Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 2015

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950
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Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2015) Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2012) Series: 3, Volume 12.


**Parts of this volume will only be made available on July 1, 2022.**

Table of Contents

Frontispiece
Anon. (pp. i-iv)
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Contents
Anon. (pp. v)
PDF 612 Kb
In Memoriam: Barbara Harbottle (1931-2012).
David J Breeze (pp. 1-2)

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

The Great Cumbrian Stone Circles, their Environs and the Moon.
Steven Hood (pp. 3-20)
Abstract

Abstract

The Great Cumbrian Stone Circles, their Environs and the Moon.
Steven Hood (pp. 3-20)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the three Great Cumbrian Circles - Long Meg, Castlerigg and Swinside - their environs and the Moon. It also examines how attention to sacred places and observation of the Moon have long been subjects of curiosity to mankind. It notes that some observations of the Moon at these sites have previously been discussed in these Transactions.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

The Druidical Judgement Seat: Archaeological Investigation of an Iron Age Enclosure on Brackenber Moor, Appleby-in-Westmorland, Cumbria.
Martin Railton (pp. 21-36)
Abstract

Abstract

The Druidical Judgement Seat: Archaeological Investigation of an Iron Age Enclosure on Brackenber Moor, Appleby-in-Westmorland, Cumbria.
Martin Railton (pp. 21-36)

This paper presents the results of two seasons of archaeological investigation undertaken by Appleby Archaeology Group at The Druidical Judgement Seat, a probable Iron Age farmstead on Brackenber Moor, near Appleby-in-Westmorland. The work has revealed valuable information about the history of the site, including the original form of the enclosure, and evidence for Bronze Age activity in the form of an assemblage of flint tools. Radio-carbon dates have been obtained from charred grain recovered from the enclosure ditch, which suggest the enclosure was occupied during the Iron Age. This work has the potential to contribute to the study of a series of morphologically similar sites in Cumbria, for which dating evidence is lacking.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

From Morikambe to Morecambe: Antiquarians, Periploi and Eischuseis .
William D. Shannon (pp. 37-54)
Abstract

Abstract

From Morikambe to Morecambe: Antiquarians, Periploi and Eischuseis .
William D. Shannon (pp. 37-54)

Morecambe Bay, between Cumbria and Lancashire, was identifi ed as Ptolemy's Morikambe eischusis by Horsley in 1732. By the end of that century, thanks largely to its appearing on Yates' map, it had become accepted as the contemporary name for the bay, later giving its name to the railway and then to the town that grew up at its terminus. What has not been commented upon before is how rare the word eischusis is in Ptolemy, what exactly it means, and what its strategic significance was for the Romans in the north west. Using toponymic, geodetic and contextual evidence, the paper explores the two possible candidates for Morikambe, the one wholly in Cumbria, the other partly so, before concluding Horsley was right. It also proposes that another nearby eischusis, that of Seteia, should be interpreted as Hoyle Bank, associated with the important beachmarket site at Meols.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

The Carvetii - a Pro-Roman Community? .
Catherine Ross (pp. 55-68)
Abstract

Abstract

The Carvetii - a Pro-Roman Community? .
Catherine Ross (pp. 55-68)

This paper considers the evidence for the nature of the native population in Carlisle and the Solway plain in the period immediately surrounding the Roman conquest. It focuses on those elements which indicate that the population, commonly referred to as the Carvetii, may have been pro- rather than anti-Roman and thus that Venutius, one of the British rebels made famous by the works of Tacitus, is unlikely to have originated in this area.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

The Civitas Stones and the Building of Hadrian's Wall.
David J. Breeze (pp. 69-80)
Abstract

Abstract

The Civitas Stones and the Building of Hadrian's Wall.
David J. Breeze (pp. 69-80)

The date of the civitas stones from Hadrian's Wall is reviewed and the evidence for the date of completion of the Stone Wall and the extent of the rebuilding of the Turf Wall under Hadrian reconsidered. Emphasis is placed on the lack of evidence for the date of the rebuilding in stone of most of the Turf Wall and for how much of Hadrian's Wall was completed by the time Hadrian died. A second century date for the civitas stones, it is argued, is unlikely.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

A Geophysical Survey of the Roman Fort at Bewcastle, Cumbria .
D. J. A. Taylor and J. A. Biggins (pp. 81-92)
Abstract

Abstract

A Geophysical Survey of the Roman Fort at Bewcastle, Cumbria .
D. J. A. Taylor and J. A. Biggins (pp. 81-92)

The outpost fort of Bewcastle is unusual, being hexagonal in plan and situated in a nondefensive position to the north of Hadrian's Wall. The report of the geophysical survey examines the interior of the fort and comments on the apparent lack of a vicus and other features surrounding the fort itself.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

A Second "Saint's Tomb" at Gosforth, Cumbria .
Amy R. Miller (pp. 93-106)
Abstract

Abstract

A Second "Saint's Tomb" at Gosforth, Cumbria .
Amy R. Miller (pp. 93-106)

This article shows by means of detailed comparisons how a small tenth-century sculptural fragment at Gosforth, Cumbria, long argued to be a portion of a cross shaft, is more likely the remains of a second hogback similar in overall design to an extant monument, the 'Saint's Tomb'. This reassessment signifi cantly alters our impression of Viking Age Gosforth by adding another major monument to the corpus of known pre-Conquest sculptures. This addition further strengthens the argument made for such sites as Lythe, Yorkshire and Penrith, Cumbria that the crosses and hogbacks functioned as parts of complex sculptural groups, demonstrating the importance of Cumbrian antiquities in answering the wider problems of Insular medieval art history. These sculptures are set within a monumental landscape of political and economic uncertainty in a complex and contested trade network during the Viking expansion.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

The Premonstratensian House of Canons at Preston Patrick
Harry Hawkins and John Thorley (pp. 107-122)
Abstract

Abstract

The Premonstratensian House of Canons at Preston Patrick
Harry Hawkins and John Thorley (pp. 107-122)

The Premonstratensian house of canons at Preston Patrick was established around 1191 by canons from Cockersand. The reasons for the foundation of the house at Preston Patrick are explored in the article, and from available documents, mainly found in the Dodsworth manuscript of the Shap cartulary, an attempt is made to establish as precisely as possible the extent of the holdings of the canons at Preston Patrick and in the surrounding area. Within a decade of the foundation at Preston Patrick the canons moved to Shap, where they had been granted more extensive lands for the foundation of a new abbey whilst retaining the lands they had been granted in Preston Patrick. The reasons for this move are investigated.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

Anglo-Scottish Warfare and its Effects on the Manor of Irthington in the Barony of Gilsland, 1295-1603 .
Hugh Vaux (pp. 123-141)
Abstract

Abstract

Anglo-Scottish Warfare and its Effects on the Manor of Irthington in the Barony of Gilsland, 1295-1603 .
Hugh Vaux (pp. 123-141)

For 300 years preceding the union of the crowns in 1603, war and cross-border raiding took its toll on the lands of both England and Scotland. This paper traces the fortunes of the manor of Irthington and of the long-suffering tenants during that time, using the inquisitions post mortem of the barons of Gilsland, supplemented by sixteenth-century surveys. In addition, lay subsidy records are used to provide evidence that the manor did not suffer in isolation.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

Cattle-droving through Cumbria after the Union: the Stances on the Musgrave Estate, 1707-12 .
Peter Roebuck (pp. 143-158)
Abstract

Abstract

Cattle-droving through Cumbria after the Union: the Stances on the Musgrave Estate, 1707-12 .
Peter Roebuck (pp. 143-158)

Although cattle-droving from Scotland was a major activity in Cumbria for 250 years from the early 1600s, systematic primary evidence is scarce. There are estimates of scale, and the chief routes have been identifi ed, as have the fairs and markets where the cattle were sold. However, we know relatively little about the trade's texture, who conducted it, and the costs involved. This case-study analyses records of the use of stances on the Musgrave estate during the years 1707-12, immediately after the Union. Large herds stayed overnight from April to October. From southern Scotland, particularly the border areas, a close-knit group of drovers arrived regularly, making frequent, short-distance droves, and estate offi cials facilitated repeat business. In addition to intermittent fairs, regular markets featured prominently: and, the evidence suggests, earlier work has signifi cantly underestimated the scale of the trade.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

A Kendal Mercer's Inventory of 1632 .
Janet D. Martin (pp. 159-170)
Abstract

Abstract

A Kendal Mercer's Inventory of 1632 .
Janet D. Martin (pp. 159-170)

The painstakingly detailed inventories of the domestic possessions and stock-in-trade of Myles Birkhead, an early seventeenth-century Kendal mercer, illuminate contemporary life and trade in the town. The contents of his home and over two hundred items in his shop and warehouses are listed and identified.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

Field-Names in a Cumbrian Manor: their longevity in Glassonby, 1568-2009 .
David Uttley (pp. 171-182)
Abstract

Abstract

Field-Names in a Cumbrian Manor: their longevity in Glassonby, 1568-2009 .
David Uttley (pp. 171-182)

Using the tithe plan, the field-names of Glassonby have been reconstructed from the 1568 survey of the manor, making it possible to recreate the Tudor farming landscape. A comparison of the names recorded in the 1568 survey with those on the tithe plan and the field-names still known in Glassonby in 2009 shows that almost half of the fieldnames recorded in 1568, many of which probably date back several centuries earlier, have survived. The attrition of field-names was 35 per cent between 1568 and 1841; a further 19 per cent of the names recorded in 1568 have been lost in the last 170 years. Various factors are considered to explain this accelerating loss, the most crucial being disuse, precipitated by severe contraction of the agricultural community, and the Ordnance Survey practice of fi eld numbering. The derivations of Glassonby's fieldnames are presented in an Appendix.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

The Eighteenth-Century Musicians of Carlisle Cathedral .
Simon D. I. Fleming (pp. 183-197)
Abstract

Abstract

The Eighteenth-Century Musicians of Carlisle Cathedral .
Simon D. I. Fleming (pp. 183-197)

Throughout the eighteenth century, it has been suggested, there was a national deterioration in the quality of cathedral choirs. Durham, however, reversed this downward trend, and I set out to investigate whether the same was true of Carlisle. I piece together the lives of the eighteenth-century organists of Carlisle Cathedral, their roles in the musical life of the city, and investigate some of the more signifi cant, and troublesome, lay-clerks and minor canons. It seems that the quality of music at Carlisle never rose particularly high, mainly because of the poor salaries that the Chapter paid. The main focus of my research was the cathedral records located at the Cumbria Record Offi ce at Carlisle and the few remaining records held in the library of the cathedral itself. I have also examined the eighteenth and early nineteenth-century editions of the Cumberland Pacquet.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

The English Presbyterian Meeting, Fisher Street, Carlisle - 1736-1809 .
Ian Moonie (pp. 199-216)
Abstract

Abstract

The English Presbyterian Meeting, Fisher Street, Carlisle - 1736-1809 .
Ian Moonie (pp. 199-216)

The years between 1736 and 1809 turned out to be unstable, eventful and ultimately life-changing for Carlisle's Fisher Street Presbyterian meeting, one of three with Presbyterian ministers in Georgian Carlisle. The scene is set with a review of events leading up to the move from Blackfriars to a new, larger meeting house in Fisher Street and of the early years in their new home. Following this, the article concentrates on the two major external influences on the congregation. The fi rst was the flirtation with, but never submission to, the Arian and Unitarian opinions sweeping through English Presbyterianism. The second, and opposing one, was a relinquishing of allegiance to English Presbyterianism, with its drift away from Trinitarian orthodoxy, back to their Calvinist roots, finding them in the bosom of the Burgher (Associate Synod) of the Scottish Secession Church. Before examining events in Carlisle, national developments which had an impact on the Fisher Street congregation are briefly outlined.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

The Published Topographical Work of John Housman, from 1793 to 1800, and its Relevance to Cumbrian Identities .
Derek Denman (pp. 217-230)
Abstract

Abstract

The Published Topographical Work of John Housman, from 1793 to 1800, and its Relevance to Cumbrian Identities .
Derek Denman (pp. 217-230)

The agriculturist and topographical writer, John Housman, made important contributions on the north west of England and the English Lakes during the last decade of the eighteenth century. This article identifi es and discusses his work, disclosing his important role as the national investigator for Frederick Eden's State of the poor. Housman's observations and ideas of a typology of the 'original' and contemporary inhabitants of Cumberland and the north-west of ngland, are considered in the context of the identification and creation of Cumbrian identities.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

"Efficient Members": The Early Years of Methodism in Hunsonby and Winskill, 1821-1871 .
Lydia Gray (pp. 231-248)
Abstract

Abstract

"Efficient Members": The Early Years of Methodism in Hunsonby and Winskill, 1821-1871 .
Lydia Gray (pp. 231-248)

The growth of the Hunsonby Wesleyan Methodist Society, its place within the Penrith Circuit, and the role of many individuals, is revealed through a detailed study of surviving Methodist records, and a wide variety of other personal and offi cial sources. The society emerged in the early 1820s; it quickly acquired its own chapel and by 1862 had built a larger replacement. While not the earliest society to take root in the surrounding villages of the Fellside and Eden valley, it grew steadily to become one of the strongest and most infl uential of the rural societies. By 1871, when another division took place, it was the fourth largest out of the 18 in the new Kirkoswald Circuit. Methodism by then had become the most prominent denomination in Hunsonby, as in many local villages, in an area not noted in 1851 for its strong religious observance.

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

NOTES
Various. (pp. 249-254)
PDF 701 Kb
A Dynasty of Sextons and Town-criers at Kendal in the Seventeenth Century.
Blake Tyson (pp. 249-254)
PDF 701 Kb
Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2011
Anon. (pp. 255-283)

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

List of Publications and Completed Theses on Cumberland and Westmorland 2010-2011
Anon. (pp. 284-284)

**Full article available July 1, 2022.**

General Index
Anon. (pp. 285-303)
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