Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 2015

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950
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Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2015) Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2014) Series: 3, Volume 14.


**Parts of this volume will only be made available on July 1, 2024.**

Table of Contents

Frontispiece
Anon. (pp. i-iv)
PDF 757 Kb
Contents
Anon. (pp. v)
PDF 709 Kb
In Memoriam: Keith Horsfield (1933-2013)
Bill Shannon (pp. 1-4)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

In Memoriam: Bruce Copley Jones (1925-2013).
Jim Grisenthwaite (pp. 5-8)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

The Excavation and Analysis of a Burnt Mound, Drigg, Cumbria .
F. Brown, G. Cook, D. Druce, E. Huckerby, P. Marshall, M. Rutherford and D. Smith (pp. 9-38)
Abstract

Abstract

The Excavation and Analysis of a Burnt Mound, Drigg, Cumbria .
F. Brown, G. Cook, D. Druce, E. Huckerby, P. Marshall, M. Rutherford and D. Smith (pp. 9-38)

A burnt mound, eroding out of a cliff face at Drigg, West Cumbria, was subjected to a programme of archaeological excavation, funded by English Heritage. This identified well-preserved organic deposits, in association with the mound, containing beetles, pollen, charred plant remains, waterlogged wood and other plant remains. English Heritage subsequently commissioned a full programme of analysis, including a detailed study of the palaeoenvironmental remains within their stratigraphic context and an extensive programme of radiocarbon dating. This enabled the mound to be confidently dated to the early part of the Early Bronze Age and enabled a reconstruction of its environmental context and how this changed over time, possibly partly due to human agency.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

The Roman road between Low Borrowbridge and Kirkby Thore .
Hugh Toller (pp. 39-62)
Abstract

Abstract

The Roman road between Low Borrowbridge and Kirkby Thore .
Hugh Toller (pp. 39-62)

Evidence from Lidar imagery and fieldwork has revised the course of the Roman road northwards from the Roman fort at Low Borrowbridge (Margary 7d). It has been found to run to Kirkby Thore. This confirms what was thought prior to 1920 when Percival Ross carried out fieldwork on the road. He failed to find any evidence for the road to Kirkby Thore and therefore concluded that the road must have changed course towards Brougham. The possibility remains that there was a secondary branch road to Brougham at a later date. Beyond Kirkby Thore the road from Low Borrowbridge continues to Whitley Castle and Carvoran (Margary 84) and is known as the Maiden Way. Lidar imagery has provided new evidence for part of the route of this road past Kirkland.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Peter Gate, Cumwhinton: Archaeological investigation of a medieval rural site .
M. Railton, J. Bradley, I. Millar, M. Stoakley, D. Jackson, D. O'Meara and A. Hall (pp. 63-102)
Abstract

Abstract

Peter Gate, Cumwhinton: Archaeological investigation of a medieval rural site .
M. Railton, J. Bradley, I. Millar, M. Stoakley, D. Jackson, D. O'Meara and A. Hall (pp. 63-102)

This paper presents the results of an archaeological investigation undertaken by Wardell Armstrong Archaeology at Peter Gate, Cumwhinton, near Carlisle, Cumbria. The work has revealed significant evidence for pottery manufacture on, or very close to, the site which appears to have been established during the late twelfth century. This is significant as almost no other production sites are known in north Cumbria, especially outside the urban centre of Carlisle and the medieval ceramic traditions as a whole within the rural hinterlands of Carlisle remain poorly understood. One of the other significant outcomes of the excavation was the discovery of a substantial post-medieval corn-drying kiln. Environmental analysis has revealed evidence for medieval and post-medieval cropping activity, corn-field weed ecology and construction methods associated with the corndrying kiln, as well as the final function of the kiln, which was used for milling rather than threshing or brewing.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Loyalty and Tradition, Part II. Networking Among the North-Western Catholic Gentry in England and Abroad, 1640-1720: The Case of the Layburnes .
Alison Wright (pp. 103-124)
Abstract

Abstract

Loyalty and Tradition, Part II. Networking Among the North-Western Catholic Gentry in England and Abroad, 1640-1720: The Case of the Layburnes .
Alison Wright (pp. 103-124)

On 4 November 1664 Lady Anne Clifford, 14th Baroness de Clifford, dowager countess of Somerset (1590-1676), had 'bona fides' or credentials made out for Mr. James Leybourn (d. 1690) issued from Brougham Castle in Westmorland. It was an endorsement possibly destined for a member of the Privy Council. They in turn were to produce a passport allowing Leybourn to return to the province of Champagne in France. It is in the handwriting of her steward Sir Edward Hasell (1642-1717), itemising her full titles, but Lady Anne sealed, signed and dated it. The document alludes to her connection with the Layburne family of Cunswick, near Kendal in Westmorland dating back 300 years when Idonea (d. 1291) and Isabella (1254-1308) de Veteripont, two daughters of the then disgraced Robert, Baron of Westmorland (c.1239-1264) were made wards of Roger de Layburne (1215-1271) and Roger de Clifford (after 1215-1285) respectively. Idonea, the younger of the two daughters, married de Layburne's younger son, Roger de Layburne (1244-1283) and Isabella married Roger de Clifford (1243-1282) the Clifford heir, the brides bringing land in Westmorland to both families.3 Idonea, widowed, died without issue and her considerable estates reverted to her sister Isabella, Lady Anne's forebear, augmenting the Clifford estates in the north of the county.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

A South Westmorland Medieval Holy Well? The Case of St. Gregory's Well, Preston Patrick .
Peter Lucas (pp. 125-138)
Abstract

Abstract

A South Westmorland Medieval Holy Well? The Case of St. Gregory's Well, Preston Patrick .
Peter Lucas (pp. 125-138)

Observant travellers on the M6 near junction 36 are likely to notice St. Patrick's Church, Preston Patrick, some six miles south of Kendal. This mid-Victorian Anglican church, which replaced a chapel built on the same site c.1500 (itself a replacement of an even earlier chapel, each dedicated to St. Gregory), is less than a mile away on the upward slope of St. Gregory's Hill. On a dark night throughout Advent and at other times during the year, the illuminated cross on the church tower may seem to hover even closer to them. The church has been described as 'an excellent example of how churches came to be built on rising ground'. Downwards, and some 200 yards eastwards from where the church now stands, a sealed well is, with the aid of a substantial rusty steel plate, locked in the field wall. This well is named as St. Gregory's Well, situated in St. Gregory's Park, on the Ordnance Survey map surveyed in 1858 and published in 1862. Although there are a number of wells and springs in the locality, no others carry holy or saintly names, and no others are as close to the church. St. Gregory's Well is by the side of an old right of way taking pedestrians across St. Gregory's Hill between the minor road from Gatebeck to School Houses and the Kendal-Kirkby Lonsdale section of the A65 at Crooklands, near the junction with the Milnthorpe-Heversham road. In wet weather the well can be heard gurgling noisily, although it now looks of no consequence whatsoever. To the immediate north of the well is a small, relatively flattish area before the hill climbs quite steeply. Water which would have surfaced at the well was apparently diverted last century. It emerges at a small roadside trough opposite some 80 yards away to the south across a field.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

The William Banck and Christopher Woodburne charities for poor apprentices of Kendal; their origins, management, beneficiaries and problems .
Blake Tyson (pp. 139-160)
Abstract

Abstract

The William Banck and Christopher Woodburne charities for poor apprentices of Kendal; their origins, management, beneficiaries and problems .
Blake Tyson (pp. 139-160)

This article explores evidence for two charities set up to help poor boys to enter apprenticeships in Kendal. They will be studied separately with regard to origin, benefactor, funding, problems and recipients because, although the benefactors had similar intentions, the management, problems and success of each charity differed greatly. This will be revealed most clearly by studying these aspects for the Banck charity first, especially since it has not previously been studied, and then Woodburne's charity: so that the separation will make the differences more apparent. Banck's charity will be studied in three parts, the first covering many issues and it will include details of the personal background and circumstances of an impoverished widow, whose difficulties caused reductions in grants. The next part will list all known recipients of the charity. The third part will study the boys known to have used their skills to take on apprentices of their own. In some cases this developed into what may be termed 'trade pedigrees' of up to three generations of apprentices. To achieve this, parish registers and genealogy are vital components, for they and the continuity of business ownership have a dependency akin to nature's symbiosis, especially if human aspects of apprenticeship are to be adequately revealed and communicated. This innovation will be followed by studying Woodburne's charity because, not only had he benefited as a Banck charity boy and then taken several apprentices, but his will sought to set up a charity similar to that of his benefactor. Woodburnes's charity and its problems were the subject of a complex report of the Charity Commissioners in the 1820s, a century after his death. As Woodburne was perhaps the most successful of known Banck pprentices, his background will be examined, followed by a summary of the report, so that the first four aspects at the head of this paragraph can be revealed. The author's research adds more detail, including a 'trustee pedigree' to clarify a succession of men responsible for managing the charity, some of whom put their interests before those of the charity, thus spoiling Woodburne's apprenticeship intentions.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Frizington Fraud: William Wood's patent iron process .
Peter King (pp. 161-186)
Abstract

Abstract

Frizington Fraud: William Wood's patent iron process .
Peter King (pp. 161-186)

At one level, this article is about a failed metallurgical process, in which William Wood and his sons tried to make iron in reverberatory (or air) furnaces, mainly at Frizington near Whitehaven. At another, it is about apparent corruption at the highest governmental levels, including Sir Robert Walpole. It is also about speculation in company shares in a completely unregulated stock exchange. In this period there were comparatively few joint stock companies, and some of them were being used for purposes remote from those for which they were founded. Many of the events that need to be recounted to provide the background for the story told here concern high finance in London and ironmaking in Shropshire. However, the core of this article concerns an unsuccessful ironmaking project at Frizington some miles inland from Whitehaven. If the hopes of William Wood and the other projectors had been fully realised they would have revolutionised the iron trade. As it turned out their process did not make good iron and their efforts to finance it became fraudulent. Nevertheless, William Wood's sons John and Charles went on to develop potting and stamping which was important at the start of the Industrial Revolution.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

James Dowker's Daughters: Benefactors of Kendal .
Jennifer S. Holt (pp. 187-206)
Abstract

Abstract

James Dowker's Daughters: Benefactors of Kendal .
Jennifer S. Holt (pp. 187-206)

James Dowker of Kendal, attorney, was a significant figure in eighteenth-century Westmorland and his daughters made a substantial contribution to Kendal society but their importance for the town has not been noticed. In part, this is because the connection between Dorothy Dowker, her father and her sisters, Elizabeth (Carus), Jane (Harrison) and Thomasin (Richardson) has not previously been recognised. However, the main reason for their absence from histories of Kendal or Westmorland is that, despite the number of children born to James Dowker and his wife, there were no grandchildren; Such chances may befall any family but that seems a poor reason to forget those who gave generously to their native town.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Lord William Gordon and the picturesque occupation of Derwentwater in the 1780s .
Derek Denman (pp. 207-230)
Abstract

Abstract

Lord William Gordon and the picturesque occupation of Derwentwater in the 1780s .
Derek Denman (pp. 207-230)

Lord William Gordon (1744-1823) purchased most of the farm tenements on the western shore of Derwentwater in the 1780s, combining them into a picturesque lakeshore park with a pavilion-style building at Water End. This historical study considers the relationship between the biography of Gordon and the changing expectations of property owners on Derwentwater, as the lake scenery became celebrated for its picturesque aesthetics. It is argued that Gordon's purposes in choosing Derwentwater for his country estate probably included a wish to enhance his reputation and perceived taste through this highly-visible intervention, including an ambition to create an overall scheme of management for Derwentwater and its environs, consistent with the earlier ideas of William Gilpin.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Farm diversification in mid-Victorian Cumbria: the daybook of William and John Barrow of Coniston 1847-59 .
Harriet Harris (pp. 231-250)
Abstract

Abstract

Farm diversification in mid-Victorian Cumbria: the daybook of William and John Barrow of Coniston 1847-59 .
Harriet Harris (pp. 231-250)

William Barrow was a yeoman farmer at Outrake in Church Coniston, Furness, in the mid-nineteenth century. This study describes and analyses the contents of a daybook that recorded income-generating activities that the Barrow family engaged in, other than the working of their own farm. The daybook begins in 1847 and William's younger son John continued to record transactions until 1859. The daybook provides an unusually detailed record of a range of activities, most of which were dependent on the availability of a horse, cart and spare manpower: the last very likely John himself. For analysis, 543 daybook entries were transcribed into a Word Excel spreadsheet. This has enabled activities, customers, income and the changes with time to be described quantitatively. Comparisons with alternative contemporary information are made where possible to evaluate the relevance of the Barrows' business as a general model for farm diversification in mid-nineteenth century Cumbria.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Rooms with a view: The Low Wood Hotel, Windermere, c.1700-1914 .
Terry Marsh (pp. 251-274)
Abstract

Abstract

Rooms with a view: The Low Wood Hotel, Windermere, c.1700-1914 .
Terry Marsh (pp. 251-274)

The evolution of tourist accommodation in all its forms, and an in-depth analysis of the various stages of that progression, has only recently been the subject of academic study. The aim of this article is to single out one of the oldest 'hotels' in Cumbria, the Low Wood, and to use its history to demonstrate an evolutionary trend that to varying degrees was replicated among other Lakeland inns of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century date. Some, like the Low Wood, arose from the simplest origins, but at each stage - from serving the packhorse trade, through improvement in road conditions, the development of coaching services, the arrival of the railways and, later, the motor car - the Low Wood responded positively to change and the increase in the number of tourists.

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

NOTES
Various. (pp. 275-315)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

An irregular Roman nummus from Temple Sowerby.
Nicholas Ford (pp. 275-279)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Two Roman epigraphic fragments from Old Carlisle.
Stuart Noon and David Shotter (pp. 279-285)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Penannular Brooches from the northern granary at Birdoswald: A reappraisal.
Rob Collins (pp. 286-291)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

The Dacre Inheritance in Cumbria (1569-1601).
R.A.A. Brockington (pp. 291-298)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Two Denton Families, of Warnell in Cumberland and Hillesden in Buckinghamshire.
Mary Wane (pp. 298-303)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Elizabethan Catholic recusancy and state surveillance: an incident in Cumberland.
Hugh Vaux (pp. 303-306)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Some observations on limekilns in east Cumberland.
Graham Brooks (pp. 307-309)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

When and how did Appleby Fair begin?
Andrew Connell (pp. 309-311)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

Higher Education in Cumbria and the University of Lancaster.
Marion McClintock (pp. 311-315)

**Full article available July 1, 2024.**

List of Publications and Completed Theses on Cumberland and Westmorland 2013
Anon. (pp. 316)
PDF 703 Kb
General Index
Anon. (pp. 317-333)
PDF 814 Kb