Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 2015

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950
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Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2015) Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2009) Series: 3, Volume 9.


**Parts of this volume will only be made available on July 1, 2019.**

Table of Contents

Frontispiece
Anon. (pp. i-iv)
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Contents
Anon. (pp. v-vi)
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John MacNair Todd: A Tribute.
Anon. (pp. vii)
Abstract

Abstract

John MacNair Todd: A Tribute.
Anon. (pp. vii)

John Macnair Todd, who died suddenly at Carlisle on 20 January 2009, was a Past President of this Society, and a well-respected historian, lawyer and churchman. John was born on 2 May 1934 at Wilmslow, Cheshire, the elder of two children of William Millan Todd, an industrial chemist and Elizabeth Cowan Todd (nee Macnair). His younger sibling was a sister Ann. He was educated at Manchester Grammar School and from there was awarded a scholarship to read history at Balliol College, Oxford, under the tutorship and influence of the distinguished medievalist Dick (later Sir Richard) Southern...

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W. G. Wiseman: Appreciation of an Editor
Anon. (pp. 1-4)
Abstract

Abstract

W. G. Wiseman: Appreciation of an Editor
Anon. (pp. 1-4)

Bill, as he is universally known, is in very distinguished company. When first elected Joint Editor of Transactions in 1983, few would have guessed that he would retire at the AGM in 2008 as one of the longest-serving editors in the history of the Society. Only R. S. Ferguson (27 years with the Old Series) and W. G. Collingwood (25 years with the New Series) have served as long or longer. However, even they did not have to adapt to the challenges of a fast-changing world in the same way as Bill has steered the Society into the digital age with such sure-footed success, unlikely as this might have seemed to him at one stage. The strength and quality of the Society's fl agship publication today is very much his legacy.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

Analytical Earthwork Survey of a Hillfort near Whitley Crag, Asby, Cumbria .
David Fell (pp. 5-20)
Abstract

Abstract

Analytical Earthwork Survey of a Hillfort near Whitley Crag, Asby, Cumbria .
David Fell (pp. 5-20)

In 2008 an analytical earthwork survey was undertaken of a small enclosure at Whitley Crag near Asby, Cumbria. The site had seen no research since it was first identified through aerial reconnaissance 25 years earlier. The survey suggests that the earthworks, comprising a double bank and ditch enclosure with west-facing entrance, probably represent the remains of an Iron Age hillfort which may have been constructed concentrically to a Bronze Age barrow. Though the survival of a hillfort is remarkable, the earthworks have been damaged by tracks, and by postmedieval ridge-and-furrow ploughing. The hill-top site overlooks uplands to the south. To the north foothills slope gently down to the Eden Valley. In the medieval period, the uplands offered rough grazing, while the valley floor and lower foothills were under arable cultivation. It seems likely that the same was true in the Iron Age. Commanding panoramic views, the hillfort dominated a possible 'territory' defined by minor tributaries of the River Eden.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

A Magical Thing: The Layout of the Long Meg Enclosures .
Tom Clare (pp. 21-28)
Abstract

Abstract

A Magical Thing: The Layout of the Long Meg Enclosures .
Tom Clare (pp. 21-28)

This paper explores the spatial relationship of the stone circle and earthwork enclosures at Long Meg. In particular it seeks to demonstrate that their layouts reflect each other and that, rather than being seen as separate monuments, they reflect a single project and transformation of location. It is also suggested that part of that transformation was the astronomical alignment of the stone circle and that this too was replicated in the earthwork monument.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

Archaeological Investigations on the A66 at Temple Sowerby 2006-2007 .
John Zant (pp. 29-46)
Abstract

Abstract

Archaeological Investigations on the A66 at Temple Sowerby 2006-2007 .
John Zant (pp. 29-46)

In 2006-7, Oxford Archaeology North (OA North) undertook a programme of archaeological investigation in advance of modifications to the A66 at Temple Sowerby and Winderwath, Cumbria. Several small prehistoric sites were identified and investigated; these included flint scatters and a group of pits, one of which contained sherds of Bronze Age pottery. The A66 follows the route of the Stainmore Roman road and, during works to the east of Temple Sowerby, a well-preserved section of this was identified. Dating evidence was sparse, but a coin of Vespasian, minted in A.D. 71, was recovered from topsoil immediately above the road make-up. Temple Sowerby has medieval origins, and limited evidence for contemporary activity, including agriculture and refuse disposal, was encountered, though remains of the post-medieval and enclosure-period agricultural landscapes were more frequent.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

The Dalston discoid marker .
George Thomson (pp. 47-56)
Abstract

Abstract

The Dalston discoid marker .
George Thomson (pp. 47-56)

A small, round, sandstone artefact found, but known for some time, in Dalston church is described and compared with similar objects from other parts of Europe. It is suggested that this example is most likely to be the head of a discoid gravemarker of the ninth- to twelfth-century, although alternatives including a churchyard cross fragment or gable finial are also considered. The probable significance of the eight-armed cross on the recto, representing regeneration or resurrection, and oak leaves on the verso, signifying longevity, is explained. This complex decoration makes it an artefact of some importance.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

Archaeological Investigation of the Remains of a Medieval Vaccary at Gatesgarth Farm, Buttermere .
Martin Railton (pp. 57-68)
Abstract

Abstract

Archaeological Investigation of the Remains of a Medieval Vaccary at Gatesgarth Farm, Buttermere .
Martin Railton (pp. 57-68)

Recent archaeological investigations at Gatesgarth Farm, Buttermere in the Lake District National Park, have identified a number of features believed to be associated with a medieval vaccary (cattle farm). Excavation revealed a longhouse dwelling, an associated track way, timber structures, and an earthwork platform, as well as a small assemblage of medieval pottery dating to the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries. This work supports the documentary evidence for a vaccary at the site presented by Angus Winchester in a previous Transactions article, and has the potential to provide insight into the nature and scale of medieval farming practices in the Lake District.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

The Chapel at Keld, Shap .
Harry Hawkins (pp. 69-90)
Abstract

Abstract

The Chapel at Keld, Shap .
Harry Hawkins (pp. 69-90)

Keld Chapel, near Shap, was acquired by the National Trust in 1918 and since then has generally been accepted as a former chapel. Today several annual services are held in the building. However, apart from a seventeenth century entry in the parish register of a baptism at 'Keld Chapel' no evidence has been put forward to support the claim that the building ever had been a chapel. This paper asks the question, what was the purpose of the building and for whom was it built? A number of possibilities are considered - a chantry chapel, a chapel of rest, or an existing building adapted for services by non-conformists during the religious upheavals of the Reformation of the Commonwealth. The paper shows that although the building is regarded today as a chapel, no evidence could be found to support the idea that this had been its original purpose.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

Gated Trackways between Common Land and In-bye Land within Satterthwaite Parish .
Kevin Baverstock and Suzanne Tiplady (pp. 91-110)
Abstract

Abstract

Gated Trackways between Common Land and In-bye Land within Satterthwaite Parish .
Kevin Baverstock and Suzanne Tiplady (pp. 91-110)

The Parish of Satterthwaite is taken as an example of a typical seventeenth century tripartite Cumbrian farming landscape of valley bottom fields, inbye enclosures, and common or waste land. A detailed map and archive study and extensive field survey has been used to investigate the incidence of gates across roads and trackways to prevent animals trespassing off the common, sited at the transition points between the common and the inbye land. A total of fifty-two former gate sites are identified; of these, twenty-five show evidence of gates although only six complete gates survive. As a similar system of gates would be necessary in every parish, travellers using the early Cumbrian road system would have encountered numerous gates on every journey.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

Presbyterians and Independents or Congregationalists in Carlisle, 1648-1736 .
Ian Moonie (pp. 111-130)
Abstract

Abstract

Presbyterians and Independents or Congregationalists in Carlisle, 1648-1736 .
Ian Moonie (pp. 111-130)

This article traces the development of Congregational and Presbyterian Dissent in Carlisle from the earliest evidence, in 1648, of the active involvement of a non-Anglican Protestant minister in Carlisle, through to 1736 when the Protestant Dissenters moved from their meeting house in Blackfriars to a new and larger meeting house in Fisher Street. In order to place the fluctuations in fortune of Dissenters in Carlisle in context the article commences with a brief resume of the national background. The situation in Carlisle is then explored in three distinct phases which reflect developments nationally. The first addresses the period between 1648 and 1660. The second deals with the period from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 through to the accession of William and Mary in 1689, and the third the period subsequent to the Act of Toleration in 1690.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

Some Craftsmen and their Houses on Fellside, Kendal, 1655-1877 .
Blake Tyson (pp. 131-152)
Abstract

Abstract

Some Craftsmen and their Houses on Fellside, Kendal, 1655-1877 .
Blake Tyson (pp. 131-152)

With the notable exception of Gerald Williams (1991), most historical studies of Kendal have paid scant attention to the town's Fellside area and its people, perhaps because most were poor and left few records. This article uses an archive of thirty property deeds and other sources to identify and trace a history of three cottages, occupied by humble tradesmen since the mid-seventeenth century. It studies the lives and activities of numerous individuals and reveals their social independence in the face of hardship, short life expectancy and social deprivation. It confi rms that grinding poverty, remembered at first hand by Williams, had been endemic in Fellside for over three centuries by examining personal affairs in detail, despite the absence of Kendal parish registers from 1632-1679. This handicap was ameliorated by using many apprentice records to trace families, careers and social contacts. The evidence yields a microcosm of everyday life and human struggle affecting people in challenging economic and environmental conditions.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

Caleb Rotheram, Ecroyde Claxton and their Involvement in the Movement for the Abolition of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade .
W. G. Wiseman (pp. 153-160)
Abstract

Abstract

Caleb Rotheram, Ecroyde Claxton and their Involvement in the Movement for the Abolition of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade .
W. G. Wiseman (pp. 153-160)

Apart from studies relating to Whitehaven, the involvement of Cumbria and Cumbrians in the slave trade and abolition movements has been rather neglected. This paper examines the part played, albeit in a minor capacity, by two Kendal men in the movement which paved the way for the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in 1807 - Caleb Rotheram, a Presbyterian minister and Ecroyde Claxton, a surgeon. Sources are examined outlining the way in which Kendal and its environs were affected by local and national abolition sentiments, by its proximity to trading ports and by the benefits which the trade gave to its industries. Detailed evidence given by surgeon Claxton during the House of Commons Select Committee hearing is presented and refl ects the horrific conditions he encountered on a voyage from Africa to Trinidad, evidence which fired public indignation and strengthened the hand of abolitionists.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

The Customary Tenants of Watermillock c.1760-c.1840: Continuity and Change in a Lake District Township .
I. D. Whyte (pp. 161-174)
Abstract

Abstract

The Customary Tenants of Watermillock c.1760-c.1840: Continuity and Change in a Lake District Township .
I. D. Whyte (pp. 161-174)

This article contributes to the debate on the decline of small farmers in the Lake District. It is based on the analysis of 36 listings, notably land tax duplicates but also rentals and other sources, to examine changes in the customary tenants of the Lake District township of Watermillock in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Numbers of customary tenants dropped only slightly over the period though there was a trend towards greater social differentiation which may have been encouraged by the enclosure of the Watermillock commons. There is no indication of major changes in tenant numbers or turnover rates suggestive of an agricultural crisis following the Napoleonic Wars. Unlike some previously studied communities, socioeconomic changes at Watermillock were gradual and unspectacular rather than rapid and dramatic.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

The Painting of the Arctic Explorer Captain William Edward Parry (1790-1855) at Crosthwaite, near Kendal .
Rob David (pp. 175-186)
Abstract

Abstract

The Painting of the Arctic Explorer Captain William Edward Parry (1790-1855) at Crosthwaite, near Kendal .
Rob David (pp. 175-186)

This article discusses the provenance of a picture of the early nineteenth century polar explorer, William Parry, found at Crosthwaite. It has been possible through the use of local sources, polar literature and art historical material to identify the probable artist, and to demonstrate that this painting was a copy of an engraving of Parry that was published in The European Magazine and London Review, and which was based on a portrait by Samuel Drummond. It is suggested that the new picture was probably created between 1821 and 1823, and the fact that it was painted in a small provincial community reflects the reach of the early nineteenth century media and the significance of the search for the North West Passage for the country at large.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

Lynn Dewing, an unknown Lakeland Traveller, and his Journals 1817-1847 Part 1 .
M. J. Crossley Evans (pp. 187-216)
Abstract

Abstract

Lynn Dewing, an unknown Lakeland Traveller, and his Journals 1817-1847 Part 1 .
M. J. Crossley Evans (pp. 187-216)

Although previously unknown, Lynn Dewing (1773-1854) may rank as one of the most tireless pedestrian travellers of England, Wales and Scotland in the fi rst half of the nineteenth century. He was probably a commercial traveller in patent elastic bandages (used in the treatment of dropsy and oedema) for a London linen draper. Following his retirement, and without property or wife, he embarked on a series of annual tours each summer and autumn from 1817 until his death, returning to his family in Norfolk in the winter. The journal of his 1817 tour is housed in the National Library of Scotland and that for 1819 is in the National Museum of Wales. The sections of these two journals relating to Dewing's travels in the Lake District are here transcribed and set into their historical context.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

NOTES
Various. (pp. 217-232)
Abstract

Abstract

NOTES
Various. (pp. 217-232)

Geophysical Survey in Carlisle Cathedral Close 2000, by ARMIN SCHMIDT AND KEN HAMILTON, Edited by DAVID WESTON AND IAN CARUANA; Who Ran Hadrian's Wall? by B.J.N. EDWARDS; Moses Bowness, Ambleside Photographer, and the Promotion of Tourism in the Nineteenth Century, by SUSAN PREMRU.

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Geophysical Survey in Carlisle Cathedral Close 2000.
Armin Schmidt and Ken Hamilton. Edited by David Weston and Ian Caruana (pp. 217-221)
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Who Ran Hadrian's Wall?
B. J. N. Edwards (pp. 221-225)
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Moses Bowness, Ambleside Photographer, and the Promotion of Tourism in the Nineteenth Century.
Susan Premru (pp. 225-331)
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Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2008
Anon. (pp. 233-278)

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

In Memoriam: Joyce Cherry (1924-2008); Thomas Clifford Mayho (1920-2009);
Marion McClintock; W. G. Wiseman (pp. 279-282)
Abstract

Abstract

In Memoriam: Joyce Cherry (1924-2008); Thomas Clifford Mayho (1920-2009);
Marion McClintock; W. G. Wiseman (pp. 279-282)

Joyce Cherry, who died on 29 December 2008, will be remembered for her many contributions to the Society, as archaeologist, General Secretary, and (with Jim Cherry, q.v.) indexer extraordinaire of the Transactions.

**Full article available July 1, 2019.**

General Index
Anon. (pp. 283-292)
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