The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain: an online resource

Martyn Allen, Nathan Blick, Tom Brindle, Tim Evans, Michael Fulford, Neil Holbrook, Julian D Richards, Alex Smith, 2015 (updated 2016)

Data copyright © University of Reading unless otherwise stated


Leverhulme Trust logo
Historic England logo

Primary contact

Prof Michael Fulford
Professor of Archaeology
School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science
University of Reading
Whiteknights
PO Box 218
Reading
RG6 6AA
England
Tel: 0118 9318131
Fax: 0118 9316718

Send e-mail enquiry

Resource identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are persistent identifiers which can be used to consistently and accurately reference digital objects and/or content. The DOIs provide a way for the ADS resources to be cited in a similar fashion to traditional scholarly materials. More information on DOIs at the ADS can be found on our help page.

Citing this DOI

The updated Crossref DOI Display guidelines recommend that DOIs should be displayed in the following format:

https://doi.org/10.5284/1030449
Sample Citation for this DOI

Martyn Allen, Nathan Blick, Tom Brindle, Tim Evans, Michael Fulford, Neil Holbrook, Julian D Richards, Alex Smith (2016) The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain: an online resource [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1030449

University of Reading logo
Cotswold Archaeology logo

No. 42 London Road, Bagshot (Surrey)


The map above shows the site in its geographical and thematic context, to view all other sites from the database in this view select 'All sites' from the list of layers.

Unpublished Sources

Cole, G.H. (1996) An Introductory note to Archaeological research excavations at No. 42 London Road, Bagshot, Surrey. Bagshot: Surrey Heath Archaeological and Heritage Trust https://doi.org/10.5284/1027439


Database ID 10054
Site Type (Major) Industry, Religious ritual and funerary
Site Type (Minor) other metal production, funerary site
Region South
County Surrey
Summary Excavation at London Road in Bagshot village revealed evidence for multiperiod activity. The site is situated next to the Windle Brook in a low-lying area. The character of the settlement, which ranged from the late Iron Age to the early post-Roman period in date, was difficult to discern in the limited area of excavation. Activity emerged in the late Iron Age, after a hiatus, in the form of considerable of iron-working evidence including iron slag, oven and furnace linings and lesser quantities of bronze working slag, together with small assemblages of Later Iron Age pottery. No evidence for structures or rubbish pits could be related to this period. The early Roman activity appears to continue from the late Iron Age, though a new double ring ditch enclosure seems to have been constructed on the site, as evidenced by the excavation of its entrance. 1stC AD Alice Holt wares positively dated the construction of the feature, which also became a burial site with two 1stC AD cremations inserted in and around the enclosure. Timber-post, gravel-floored structures were built and utilised across the 2nd/3rdC AD, indicating continued occupation. The site became susceptible to flooding in the early 4thC AD, though during the late 4th-early 5thC AD the area was again used as a burial ground. Two inhumations were found to align on approximate east to west orientations and, though no human bone had survived, grave goods were recovered including a Chi-Rho-inscribed finger ring. One of the burials also appeared to be covered by a small superstructure indicated by four surrounding postholes. It is possible that the continued burial at the ring ditch enclosure signified its ritual importance, possibly as a shrine, though this is not intimated by the excavators.
Organisation Surrey Heath Archaeological and Heritage Trust
Area of investigation (ha) 0.043
Easting 491200
Northing 163450
Start Date -100
End Date 450
Rural settlement form unclassified
Number of circular buildings 0
Number of rectangular buildings 2
Paddocks No evidence
Multi-room building No evidence
Aisled building No evidence
Masonry building No evidence
Trackway/Road No evidence
Structured deposits No evidence
Burial data
Burials summary Four burials were recovered from the site, though two cremations were 1stC AD and two inhumations appeared to be late 4th/early 5thC AD. Both inhumations included evidence of timber-lining and grave goods included fossils, hones and one with a jet Chi-Rho-inscripted finger ring. It must be noted here that, although the report uncritically proposed the features to have been graves, the fact that no human remains were recovered possibly indicates that these may have been shrines rather than burials. The features certainly respect the 1stC AD ring ditch enclosure and suggest continued ritual activity.
Burials start date 50
Burials end date 450
Number of burials 4
Cremations 2
Inhumations 2
Adult 2
Burials with grave goods 3
Cremation urns Present
Disarticulated bone Not present or no data
Animal bone Not present or no data
Associated settlement Not present or no data
Associated enclosure Present
Grave goods Present
Brooch data
Brooch summary No data - interim report
Coins data
Coin summary No data - interim report
Other finds data
Finds summary The finger ring was made of jet and inscribed with a Chi-Rho symbol.
Finger rings 1
Jet objects 1
Iron slag Present
Hobnails Not present or no data
Evidence for salt production Not present or no data
Evidence for bone-working Not present or no data
Evidence for metalworking Present
Structural worked stone Not present or no data
Painted plaster Not present or no data
Window glass Not present or no data
Tesselated floor/mosaic Not present or no data
Tiled roof Not present or no data
Briquetage Not present or no data
Inscriptions Not present or no data
Hypocaust Not present or no data
Evidence for Christianity Present
Pottery data
Pottery summary No data - though Alice Holt wares were recovered from both early and late Roman features.
Religious vessels Not present or no data
Pottery wasters Not present or no data
Graffito Not present or no data
Amphora presence Not present or no data
Mortarium presence Not present or no data
Samian presence Not present or no data
Plant data
Summary No data
Zooarchaeological data
The data below is divided into an overarching record for the whole site and, if recorded, separate records for individual phases.
Summary Fossils are noted to have been placed in the late/post-Roman graves (shrine deposits), though no details are given on these in the report.
End date 450
Fish No
Egg shell No
Assemblage sieved? No
ABGs in NISP No
Marine shell No
Overall
Start date 350
Faunal Ageing data
The data below is divided into an overarching record for the whole site and, if recorded, separate records for individual phases. Concordance with existing published ageing criteria is provided in the tables below

Cattle

Age category Grant stage Halstead stage Maltby stage
Neonate 0-2 A 1
Juvenile 3-16 B-C 2-3
Subadult 17-37 D-E 4-5
Young adult 38-42 F 6
Adult >43 G 7
Elderly >43 H-I 7

Sheep/Goat

Age category Grant stage Payne stage Payne stage Maltby stage
Neonate 0-1 A 0-2 months 1
Juvenile 2-17 B-C 2-12 months 2-3
Immature 18-28 D 1-2 years 4
Subadult 28-39 E-F 2-4 years 5-6
Adult >40 G 4-6 years 7
Elderly >40 H-I 6-10 years 7

Pig

Age category Grant stage Hambleton stage Maltby stage O'Connor stage
Neonate 0-1 A 1
Juvenile 2-14 B-C 2-3 juvenile
Immature 15-25 D-E 4-5 immature
Subadult 26-35 F 6 subadult
Adult 36-41 G 7 adult
Elderly >42 H-I 8 elderly
Summary No data
Evidence of neonatal (unknown) bones No
Evidence of neonatal horse bones No
Evidence of neonatal domestic fowl No
Evidence of neonatal sheep/goat bones No
Phase - Overall
Evidence of neonatal cattle bones No
Evidence of neonatal pig bones No
Site plans (unpublished sources):
Thumbnail of 10054_1
10054_1
Image from: Surrey Heath Archaeological and Heritage Trust 1996 An Introductory note to Archaeological research excavations at No. 42 London Road, Bagshot, Surrey 10.5284/1027439
[DOWNLOAD] right-click and save link

Related Sources

The identifiers displayed below have been collated by the project from project reports, HER records provided by those organisations at the beginning of the data collection phase of the project, and the OASIS system. These are intended to provide users with additional avenues of enquiry about this record as held in/by the named organisations, as well as provide a level of concordance with existing systems. Where possible, hyperlinks to these online records have been provided. It should be noted that collation of identifiers is not authoratative, and that gaps undoubtedly exist. For more information about sites in a particular area, including those not included in this academic synthesis, users are encouraged to consult the relevant HER record, of which the following resources and lists for England and Wales are available.

HER Monument ID: SHHER_4344 (Surrey)