi rstly through the eyes of contemporaries, who saw a progressive decline in numbers, and then by 20th century historians claiming a sudden collapse at the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Lest the debate should be deemed to be over, additional evidence at the beginning of a new millennium seems an opportune time to re-examine the question to see if firm conclusions may be drawn. Two important caveats must be considered before embarking upon this review. The first is to see the Cumbrian experience in a national context, and the second to explore how far Cumbrian 'yeoman' is analogous to the national understanding of the term.

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The Port of Carlisle: Trade and Shipping in Cumberland, 1675-1735 .
Margaret Robinson (pp. 147-158)
Abstract

Abstract

The Port of Carlisle: Trade and Shipping in Cumberland, 1675-1735 .
Margaret Robinson (pp. 147-158)

It may come as a surprise to many people that Carlisle was listed as one of the principal ports of England from the late 16th century. However, taking 'port' in the technical sense, as a place where the King's Customs were collected, in conjunction with Carlisle's position on the Border, the idea seems less absurd. Over the years, Transactions has published a number of articles on the topic. P. H. Fox dealt with the appointment of Carlisle as a headport in 1564/5, R. C. Jarvis with the boundaries of Carlisle's authority in 1681 and 1769, whilst W. J. Prevost described the trade coming across the Border in the late 17th century. Shipping to and from the port in the 17th and early 18th centuries has not been examined up till now, and forms the subject of this article.

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Harrington: Cumberland's Lost Town .
Richard Newman (pp. 159-168)
Abstract

Abstract

Harrington: Cumberland's Lost Town .
Richard Newman (pp. 159-168)

Modern day Cumbria is one of the best areas in England for studying the development of new towns in the 17th to 19th centuries. Elsewhere in the North West, new towns like Burnley and Nelson usually developed out of existing rural settlements in an initially unplanned manner in response to local industrial growth. Cumbria's new towns in contrast were planned developments. They were generally created to encourage trade and in the earlier examples had industries planted by the town's founders. The earliest of these towns was Whitehaven, founded in the 17th century, but the tradition of planned town foundation continued on into the 19th century with the most recent examples being Askam-in-Furness, Millom and Barrow. Most were located on the coast - Longtown is an exception - and intended to function as ports. Apart from Askam and Barrow, all the port towns occurred in the historic county of Cumberland. As well as those towns already mentioned these planned towns include Maryport, Silloth, the failed town of Port Carlisle and the now lost town of Harrington. Though developed over more than two centuries all these towns shared common features; contemporary state-of-the-art harbour facilities, and classically inspired planning with urban squares and streets laid out on a gridiron plan. Of all these towns, Harrington, a mere 3 km to the south of Workington, is the least well known and indeed no longer exists as a planned town.

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Tom Ellen: a Malayan in Cumberland and the Caribbean in the later 18th century .
Diane Rushworth (pp. 169-176)
Abstract

Abstract

Tom Ellen: a Malayan in Cumberland and the Caribbean in the later 18th century .
Diane Rushworth (pp. 169-176)

Commemoration in 2007 of the ending of the British slave trade was, understandably, almost exclusively centred on the 'Guinea Trade'. Nevertheless, it is clear that in 18th century Cumberland, acceptance of slavery and slaves was commonplace even though the county is often thought of as peripheral to the British slave trade. Cumbrians were deeply involved in the African trade - as traders operating from Cumbrian and other ports, as owners or overseers overseas, as owners/employers of people of African descent in Cumbria, or as producers and consumers of slave-connected products. It is, however, important to acknowledge that Cumbrians also owned people from non-African countries. One such was Tom Ellen - 'boy' or 'servant' to Joseph Senhouse (1743-1829), of the Netherhall family - part of whose story is recorded in the Senhouse archives held in the Carlisle office of Cumbria Archives Service.

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Captain Thomas Hamilton, the Trollopes, and the Windermere "incident" .
W. G. Wiseman (pp. 177-188)
Abstract

Abstract

Captain Thomas Hamilton, the Trollopes, and the Windermere "incident" .
W. G. Wiseman (pp. 177-188)

In July 1839, the writer Frances (Fanny) Trollope and her son, Thomas Adolphus Trollope (also a writer), visited her married daughter Cecilia Frances Tilley, who was at that time living in Penrith. En route to Penrith, mother and son stopped off in Windermere and went to see an acquaintance, Captain Thomas Hamilton, who was then living at Elleray.

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Building "that best monument": Memorialising Sir John Barrow at Ulverston .
Rob David (pp. 189-206)
Abstract

Abstract

Building "that best monument": Memorialising Sir John Barrow at Ulverston .
Rob David (pp. 189-206)

On May 15th 1850 Ulverston 'presented an animated appearance' as the sun shone on the town. A procession made its way to the summit of Hoad Hill forming 'one of the grandest and most imposing spectacles it has ever been our lot to witness... the serpentine walks became gradually filled, until from the top to the bottom, an apparently endless chain of living links of human machinery appeared to have been set in motion. The effect was heightened by the display of numerous gay colored (sic) flags, which imparted to the whole, the character of a grand romance rather than a scene of reality'. Ulverston was clearly determined to enjoy the ceremony of the laying of the foundation stone for Sir John Barrow's memorial, a sea-mark3 to be built on Hoad Hill based on the design of the Eddystone Lighthouse.

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The Significance of Stephen Soulby, Inventor and Newspaper Proprietor .
Peter Lucas (pp. 207-218)
Abstract

Abstract

The Significance of Stephen Soulby, Inventor and Newspaper Proprietor .
Peter Lucas (pp. 207-218)

In 1848, printer and bookseller Stephen Soulby (1809-1864) founded the first successful Furness newspaper in his native North Lancashire country town: the eponymous Soulby's Ulverston Advertiser survived until 1914. He also deserves to be remembered as the inventor of the 'Ulverstonian' letterpress printing machine. His bent was mechanical rather than literary; he 'thought', as J. S. Bigg, who was twice his editor, put it, 'in cogs and wheels'. The son of one of his town's early printers, he knew his craft thoroughly, and was conversant with its history. To emulate other inventors and make his mark 'in the printing world' was his ambition. This paper examines Soulby's significance, first as an inventor, and then as a newspaper proprietor. Unusually in histories of the English newspaper press, it links the two by enquiring into the relationship between his mechanical inventiveness and the character of his newspaper during a 12-year period when, save for six months in 1853, it had no rival in the town.

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"Ice in the centre of a glowing fire": the Westmorland Election of 1880 .
A. N. Connell (pp. 219-240)
Abstract

Abstract

"Ice in the centre of a glowing fire": the Westmorland Election of 1880 .
A. N. Connell (pp. 219-240)

'The quiet Conservative state of the county'. At 1.00 pm on Saturday 21 February 1880, the recently completed St George's Hall in Kendal1 held an expectant throng, variously estimated at between 1,400 and 2,000. They had been admitted by ticket only. Many had come long distances by train to be part of the inaugural meeting of the Westmorland Conservative Association, 'necessitated', as Colonel Richard Burn of Orton Hall pointed out from the Chair, 'by the attack which has been made by the Liberal Party on the quiet Conservative state of the county'.

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NOTES
Various. (pp. 241-258)
Abstract

Abstract

NOTES
Various. (pp. 241-258)

A Flake of a Stone Axe from Ash Fell, by TOM CLARE; Investigation of part of the High Street Roman Road in Kentmere by SAMUEL WHITEHEAD and DANIEL W. ELSWORTH; Medieval remains on Boroughgate, Appleby, by SAMUEL WHITEHEAD AND DANIEL W. ELSWORTH; A Medieval Road in Ulverston, by SAMUEL WHITEHEAD AND DANIEL W. ELSWORTH; Croft Cottage Dendro-dated, by NINA JENNINGS; A 17th Century Lead Cloth Seal from Carlisle Cathedral, by GEOFF EGAN AND IAN CARUANA; One Branch of the Webster Family, by BLAKE TYSON, B.SC., PH.D.

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A Flake of a Stone Axe from Ash Fell.
Tom Clare (pp. 241)
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Investigation of part of the High Street Roman Road in Kentmere.
Samuel Whitehead and Daniel W. Elsworth (pp. 241-246)
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Medieval remains on Boroughgate, Appleby.
Samuel Whitehead and Daniel W. Elsworth (pp. 246-249)
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A Medieval Road in Ulverston.
Samuel Whitehead and Daniel W. Elsworth (pp. 250-254)
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Croft Cottage Dendro-dated.
Nina Jennings (pp. 254)
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A 17th Century Lead Cloth Seal from Carlisle Cathedral.
Geoff Egan and Ian Caruana (pp. 254-255)
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One Branch of the Webster Family.
Blake Tyson, B.Sc., Ph.D. (pp. 256-258)
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Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2007
Anon. (pp. 259-294)
Abstract

Abstract

Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2007
Anon. (pp. 259-294)

The following projects represent archaeological work in 2007 for which the County Council has either received a written report or were notifi ed by one of the Park Authorities. The list was compiled by Jo Mackintosh, Historic Environment Records Offi cer. Information on projects in the Lake District was supplied by Eleanor Kingston, Archaeology and Heritage Advisor, Lake District National Park Authority.

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In Memoriam: Professor Geoffrey Haward Martin, CBE, MA, DPhil, FSA, FRHistS (1928-2000); John Duncan Marshall, BSc (Econ.), PhD (London), FRHistS. (1919-2008) and James Cherry BSc (London), FSA (1920-2008).
Richard Hall; Marion McClintock (pp. 295-302)
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General Index
Anon. (pp. 303-313)
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