n.a., (2003). The origins of settlements at Kelso and Peebles, Scottish Borders archaeological excavations in Wester and Easter Kelso and Cuddyside/Bridgegate, Peebles by the Border Burghs Archaeology Project and the Scottish Urban Archaeological Trust, 1983--1994. In: n.e., The origins of settlements at Kelso and Peebles, Scottish Borders archaeological excavations in Wester and Easter Kelso and Cuddyside/Bridgegate, Peebles by the Border Burghs Archaeology Project and the Scottish Urban Archaeological Trust, 1983--1994. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

Title
Title
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Title:
The origins of settlements at Kelso and Peebles, Scottish Borders archaeological excavations in Wester and Easter Kelso and Cuddyside/Bridgegate, Peebles by the Border Burghs Archaeology Project and the Scottish Urban Archaeological Trust, 1983--1994
Issue
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Issue:
The origins of settlements at Kelso and Peebles, Scottish Borders archaeological excavations in Wester and Easter Kelso and Cuddyside/Bridgegate, Peebles by the Border Burghs Archaeology Project and the Scottish Urban Archaeological Trust, 1983--1994
Series
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Series:
Scottish Archaeological Internet Reports
Volume
Volume
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Volume:
2
Pages
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Number of Pages:
168
Downloads
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Downloads:
sair2.pdf (6 MB) : Download
DOI
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DOI
Publication Type
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Publication Type:
MonographSeriesChapter
Abstract
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Abstract:
This is a report on archaeological work in two of Scotland's less well-known medieval burghs -- Kelso and Peebles. The excavations at Wester Kelso/Floors Castle established that the original medieval burgh of Kelso or Wester Kelso was much further west than previously believed, being situated well inside the present Castle policies. That early settlement at Wester Kelso appears to have been abandoned in the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries, at the same time that the royal burgh of Roxburgh was deserted, probably as a result of the English occupation of Roxburgh Castle. The other settlement of Easter Kelso, near the abbey, survived and expanded northwards from the abbey along Roxburgh Street. The finding of a possible building terrace in Phase 1 at 13--19 Roxburgh Street indicates that settlement along the southern end of that street could date to as early as the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries. Combining the archaeological, cartographic and documentary evidence, it seems clear that 'Easter' Kelso, now Kelso, had expanded from the market area around the abbey northwards towards the Floors estate by the early-eighteenth century. The excavations in Peebles have provided important information on the origins of the settlement of the peninsula ridge between the Tweed and Eddleston Water. The results obtained from the excavations at the two sites in Peebles indicate that settlement of the ridge began in the twelfth century, soon after the establishment of the royal castle and burgh by David I (1124--53). At both sites, after initial dumping of rubbish, possibly to raise the ground level to counter flooding, occupation, in the form of stone structures, can be dated to the fourteenth century at the latest, with probable earlier dumping of domestic refuse in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The street of Bridgegate was apparently laid out in the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries when the excavated site was divided into three properties aligned on that street, two of which had stone buildings erected on them. Alternatively, Bridgegate may have been the initial focus of settlement on the east side of the Eddleston, providing the access route from the east into Old Town, where a pilgrimage centre had been established at the Cross Kirk in 1261, and the location of the tolbooth (Bridgegate Building 4) in it suggests that this street was originally more important than High Street. It is noteworthy that all eight medieval buildings excavated at the two Peebles sites were of stone construction. Peebles tolbooth, the civic centre of the burgh, is the only medieval tolbooth site in Scotland to have been excavated. The medieval pottery imports recovered at Wester Kelso show that the burgh's origins date to the twelfth century, soon after the transfer of the Tironensian abbey from Selkirk to Kelso. The pottery finds also suggest that Wester Kelso was deserted in the fourteenth century or soon after. At Peebles Bridgegate, the presence of similar material, although residual, hints that occupation on the south and east side of the Eddleston Water could also have begun as early. The results of the excavations have shown that in both Kelso and Peebles much archaeological information can be retrieved on their medieval and post-medieval origins and growth, even in areas of the burghs previously thought to have little significance. All specialist reports can be accessed via the report contents section at: http://www.sair.org.uk/sair2/index.html (the following page numbers refer to the Adobe Acrobat .pdf document available online):
Other Person/Org
Other Person/Org
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Other Person/Org:
Colin R W Wallace (Abstract author)
Year of Publication
Year of Publication
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Year of Publication:
2003
ISBN
ISBN
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ISBN:
0 903903 71 7
Locations
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Subjects / Periods:
Temporal - Auto Detected: 1319
Temporal - Auto Detected: Fourteenth Centuries
Subject - Auto Detected: Flooding
Subject - Auto Detected: Tironensian Abbey
Subject - Auto Detected: Settlement
Temporal - Auto Detected: Fourteenth Century
Temporal - Auto Detected: Medieval
Temporal - Auto Detected: Thirteenth Centuries
Temporal - Auto Detected: Thirteenth
Temporal - Auto Detected: 1261
Subject - Auto Detected: Pottery
Temporal - Auto Detected: Twelfth Century
Subject - Auto Detected: Abbey
Subject - Auto Detected: Postmedieval Origins
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Source
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DigitalBorn
Created Date
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Created Date:
19 Jan 2009