Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 2015

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950
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Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2015) Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2011) Series: 3, Volume 11.


**Parts of this volume will only be made available on July 1, 2021.**

Table of Contents

Frontispiece
Anon. (pp. i-iv)
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Contents
Anon. (pp. v)
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Ben Edwards 1934-2011: An Appreciation
Anon. (pp. 1-10)
Abstract

Abstract

Ben Edwards 1934-2011: An Appreciation
Anon. (pp. 1-10)

BEN EDWARDS, who died on 24 February 2011, after a short illness, was Lancashire's first County Archaeologist (based in the County Record Office in Preston), a post that he held from 1963 until his retirement in 1995. He always took pleasure from the fact that his was the first appointment in the country to such a post.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

Cumbrian Identities: Introduction .
Matthew Townend (pp. 11-14)
Abstract

Abstract

Cumbrian Identities: Introduction .
Matthew Townend (pp. 11-14)

This special section arises from a day conference on 'Cumbrian Identities' which was held at the University of Cumbria's Ambleside campus on 25 April 2009, organized by Lancaster University's Centre for North-West Regional Studies in conjunction with the CWAAS. In recent decades 'identity' has established itself as a core term, and a key concept, in the analysis of contemporary and historical culture, and this collection of essays is the first to investigate Cumbrian identity, or identities, in a focused and sustained manner. The six essays here cover an impressive range, and explore many of the elements that might contribute to a sense of Cumbrian identity or identities: John Walton considers in what ways Cumbria might meaningfully be viewed as a region, and asks what, if anything, within Cumbria might lead to a shared sense of identity among its inhabitants; Charles Phythian-Adams looks at the region in the early medieval period, and reconstructs the interaction of peoples in terms of ethnic as much as spatial identities; Angus Winchester explores how personal names, both Christian names and surnames, might have acted as localized cultural markers in the early modern period; Penny Bradshaw reviews the role the Lake District has played in the construction of individual poetic identities; Richard Newman surveys how industrialization contributed, and contributes, to the making of local identities in the region; and Mike Huggins considers the possible role of sport in the construction of Cumbrian identities. In this introduction I shall reflect on some of the issues that are thrown up when one foregrounds 'identity' as an analytical category, and briefly relate these to the rich discussions found in our six essays.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

Cumbrian Identities: Some Historical Contexts .
John K. Walton (pp. 15-28)
Abstract

Abstract

Cumbrian Identities: Some Historical Contexts .
John K. Walton (pp. 15-28)

The notion of 'Cumbrian' identity is complex and contested. This article provides a critical examination of the idea of Cumbria as a 'region' and as a coherent social, economic and political entity. It argues that 'Cumbria' is a geographical and political expression, with little or nothing to pull it together apart from its assumption of county status in 1974. Setting Cumbria in regional context, and developing a comparison with the Basque Country of northern Spain, emphasizes the very limited development of Cumbrian regional identity during and after the twentieth century.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

Personal Names and Local Identities in Early Modern Cumbria .
Angus J. L. Winchester (pp. 29-50)
Abstract

Abstract

Personal Names and Local Identities in Early Modern Cumbria .
Angus J. L. Winchester (pp. 29-50)

Using the personal names recorded in the Protestation Returns of 1642 for Cumberland and north Westmorland, this paper examines the distribution of both surnames and forenames to explore questions of local identity in early modern Cumbria. Names from three sample areas (the Borders, the Solway lowlands and the northern Lake District) are analysed, the distribution of locally distinctive surnames being used to reconstruct the socio-economic horizons of local communities and the distribution of selected forenames being analysed as an indication of cultural affinities. Surname analysis identifies a patchwork of local societies, the most distinctive of which were the Borders and the Lake District valleys, highly self-contained societies held together by shared experience. In the lowlands, Inglewood Forest appears to have separated the society of the 'Solway' region from that of the Eden valley. The boundaries between these distinct rural societies created a patchwork of local identities which were the product of cumulative patterns of human interaction through such factors as marriage horizons, master-servant networks and migration patterns. Forename distributions reinforce the impression that these local socieites each possessed a distinctive cultural character but also suggest that socio-economic territories might lie within wider cultural zone embracing several distinct localities.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

From Peoples to Regional Societies. The Problem of Early Medieval Cumbrian Identities .
C. Phythian-Adams (pp. 51-64)
Abstract

Abstract

From Peoples to Regional Societies. The Problem of Early Medieval Cumbrian Identities .
C. Phythian-Adams (pp. 51-64)

Uniformity should never be assumed of regional identities. Early Cumbrian ethnicities may be differentiated in the contrasted contexts either of an established regional core and its power centres or of culturally more permeable regional peripheries. Nor could ethnic identities remain unchanged in the face of migration, though in the case of Cumbrian history predominantly Celtic strains run through it. As the leading identifier of a regional people, however, ethnicity gave way as local sovereignty was displaced, territory was divided and redefined, and population was redistributed. Traditional ties of kindred seem to have yielded to a new inter-dependency that reflected the establishment of regionally discrete urban hierarchies and networks. The local sense of Celtic difference (as opposed to dialect), nevertheless, appears to have been augmented by revivalist responses to the centralising tendencies of the eleventh and twelfth century state that were shared along, and beyond, the further edges of Anglo-Norman England.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

Romantic Poetic Identity and the English Lake District .
Penny Bradshaw (pp. 65-80)
Abstract

Abstract

Romantic Poetic Identity and the English Lake District .
Penny Bradshaw (pp. 65-80)

While it is widely accepted that the English Lake District played a key role in the development of British Romanticism, our understanding of cultural attitudes to the Lakes in the early nineteenth century is dominated by Wordsworthian perspectives. The complex and often uneasy response of other Romantic poets to the Lakes has tended to be sidelined. This article reconsiders the attitudes of several Romantic-era poets to both the Lakes and to the Lake Poets, and argues that public and poetic responses to this place played a key role in the formation of individual Romantic identity. This article begins with the original Lake Poets and considers the misleading construction of Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey as a regionally based 'school' of poets in contemporary reviews. It considers the effects of this identification on Coleridge and Southey and explores why both struggle with the notion of a poetic identity shaped by this region. Having begun with the original 'Lake School', the essay moves on to second-generation Romantic writers, Shelley, Keats and Byron, and considers the ways in which they negotiate their identity as poets in relation to the Lakes. The article argues that, with the exception of Wordsworth, the canonical Romantic poets have a deeply problematic relationship with the Lake District. It goes on to propose, however, that it is possible to find other more positive Romantic poetic responses if we move from the canonical centre to the margins. The article concludes by looking briefly at how an alternative model of regional poetic identity is shaped in the work of two relatively obscure Romantic-era poets, John Wilson and Isabella Lickbarrow.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

"Sport Helps Make Us What We Are": The Shaping of Regional and Local Sporting Identities in Cumbria c.1800-1960 .
Mike Huggins (pp. 81-96)
Abstract

Abstract

"Sport Helps Make Us What We Are": The Shaping of Regional and Local Sporting Identities in Cumbria c.1800-1960 .
Mike Huggins (pp. 81-96)

This paper explores the ways in which Cumbria's sports were used to express regional, county or urban identities. It begins with the sporting place myths constructed by national newspapers and newsreel companies, which focused largely on events such as Grasmere Sports. It then goes on to explore the extent to which such 'traditional' sporting activities were specifically Cumbrian, before examining the diffusion of modern sports. These arrived later than elsewhere, but though organised by county, generated little sense of county loyalties. Football, rugby and cricket all generated local loyalties, high levels of participation, spectatorship and interest, and became as popular in Cumbria as elsewhere, but gained little if any success on any wider stage, and so were rarely exploited as emblematic symbols. By contrast, Cumbria's surviving traditional sports still perpetuate myths of Cumbrian exceptionalism and attract off-comer, visitor and media interest despite low levels of participation, often from families with a history of involvement.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

Manufacturing Identities. An Archaeological Approach to Industrialisation and the Formation of Modern Cumbria .
Richard Newman (pp. 97-112)
Abstract

Abstract

Manufacturing Identities. An Archaeological Approach to Industrialisation and the Formation of Modern Cumbria .
Richard Newman (pp. 97-112)

Ideas of identity are core to both people's sense of self and sense of place. Many aspects of culture can influence personal identity. This paper argues that in Cumbria one of the key cultural aspects that helped produce some of today's differences in local identity is industrialisation and specifically past variations in the experience of industrialisation. An archaeological approach is taken by using the evidence of physical change in the landscape and of access to goods.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

The Roman Military Occupation of Northern England .
David J. Breeze (pp. 113-136)
Abstract

Abstract

The Roman Military Occupation of Northern England .
David J. Breeze (pp. 113-136)

A review of the evidence for military deployment in northern England and for defended civil settlements rejects the suggestion that the area had serious internal security problems and emphasises the necessity for a strong military presence to defend the empire from attack. The evidence for the proposed abandonment of some forts in the later third century is reconsidered, a review of the problems of the dating evidence for the occupation of forts in the third century is offered, and a range of possibilities suggested for the presence of defences round civil settlements.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

Roman Reiter Memorial Stones from Kirkby Thore .
Ben Edwards (pp. 137-148)
Abstract

Abstract

Roman Reiter Memorial Stones from Kirkby Thore .
Ben Edwards (pp. 137-148)

Five of the 25 Roman cavalryman's memorials found in Britain of the type known as Reiter stones come from Cumbria. Three of these, two complete and one partially preserved, have had no published illustrations other than engravings in 1875. They are in the British Museum, and this paper presents up-to-date photographs of the three with comments on the differences between the engravings and the actual stones. In introducing these, some consideration is given to the type as a whole. A reconstruction drawing is offered of the figure on the example surviving only in part, and the significance of the three sculptures for the nature of the garrison of the Roman fort at Kirkby Thore is considered.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

Whatever Happened to Inglewood Forest? Landscape and Settlement Evolution in Inglewood Forest since Medieval Times .
Douglas G. Hope (pp. 149-164)
Abstract

Abstract

Whatever Happened to Inglewood Forest? Landscape and Settlement Evolution in Inglewood Forest since Medieval Times .
Douglas G. Hope (pp. 149-164)

This paper has been adapted from a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Diploma in Lake District Landscape and Environment at the Centre for North-West Regional Studies, Lancaster University. It attempts to chart the progress of the conversion of Inglewood Forest from the medieval common 'waste' to cultivated agricultural land and to assess the effect, in landscape terms, of the eighteenth and nineteenth century parliamentary enclosures, concentrating on the Skelton Enclosure Award area and the Broad Field area of the Inglewood Enclosure Award. The enclosure of Inglewood Forest had a profound effect on the landscape of this part of Cumberland but its economic and social impact is less obvious. This paper may pose more questions than it answers but it is hoped that it will encourage further study of an area on the fringes of the Lake District National Park.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

A Dispute over Windermere Island: The Case, its Participants and Regional Context .
Blake Tyson (pp. 165-182)
Abstract

Abstract

A Dispute over Windermere Island: The Case, its Participants and Regional Context .
Blake Tyson (pp. 165-182)

This article records details of a dispute over rights to own and occupy the main island in Windermere after the death of Sir Christopher Philipson in January 1708/9. It examines the social and economic background of the parties to the dispute and the outcome after legal action. It provides an assessment of the motives of both sides by tracing family affairs, properties and religions of the protagonists, none of whom emerge unscathed for a variety of reasons. The case was focussed in Westmorland, but it had ramifications in County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire and London.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

Lynn Dewing, an Unknown Lakeland Traveller, and his Journals 1817 to 1847, Part II .
M. J. Crossley Evans (pp. 183-206)
Abstract

Abstract

Lynn Dewing, an Unknown Lakeland Traveller, and his Journals 1817 to 1847, Part II .
M. J. Crossley Evans (pp. 183-206)

Lynn Dewing, a Norfolk commercial traveller in patent stockings, retired from business in 1817 aged 44. In his retirement, he became one of the most tireless pedestrian travellers of England, keeping journals describing his tours. Dewing's travel journals for 1817 and 1819 are held in national collections and those parts dealing with his journeys through Cumberland, Westmorland and Furness have previously been published in CW3 2009.1 In this article, those parts of his journal relating to his journeys through the Lakes in 1821, 1825, 1832, 1845, and 1847 appear in full. These journals are currently in possession of the author, while those covering his Lakeland tours in 1827, 1830, 1834, 1839 and 1842 are believed to be in other unknown private collections.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

The Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society and the Victoria County History .
J. V. Beckett (pp. 207-226)
Abstract

Abstract

The Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society and the Victoria County History .
J. V. Beckett (pp. 207-226)

The Victoria County History (VCH) was established in London in 1899 and Cumberland was one of the first counties to start work, initially under the guiding hand of Richard Saul Ferguson. A county committee was formed, and contributors were signed up. Ferguson died in 1900 and was succeeded by Rev James Wilson, who brought two volumes into print, and prepared the material for two more which were never published. This article reconstructs the development of the VCH in Cumberland and Westmorland, and examines the role of CWAAS members and officers in working on the project. The failure to progress beyond volume II in Cumberland, and to publish even one of the two projected Westmorland volumes is explained, mainly from material in the VCH archives. The article provides an appropriate background to the revival of the VCH in Cumbria in 2010, with CWAAS again playing a prominent role.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

NOTES
Various. (pp. 227-252)
Abstract

Abstract

NOTES
Various. (pp. 227-252)

Part of an Eagle Mount from Beckfoot, by P. M. CRACKNELL; A Roman Coin Hoard from Morecambe Bay and its Possible Implications, by DAVID SHOTTER; Eccles Place-Names in Cumbria, by DANIEL W. ELSWORTH; Results of an Archaeological Watching Brief to the Rear of 3 Castle Street, Kendal and a Consideration of the Development of Wildman Street, by DANIEL W. ELSWORTH, SAMUEL WHITEHEAD AND JO DAWSON; Tree-ring Dating of Buildings on the Solway Plain, by NINA JENNINGS AND PETER MESSENGER; John Robinson 1727-1802 - Clarifi cations and Lines for further Enquiry, by ANDREW CONNELL.

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Part of an Eagle Mount from Beckfoot.
P. M. Cracknell (pp. 227-229)
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A Roman Coin Hoard from Morecambe Bay and its Possible Implications.
David Shotter (pp. 229-233)
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Eccles Place-Names in Cumbria.
Daniel W. Elsworth (pp. 234-238)
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Results of an Archaeological Watching Brief to the Rear of 3 Castle Street, Kendal and a Consideration of the Development of Wildman Street.
Daniel W. Elsworth, Samuel Whitehead and Jo Dawson (pp. 239-247)
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Tree-ring Dating of Buildings on the Solway Plain.
Nina Jennings and Peter Messenger (pp. 247)
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John Robinson 1727-1802 - Clarifications and Lines for further Enquiry.
Andrew Connell (pp. 248-251)
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Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2010
Anon. (pp. 253-284)
Abstract

Abstract

Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2010
Anon. (pp. 253-284)

The following projects represent archaeological work undertaken in the county for which the County Council has either received a written report in 2010 or been notifi ed of by one of the National Park Authorities, with the location of the archive where stated. The list was compiled by Jo Mackintosh, Historic Environment Records Offi cer, Cumbria County Council, and information on projects in the Lake District was supplied by Eleanor Kingston, Archaeology and Heritage Advisor, Lake District National Park Authority.

**Full article available July 1, 2021.**

List of Publications and Completed Theses on Cumberland and Westmorland 2010
Anon. (pp. 285-286)
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General Index
Anon. (pp. 287-304)
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