Lower Lugg Valley, Herefordshire

Herefordshire Archaeology, 2007 (updated 2009)

Data copyright © Herefordshire Archaeology unless otherwise stated


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Ian Bapty
Senior Projects Archaeologist
Herefordshire Archaeology
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PO BOX 144
Hereford
HR1 2YH
UK
Tel: 01432 260470

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Resource identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are persistent identifiers which can be used to consistently and accurately reference digital objects and/or content. The DOIs provide a way for the ADS resources to be cited in a similar fashion to traditional scholarly materials. More information on DOIs at the ADS can be found on our help page.

Citing this DOI

The updated Crossref DOI Display guidelines recommend that DOIs should be displayed in the following format:

https://doi.org/10.5284/1000326
Sample Citation for this DOI

Herefordshire Archaeology (2009) Lower Lugg Valley, Herefordshire [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1000326

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Overview

The 14 km long Lower Lugg river valley is located in central Herefordshire, and extends to the north and east of Hereford city. The valley, with its broad river flood plain, gently undulating surrounding landscape, and good agricultural land, has long been a focus of human settlement. In addition, the Lower Lugg corridor has an established strategic importance as part of the main north/south transport corridor through the Marches geographical zone. The area is also underlain by extensive reserves of sand and gravel which are of local and regional economic significance.

The Lower Lugg Valley ALSF project is divided into two distinct stages, outlined below.

Lower Lugg Archaeology and Aggregates Project: Stage 1 - Resource Assessment

The Lower Lugg Archaeology and Aggregates Resource Assessment set out an archaeological resource assessment for the Lower Lugg Valley, Herefordshire. The assessment includes specific consideration of the process of past and present sand and gravel quarrying in the Lower Lugg Valley, and the future threat this poses to the archaeology of the area. The assessment concludes by defining a research framework for future archaeological investigation in the Lower Lugg area.

In addition to the preparation of the assessment itself, the project also involved the collation and preparation of a GIS database combining archaeological, geological, geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental information relating to the Lower Lugg Valley. The GIS database was used to facilitate the assessment, and to create a practical tool to assist future archaeological management and research activity in the Lower Lugg locality.

The assessment was managed and executed for English Heritage by Herefordshire Archaeology (the archaeology service of Herefordshire Council) with funding from the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund as administered by English Heritage for the historic environment (in accordance with English Heritage ALSF Project Design PN 3336).

The work was undertaken between April 2006 and February 2007 by a project team including Herefordshire Archaeology (Dr Keith Ray MBE, FSA, MIFA and Ian Bapty), Worcestershire County Council Historic Environment and Archaeology Service (Robin Jackson MIFA), The Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth (Dr Eric Johnstone and Dr Paul Brewer) and Air Photo Services (Chris Cox). Each of these organisations was responsible for particular components of the collation, analysis and report preparation work. The process of integrating those different elements within the final assessment was achieved by a series of project team meetings at key stages of the project.

Lower Lugg Archaeology and Aggregates Project: Stage 2

The 2007/8 ALSF Stage 2 Lower Lugg Archaeology and Aggregates Project has taken forward the key recommendations of the Stage 1 Assessment in two ways. Firstly, the Stage 1 results have been publicised via an outreach programme including four local 'roadshow' events, and the preparation of leaflet, booklet and website resources. Secondly, specialist research has addressed key identified fieldwork/management problems associated with the deep burial of archaeological deposits within the Lower Lugg floodplain. This technical assessment work had the specific objective of enabling better informed archaeological input to the future minerals planning process in the Lower Lugg Valley.

The project was designed, managed and delivered by Herefordshire Archaeology (Ian Bapty and Natalie Preece), with partner involvement from Waterman CPM (Chris Cox) and the Worcestershire Historic Environment and Archaeology Service (Robin Jackson). The project was undertaken between September 2007 and March 2008.

The digital archive

The digital archive as held by the ADS currently consists of the following resources:

Resource Assessment: Project Report

  • Bapty, I. 2007: Lower Lugg Archaeology And Aggregates Resource Assessment. Herefordshire Archaeology Report 226. Prepared for English Heritage with funding from the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund as administered by English Heritage for the historic environment (in accordance with English Heritage ALSF Project Design PN 3336). With contributions from Robin Jackson (Worcestershire Historic Environment and Archaeology Service), Chris Cox (Air Photo Services) and Dr Eric Johnstone (University of Wales, Aberystwyth)

The Resource Assessment consists of three volumes:

  • Volume 1 contains: Section 1 - Introduction, Section 2 - Aggregate Extraction Context and Section 3 - Geological, Geomorphological and Palaeoenvironmental Resource.
  • Volume 2 contains: Section 4 - Archaeological Resource.
  • Volume 3 contains: Section 5 - Conclusions, Section 6 - Bibliography, Section 7 - Supporting Information.

This document sets out an archaeological resource assessment for the Lower Lugg Valley, Herefordshire. The assessment includes specific consideration of the process of past and present sand and gravel quarrying in the Lower Lugg Valley, and the future threat this poses to the archaeology of the area. The assessment concludes by defining a research framework for future archaeological investigation in the Lower Lugg area.

AP analysis

The Aerial Photographic analysis was undertaken by Christine Cox of Waterman CPM. National Mapping programme (EH NMP) drawing conventions were used as appropriate throughout the mapping, and all interpretations of new and additional sites were recorded to a database for accession to the Herefordshire SMR GIS and the project GIS. For a detailed discussion of methodology employed please see Volume 2 (pp143) of the Resource Assessment on the downloads page.

The online archive contains both the database (as a CSV accompanied by documentation) and the original mapping (as a DXF file), available to download here. Within the DXF file the following conventions are used:

LayerConventionComment
BankPolylineStipple used over wider banks
DitchPolylineSolid fill over wider ditches
Modern-boundariesPolylinePost enclosure boundaries, now removed
Non-archaeolPolylineRarely used - features which may be mistakenly identified as archaeological
PalaeochannelsPolylineFormer streams or river channels
Possible-archaeolPolylineFeatures which may be archaeological, but interpretation is inconclusive
QuarryPolygonVisible area of former small-scale quarrying
RF-NMPPolygonSecond layer to use NMP convention for RF
Ridge-furrowPolylineDetailed depiction of ridge and furrow
Site-numbersTextNumbers assigned by the AP project
Site polygonsPolygonClosed polygons to define visible area of each site
Study areaPolygonSinuous line defining the entire Study Area
Water managementPolylinePost-Medieval and modern water meadows and drains

Project GIS

The project GIS was the result of the collation of archaeological, geological, geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental information relating to the Lower Lugg Valley. The GIS database was intended to facilitate the preliminary analysis of the identified resource which is presented in the report, and to create a practical tool to assist future archaeological management and research activity in the Lower Lugg locality. For a more detailed overview of how the GIS was constructed please see the methodology statements in Volume 1 of the Resource Assessment.

The original project GIS included baseline and landscape layers (such as OS Land-line data and LiDAR coverage) obtained under a third party copyright agreement, and as such is not included within the ADS archive. Users wishing to consult the original GIS should contact the the depositor. The online GIS archive is accompanied by file level documentation containing details of projections, attributes and full layer description. A shortened version is provided below:

Layer TypeFile NameFile TypeDescription
ALSFSTUDY_AREA_regionPolygonProject study area
BGS boreholesBgs_boreholesPointBorehole data from BGS archives
Geomorphological MappingValleyEdgeALSFPolygonValley edge
 TerraceFrontALSFPolygonGravel terrace edge
 PalaeochannelALSFPolygonPalaeochannels
 PondALSFPolygonPond
 AlluvialFanALSFPolygonAlluvial fan edge
 AlluvialFanArrowsALSFPolygonAlluvial fan arrows
 IndustrialAreaPolygonIndustrial area
 UrbanAreaALSFPolygonUrban area
 TownsPolygonSettlements (small)
 LeveeALSFPolygonLevee
 RiverChannelALSFPolygonRiver channel (mapped from OS land-lines)
 WaterFeatureNoRiverChannelALSFPolygonWater features (mapped from OS land-lines)
Quarry data2007CurrentQuarries_regionPolygonWorking quarries as of 2007
 Post1982DefunctQuarries_regionPolygonPost 1982 defunct quarries
 Post1982FailedQuarries_regionPolygonPost 1982 failed quarries
 Pre1982Quarries_regionPolygonPre 1982 quarries
 Pre20thCenturyQuarries_regionPolygonPre 20th Century quarries
 TitheMapQuarries2_regionPolygonQuarries mapped from ?? Tithe map
Archaeology AP AnalysisBANK_polylinePolygonAP mapping: bank
 DITCH_polylinePolygonAP mapping: ditch
 FILLS_polylinePolygonAP mapping: fills
 MODERN_BOUNDARIES_polylinePolygonAP mapping: Modern boundaries
 NON_ARCHAEOL_polylinePolygonAP mapping: Non archaeological lines
 PALAEOCHANNELS_polylinePolygonAP mapping: palaeochannels
 POSSIBLE_ARCHAEOL_pointPointAP mapping: possible archaeology (point)
 POSSIBLE_ARCHAEOL_polylinePolygonAP mapping: possible archaeology (line)
 QUARRY_polylinePolygonAP mapping: Quarries
 RF_NMP_polylinePolygonAP mapping: Ridge and Furrow (following National Mapping Programme convention)
 RIDGE_FURROW_polylinePolygonAP mapping: Ridge and Furrow
 SITE_POLYGONS_polylinePolygonAP mapping: Archaeological site boundaries
 lowerluggapsiteinfoallPointSite information exported from AP database
 WATER_MANAGEMENT_polylinePolygonAP mapping: Water management features
Site and Monument Record (SMR)ALSF_Lugg_sites_from_SMR_monumentGISPolygonUnfiltered SMR
 ALSF_Lugg_sites_from_SMR_pointPointFiltered SMR

Stage 2: Project Report

  • Bapty, I. 2008: Lower Lugg Floodplain Archaeological Mitigation Review. Herefordshire Archaeology Report 243. Prepared for English Heritage with funding from the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund as administered by English Heritage for the historic environment (in accordance with English Heritage ALSF Project Design PN 3336). With contributions from Robin Jackson (Worcestershire Historic Environment and Archaeology Service)

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