M. J Jones, ed., (1999). The defences of the lower city:. York: Council for British Archaeology.

Title
Title
The title of the publication or report
Title:
The defences of the lower city:
Subtitle
Subtitle
The sub title of the publication or report
Subtitle:
excavations at The Park and West Parade 1970--2 and a discussion of other sites excavated up to 1994
Series
Series
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Series:
Council for British Archaeology Research Reports
Volume
Volume
Volume number and part
Volume:
114
Pages
Pages
The number of pages in the publication or report
Number of Pages:
304
Downloads
Downloads
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Downloads:
RR114.pdf (12 MB) : Download
DOI
DOI
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DOI
Publication Type
Publication Type
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Publication Type:
Monograph Chapter (in Series)
Abstract
Abstract
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Abstract:
Volume concerned principally with two large scale excavations which took place on the line of the western defences of the lower walled Roman city. The discoveries are set into the context of other evidence that has emerged for the lower circuit. Timber structures from the early second century predated the construction of the defences. The earliest fortifications, consisting of a wall, sand and clay rampart and contemporary ditch, were being built towards the end of the second century and the rampart was subsequently extended and interval towers added. Major refurbishment took place during the fourth century. Reoccupation of an urban nature did not occur in this area before the eleventh century, with the remains of yards to the rear of properties further east being found. Finds include an important assemblage of Roman pottery, plus medieval pottery groups, animal bones and other medieval material. A critical study is included of both earlier and more recent discoveries of remains of the lower defences, while the sequence and its significance are discussed in detail. A synthesis of the evidence for the Roman defensive system is put forward, to compare with both the upper circuit and with other sites. The medieval evidence is set against documentary sources. Includes French and German summaries; contributions include
Author
Author
The authors of this publication or report
Author:
Christina Colyer
Brian J J Gilmour
Michael J Jones
Editor
Editor
The editor of the publication or report
Editor:
Michael J Jones
Issue Editor
Issue Editor
The editor of the volume or issue
Issue Editor:
Michael J Jones
Publisher
Publisher
The publisher of the publication or report
Publisher:
Council for British Archaeology
Year of Publication
Year of Publication
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Year of Publication:
1999
ISBN
ISBN
International Standard Book Number
ISBN:
1 872414 88 5
Figure/Plate/Table/Ref
Figure/Plate/Table/Ref
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Figure/Plate/Table/Ref:
Figure:    Plate:    Table:    Ref:
Note
Note
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Note:
Is Portmanteau: 1 Editorial Expansion: Archaeology of Lincoln Vol VII--2
Source
Source
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Source:
The British & Irish Archaeological Bibliography (BIAB)
Related resources
Related resources
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Relations:
URL: http://new.archaeologyuk.org/full-list-of-publications
Created Date
Created Date
The date the record of the pubication was first entered
Created Date:
28 Apr 2005
Chapter Title Sort Order Both Arrows Access Type Author / Editor Page
Start/End Sort Order Up Arrow
Abstract
Michael J Jones
2 - 5
describes work undertaken in 1948--50 and in 1968
Michael J Jones
Christina Colyer
6 - 43
including sections on the gate towers; the road; the metalled berm; the ditch system; the rampart trenches; and the wall and rampart to the south and north of the gate and rampart to the rear of the gate
Michael J Jones
44 - 178
including specialist reports on
Thomas F C Blagg
44 - 50
Graham C Morgan
Michael J Jones
50 - 51
Jennifer E Mann
51 - 52
Marion M Archibald
52
Margaret J Darling
52 - 70
Joanna Bird
70 - 72
Margaret J Darling
72 - 75
Brenda Dickinson
75 - 78
Joanna Bird
79 - 84
Margaret J Darling
84 - 108
Margaret J Darling
108 - 114
Katherine F Hartley
111 - 112
Margaret J Darling
D F Williams
114 - 121
Margaret J Darling
Valery Rigby
121 - 123
including lamp chimney fragments
Valery Rigby
121
Margaret J Darling
123 - 135
Sarah Jennings
Christine Jones
135 - 138
Hilary E M Cool
Jennifer Price
138 - 145
Julian Henderson
145 - 146
Jennifer E Mann
146 - 169
including a Late Neolithic flint; Roman items of copper alloy, iron, lead, bone, jet, shale, stone, ceramic, painted plaster, and a pipeclay figurine fragment; Late Saxon items of copper alloy, lead, and stone; medieval and later items of copper alloy, iron, and stone; and post-medieval items of bone
Sally Scott
169 - 178
Michael J Jones
179 - 181
Brian J J Gilmour
184 - 204
discoveries are described by period
Michael J Jones
205 - 246
including specialist reports on
Graham C Morgan
Michael J Jones
205 - 206
Jennifer E Mann
206
Marion M Archibald
206 - 207
Margaret J Darling
207 - 210
Joanna Bird
209
Brenda Dickinson
210
Jane Young
210 - 222
Hilary E M Cool
Jennifer Price
222 - 223
Julian Henderson
223 - 224
Jennifer E Mann
224 - 236
including Roman items of copper alloy and base silver, iron, antler, bone, and stone; Late Saxon items of copper alloy and base silver, iron, antler, bone, stone, and ceramic; medieval and post-medieval items of copper alloy and base silver, iron, bone, stone, ceramic, and pipeclay
Brian J J Gilmour
236
Sally Scott
236 - 246
Brian J J Gilmour
Michael J Jones
247 - 249
Michael J Jones
251 - 256
brief notes on some nineteen sites where evidence of the lower defences has been discovered
Michael J Jones
257 - 267
brief introduction followed by separate discussions on
Michael J Jones
259 - 262
Brian J J Gilmour
David Roffe
262 - 267