Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 2015

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950
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Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2015) Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2010) Series: 3, Volume 10.


**Parts of this volume will only be made available on July 1, 2020.**

Table of Contents

Frontispiece
Anon. (pp. i-iv)
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Contents
Anon. (pp. v)
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Michael Davies-Shiel 1929-2009.
Anon. (pp. 1-3)
Abstract

Abstract

Michael Davies-Shiel 1929-2009.
Anon. (pp. 1-3)

Mike Davies-Shiel, who died in July 2009, was undoubtedly Cumbria's foremost proponent of industrial history. A long-time member of the CWAAS, he served on its Industrial History panel. He was an early active member of the Historical Metallurgy Society and in 1972 he was elected Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. In April 2009, he achieved the further distinction of being elected President of the Cumbria Industrial History Society. His work exemplified the parallel and complementary techniques of systematic documentary research and exhaustive field work. His fields of enquiry were many, for his curiosity reached well beyond the industrial and extended to everything environmental. He put his vast accumulated knowledge at the disposal of local history and adult education groups and his skills as a teacher were used to the full when he gave such presentations. He delighted and informed his audiences on a wide range of topics from the multitude of different water-powered industries to iron smelting, potash kilns, alpine flora and Vikings in Lakeland. The pioneer was also the populariser.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

The Excavation of the Remains of an Eighteenth Century Tannery on Land at Riverside Place, K-Village, Kendal .
Martin Railton (pp. 3-16)
Abstract

Abstract

The Excavation of the Remains of an Eighteenth Century Tannery on Land at Riverside Place, K-Village, Kendal .
Martin Railton (pp. 3-16)

Between March and April 2007, North Pennines Archaeology Ltd. undertook an archaeological excavation at Riverside Place, on the site occupied by K-Village, Kendal (centred on NGR SD 517918). The excavation formed part of a mitigation strategy for a new development of shops, offi ces and accommodation by Kendal Riverside Ltd. The archaeological work was designed by Scott Wilson Ltd., in response to a brief from Cumbria County Council. The evaluation involved the excavation of 13 trenches across the development site. The majority of the trenches did not reveal any archaeological deposits, but four trenches in a car park on the north side of K-Village contained evidence for former tanning pits. Subsequent excavation was targeted to investigate these remains. Archaeological features were revealed over most of this area, associated with the eighteenth century and later tannery. A signifi cant quantity of medieval and post-medieval pottery was also recovered, which was analysed to attempt to date the excavated features.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

A Harrison Ainslie Gunpowder Stock Book of 1871-76 .
Alan Crocker and Peter Sandbach (pp. 17-34)
Abstract

Abstract

A Harrison Ainslie Gunpowder Stock Book of 1871-76 .
Alan Crocker and Peter Sandbach (pp. 17-34)

An analysis is provided of the contents of a gunpowder stock book compiled by Harrison Ainslie, a major Furness iron company, in 1871-6. It records the 14 types of gunpowder stored at a magazine on Headin Haw, an island on the foreshore at Barrow, and manufactured at the company's own mill near Oban in Argyll. It also records the gunpowder distributed to Poaka magazine, near their haematite mines on Lindal Moor, and to customers, including some in Cumbria, Wales, and County Durham. The contents of the stock book are described, important aspects being considered in detail. In particular the types and amounts of gunpowder involved are summarised and the transport of gunpowder on ships, carts and vans described. Appendices give information on the ships involved, and signifi cant customers are discussed. Structural surveys of the two magazines are also presented.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

The German Mines of Caldbeck and the Discovery of and Early Primitive Wagonway .
Warrren Allison and Samuel Murphy (pp. 35-54)
Abstract

Abstract

The German Mines of Caldbeck and the Discovery of and Early Primitive Wagonway .
Warrren Allison and Samuel Murphy (pp. 35-54)

The Lake District, well known for its outstanding scenery, also has an industrial past now less obvious to casual visitors. As well as numerous slate quarries, mines of copper, lead, zinc, iron, silver, tungsten, molybdenum and barite have operated with varying degrees of success. It is clear that mining has been carried out here for centuries. Recent research in the Caldbeck fells, a mountainous area in the far north of the Lake District, has revealed an unexpectedly early date for mining at one particular place. We present a summary of the history of mining in the Caldbeck fells, and describe the results of recent research carried out by local enthusiasts. Their fi ndings have not only been pivotal in extending the known date for mining and smelting to before A.D. 1200, but have provided the earliest known evidence for the use of tracked transport in the UK and possibly elsewhere.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

The Barrow Steam Corn Mill, 1870-1972 .
Daniel W. Elsworth and Sam Whitehead (pp. 55-76)
Abstract

Abstract

The Barrow Steam Corn Mill, 1870-1972 .
Daniel W. Elsworth and Sam Whitehead (pp. 55-76)

Prior to redevelopment of a large area adjoining Hindpool Road and Cornmill Crossing in Barrow-in-Furness, Greenlane Archaeology was commissioned to carry out a series of archaeological investigations. The largest element of this was the excavation of the entire remains of the former Barrow Steam Corn Mill, which was established in 1870 during a time of rapid growth for the town. Documentary study and the results of the excavation showed that the mill went through several stages of expansion and improvement, all of which reflected the changing nature of grain milling at the time, and many of which utilised the most advanced techniques and technology available. The expansion of the mill reflects the industrial growth of Barrow-in-Furness during the late nineteenth century, realised by the newly created dockyard, itself the product of the wealth and vision of a syndicate of local businessmen. At its peak the mill was part of an international trade in grain and flour and was at the forefront of both the local use of electricity and the national use of sprinkler systems. It remained in operation for almost 100 years, closing in 1967, subsequently being destroyed by fire in 1972.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

An Eighteenth Century Westmorland Colliery .
Graham Brooks (pp. 77-92)
Abstract

Abstract

An Eighteenth Century Westmorland Colliery .
Graham Brooks (pp. 77-92)

This paper is based on an account book of a small eighteenth century Westmorland colliery for the period 1729-1732. A rare document for this type of colliery, the account book also contains a number of inserted loose papers. Analysis of the account book allows the working of a small land sale colliery (a colliery selling its coal directly to the local area) to be described and comparisons are then made with the practices of work in larger coalfields.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

Excavations of Iron Age and Roman Iron Age levels at a settlement in Glencoyne Park, Ullswater, Cumbria .
Andrew W. Hoaen and Helen L. Loney (pp. 93-102)
Abstract

Abstract

Excavations of Iron Age and Roman Iron Age levels at a settlement in Glencoyne Park, Ullswater, Cumbria .
Andrew W. Hoaen and Helen L. Loney (pp. 93-102)

This paper outlines preliminary results of four seasons of excavation at a curvilinear enclosed settlement in Glencoyne Park. The excavation formed part of a project to investigate later prehistoric settlement in Cumbria. Much information for the Neolithic and Bronze Ages derives from funerary and ritual monuments such as stone circles and burial cairns. Further, there is a lack of settlement evidence for much of prehistory, a problem that is compounded for the Iron Age by the absence or unrecognisable reuse of earlier funerary and ritual monuments. Consequently, the Iron Age is very poorly understood in Cumbria. It was a priority for the project to identify, excavate and date sites that, based on regional comparators, were likely to date to the Iron Age.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

Excavation of a Roman Ditched Enclosure and Field System Adjacent to Vallum House Hotel, Burgh Road, Carlisle .
Magnus Kirby (pp. 103-118)
Abstract

Abstract

Excavation of a Roman Ditched Enclosure and Field System Adjacent to Vallum House Hotel, Burgh Road, Carlisle .
Magnus Kirby (pp. 103-118)

In 2007, CFA Archaeology Ltd. undertook the excavation of a Roman period ditched enclosure and probable field system on land adjacent to the Vallum House Hotel off Burgh Road, Carlisle. The lack of any internal features surviving within the enclosure means that it is unclear whether this was a native Romano-British farmstead or a Roman military installation. This paper looks at the relationship between the enclosure and field-system and considers the evidence for both interpretations.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

Roman Garrisons in North-West England .
Ben Edwards (pp. 119-136)
Abstract

Abstract

Roman Garrisons in North-West England .
Ben Edwards (pp. 119-136)

This paper, which follows on from another published in 1994 by Professor M. G. Jarrett, explains first the types of evidence from which particular units of the Roman army may be identified as the garrisons of auxiliary forts, and then assesses their comparative reliability. Using these forms of evidence appropriately, each of the 33 forts occupied during the Roman period in an area including Cumbria, but extending slightly beyond it, is listed, and its garrison/s identified if possible. The evidence, largely from widely scattered published sources, is cited.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

Scarrow Hill in the Seventeenth Century: A Reconsideration of Vernacular Architecture c.1600 near Naworth, Cumbria .
Catherine Bancroft (pp. 137-146)
Abstract

Abstract

Scarrow Hill in the Seventeenth Century: A Reconsideration of Vernacular Architecture c.1600 near Naworth, Cumbria .
Catherine Bancroft (pp. 137-146)

This paper reconsiders vernacular architecture c.1600 near Naworth, Cumbria. Firstly the author's own property, Scarrow Hill is discussed. Dating evidence both dendrochronological and archival concludes that Scarrow Hill can be securely dated at 1601. Scarrow Hill is then compared with three nearby properties, all built of stone, all included in the 1603 Gilsland Survey and all still extant. Functions of the four buildings are considered with an emphasis on bastles (fortified farmhouses). Bastles are the established vernacular architecture for the area and period and were built as a result of the reiving and instability of the border area. The conclusion suggests that not all stone buildings were bastles as two extant buildings clearly existed in 1603 and show no evidence of ever having been fortified. The suggestion is therefore that bastles in the Naworth area are likely to be earlier in date than previously thought.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

Loyalty and Tradition: Jacobitism amongst the Gentry of north-west England, 1640-1720 .
Alison Wright (pp. 147-162)
Abstract

Abstract

Loyalty and Tradition: Jacobitism amongst the Gentry of north-west England, 1640-1720 .
Alison Wright (pp. 147-162)

This article examines how traditional Anglican gentry in the north west shared interests and royalist sympathies with Catholic fellow gentry during the Civil Wars. Later, Anglican justices protected their Catholic peers from governmental directives. Despite the presence of a growing merchant class in Kendal after the Restoration in 1660, literature from the period dismisses their achievements, to concentrate on the genealogy of Catholic and Anglican gentry. Traditional Anglican forms of worship were reinstated after the Commonwealth while Nonconformity and Quakerism were regarded as a threat to society. After James II's flight to France, the Anglican gentry maintained their belief in their common aspirations with the Catholic gentry, whereas the latter were plotting to restore the Stuart dynasty. Only after the 1715 Jacobite rising did the traditional cohesion break down as a new generation of Anglicans became aware of Catholic loyalties to religious ideals differing from their own.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

Francis Lennard's claim to Kirkoswald, Cumberland, 1634-1652 .
Richard Brockington (pp. 163-176)
Abstract

Abstract

Francis Lennard's claim to Kirkoswald, Cumberland, 1634-1652 .
Richard Brockington (pp. 163-176)

The Lennard family of Kent, 'Lords Dacre of the South', acquired a group of Cumberland manors without payment by orders of the Court of Exchequer between 1649 and 1652. There has been much confusion in previous accounts and this article explains exactly what happened and when, with some discussion of the reaction in Cumberland.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

The Parkers of Old Town and District in Cumberland: Yeoman Farmers, Industrialists and Landed Proprietors, 1630-1900 .
Peter Roebuck (pp. 177-196)
Abstract

Abstract

The Parkers of Old Town and District in Cumberland: Yeoman Farmers, Industrialists and Landed Proprietors, 1630-1900 .
Peter Roebuck (pp. 177-196)

This case-study unfolds in four phases. Originating in Wreay, the Parkers acquired property at Old Town, near High Hesket, and built a house there in the late seventeenth century: this lay opposite the confluence of two major drove roads. As yeomen farmers, the family prospered from servicing the droving trade and through successful marriages. Then, in the late eighteenth century, six family members moved south to Stockport and Manchester with capital raised on the Old Town property. There they amassed considerable wealth through involvement in the cotton industry. In 1822, while retaining Old Town and their industrial concerns further south, they returned to Cumberland, having purchased the Warwick Hall and Skirwith Abbey estates. When they failed in the direct male line in 1856, their properties were split. Old Town and Warwick Hall passed to an improvident successor who, with little commitment to the region, sold both in the 1890s.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

"A perilous situation": Whitehaven-built ships in the Northern Whale Fishery .
Rob David (pp. 197-216)
Abstract

Abstract

"A perilous situation": Whitehaven-built ships in the Northern Whale Fishery .
Rob David (pp. 197-216)

Much has been written about the British whaling industry in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but there have been few studies of individual ports such as Whitehaven, and even fewer studies of British ships that sailed to the Northern Whale Fishery. Although Whitehaven was involved in whaling from the 1760s, it was not until the 1780s that the first Whitehaven-built ships became part of Britain's whaling fleet. None of these vessels were initially constructed as whalers, but once fitted out for whaling they sailed for the Northern Whale Fishery from Whitehaven as well as from other ports. This article examines the histories of these ships and demonstrates that the larger Whitehaven-built ships were so well constructed that they could work successfully for many years in some of the most dangerous seas in the world.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

Appleby in Westminster: John Robinson, MP (1727-1802) .
Andrew Connell (pp. 217-236)
Abstract

Abstract

Appleby in Westminster: John Robinson, MP (1727-1802) .
Andrew Connell (pp. 217-236)

Of the middling sort, John Robinson was raised out of the closed, connection-driven public life of his native Appleby to the Westmorland elite, then to the House of Commons, through the patronage of the Cumbrian grandee whom he served diligently for three decades, Sir James Lowther. After Lowther's capricious temper broke the connection, Robinson's deployment of skills he had acquired in Westmorland - persistence, mastery of detail, man-management and electoral manipulation - enabled him to develop a crucial role at the heart of Westminster for more than a decade, successively sustaining, breaking and creating governments in the service of his revered King. That Robinson has not secured greater recognition from regional history is attributable to his withdrawal from Westmorland; to family misfortunes; to the anti-climactic end to a career he did not know how to end gracefully; and to the very gradual way in which sources have come to light.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

The Westmorland Suffragists .
Roger Smalley (pp. 237-252)
Abstract

Abstract

The Westmorland Suffragists .
Roger Smalley (pp. 237-252)

Studies of Westmorland political history in the early twentieth century make no reference to the movement for votes for women. Primary sources however show that female suffrage organisations were formed in the county, and that their membership was vigorous and effective in the period 1908-1918. The principal archive is the collection of Catherine Marshall papers in the Cumbria Record Office, Carlisle. Marshall was the founder of organised dissent by disenfranchised women in Cumberland, and her work locally and nationally has been highlighted in Jo Vellacott's biographical study, From Liberal to Labour with Women's Suffrage. The Story of Catherine Marshall was based on this archive. But the story of the struggle for female franchise in Westmorland, also contained within the archive, has not been told. The purpose of this paper is to tell it, using local press coverage to amplify the suffragist programme, identify its activists, and assess its impact.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

NOTES
Various. (pp. 253-260)
Abstract

Abstract

NOTES
Various. (pp. 253-260)

William Edward Parry (1790-1855) Explorer - a response, by BLAKE TYSON; William Edward Parry (1790-1855) Explorer - a reply to a response, by ROB DAVID.

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William Edward Parry (1790-1855) Explorer - a response.
Blake Tyson (pp. 253-257)
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William Edward Parry (1790-1855) Explorer - a reply to a response.
Rob David (pp. 257-259)
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Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2009
Anon. (pp. 261-296)
Abstract

Abstract

Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2009
Anon. (pp. 261-296)

The following projects represent archaeological work undertaken in the county for which the County Council has either received a written report in 2009 or been notified of by one of the National Park Authorities. The list was compiled by Jo Mackintosh, Historic Environment Records Officer, Cumbria County Council. Information on projects in the Lake District was supplied by Eleanor Kingston, Archaeology and Heritage Advisor, Lake District National Park Authority. Information on projects in the Yorkshire Dales National Park area of Cumbria was supplied by Lynne Johnson, Conservation Support Officer (Historic Environment), Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority.

**Full article available July 1, 2020.**

List of Publications and Completed Theses on Cumberland and Westmorland 2008-2009
Anon. (pp. 297-298)
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General Index
Anon. (pp. 299-312)
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