n.a., (1914). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 49. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. https://doi.org/10.5284/1000284.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 49
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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25 Oct 2013
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1 - 17
William J Watson
17 - 32
The forts are circular drystone structures. A description of the sites in the area is accompanied by plans of the surviving remains. The excavation of the fort at Borenich aimed to determine the nature of the structure, the quality of the masonry, whether it possessed chambers, the type of door or doors and to recover datable artefacts. The entrance passage was in two sections, the outer narrow, the inner wider, the division being caused by two door checks, one at each side. The checks\r\nconsisted of fairly heavy flat stones bxiilt in at right angles to the line\r\nof the passage. The wall was ten feet in thickness and of basic construction and there was no evidence of chambers. Three fireplaces were identified. Artefacts included a quern, unidentified iron objects, a bone pin and a spindle whorl.
James Ritchie
33 - 49
The article describes a number of sculptured stones and crosses with a range of early Christian symbols including a double-disc or spectacle ornament with the Z-shaped line crossing it, a fish symbol with a triangle surrounding a central dot and an unusual triangle with a crescent across it. A standing stone at Nether Corskie has a mirror and comb alongside a mirror-case. The crosses are generally weathered with simple incised crosses and have almost all been re-used as building material.
Angus Graham
50 - 55
The dun or fort is a mound with a flat top and sides covered by tumbled stones. It is a rough circle with a maximum diameter of 56 feet. The work done on the fort has consisted of clearing the tumbled stones away from what remains of the walls, and of excavating part of the interior. Very little evidence of the wall construction survives although a thickness of 10 feet is estimated. Two possible floor levels were identified in the interior along with a possible internal wall division. Charcoal, bone, burnt stone and a piece of iron slag were recovered along with two possible strike-a-lights.
Fred T Macleod)
James Ritchie
57 - 70
In contrast with many of the duns in Skye this example is only slight elevated. The interior was completely filled by fallen masonry all of which was removed. The main entrance is flanked by projecting masonry, and guard chambers either side. The diameter is 174 feet and the surviving height of the broch is 29 feet. Artefacts included a necklace of amber beads, a steatite armlet, a quernstone, a whetstone, animal bone, decorated pottery and a lot of iron slag.
A C MacLean
71 - 78
The church is dedicated to the Celtic saint Maelrubha. Of Irish royal lineage, he is said to have been born in AD 642, and to have ultimately reached Applecross about 673 by way of Iona. His Ross-shire churches may therefore have been founded at the end of the seventh century, or at the beginning of the eighth. He is said to have died in 722. The few documentary references to the church are presented along with an architectural account. An elaborate floriated cross survives in the churchyard. A second stone has a fine large wheel-cross head carving. The sacrament house was rediscovered in 1908 and probably dates from the 15th century.
Charles E Whitelaw
79 - 80
The lock is on the snaphaunce principle, that is, the nose of the sear projects through the lock plate and catches over a spur on the back of the doghead; the friction plate and pan-cover are independent pieces, the latter being slid off on the fall of the doghead by the thrust of an arm connected to the tumbler. There is no arrangement for half-cock. The lock plate is of brass incised with foliaceous scrolls and interlaced work, and bears the initials of the maker R.M. This is a fine specimen of this type of the earliest form of Scottish firearm. Dag-makers are to be found on the Hammermen Craft books during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and their work is to be found not only in this country but abroad, the earliest dated example known being a pair in' the Museum at Dresden bearing the date 1598.
Francis C Eeles
81 - 91
The fragments of mediaeval stained glass were found on the top of the vaulting of the south aisle of the nave of Holyrood Abbey Church during repairs to the roof in 1909. They are extremely significant as very little stained glass has survived from mediaeval Scotland. A very brief account of the history and development of mediaeval stained glass is presented and this is followed by a summary of the surviving material in Scotland. At Holyrood there are fragments of glass of two or more of the small lancet windows which at one time existed in the clerestorey on the south side of the nave. One of these windows seems to have belonged to the end of the thirteenth\r\ncentury, another to the beginning of the fourteenth. It is likely that the glass was made in York.
George MacDonald
93 - 138
It has been possible to map out the actual line of the Roman frontier for many miles with very substantial accuracy. While the dimensions of the stone foundation are fairly constant, the ditch varied somewhat in breadth, as also, and to a much greater extent, did its distance from the northern face of the wall. The results of new excavation aimed at targeting gaps in existing knowledge are presented in three sections: Old Kilpatrick to Duntocher, Bamuildy to Cadder and Falkirk to Inveravon. Particular attention is paid to the discovery of a kiln at Mumrills.
Alexander O Curle
139 - 202
An account of excavation of the fortified settlement. The fortifications encircle almost all of the hill measuring nearly half a mile long and 330 yards in diameter and comprise two distinct phases of construction. At least five gateways have been identified. Five trenches were excavated and recovered evidence for multiple phases of occupation. Features in the interior included the foundations for buildings and hearths. The report presents details of the pottery assemblage, personal ornaments, glass vessels, harness mountings, weapons, tools, mould, crucibles and coins.
J G Callander
203 - 206
A hoard consisting of a small penannular brooch of silver, two discs of transparent\r\nblue glass, two discs of variegated vitreous paste of turquoise blue, dull red, and yellow colours, and seven flat, rounded pebbles of reddish-brown quartzite and a baluster-shaped object of clear glass was apparently associated with a group of four undressed stones and "two or three pieces of steel or wrought iron, apparently the remains of some weapons, as well as a number of small bones". A bronze cup and a glass disc or gaming counter are also thought to have been part of the group. A human tooth was found inside the glass cup.
D Hay Fleming
209 - 232
The article presents new information on the architectural development of St Andrew's Cathedral. Discoveries including an early English decorated capital, an effigy of a stonemason and fragments of a Celtic cross-slab are described. Newly discovered features of St Andrew's Castle are also considered.
Alan J B Wace
Professor Jehu
Professor J C Ewart
James Ritchie
233 - 255
The Kinkell Cave near St Andrew's was occupied during the Roman and early Christian periods. Artefacts included boar tusks, many shells, pottery and a slab incised with a human figure and a number of crosses. Constantine's Cave near Fife Ness was occupied at the same time with a comparable range of artefacts, although the whole front of the cave was walled. Crosses and animal figures were incised on the cave wall.
Harry R G Inglis
256 - 274
The article considers early stone bridges from the Roman period, mediaeval wooden bridges, ancient Scottish and Irish bridges, gateways to bridges and the information which can be derived from old illustrations and representations on seals.
David MacRitchie
276 - 285
A series of Cymric numerals, from 1 to 20, is still in use in various districts of Strathclyde at the present day. Evidence proved that this Cymric system of enumeration was regularly used by the shepherds of Yorkshire, Westmorland, and\r\nCumberland, in telling off their sheep by scores, and that it was also in use, in the same region, among old women when counting the stitches of their knitting. The conclusion generally arrived at was that this was the remains of an ancient British speech, substantially the same as modern Welsh, although differing from that form of Cymric in certain details.
Alan Reid
285 - 303
The Dalmeny sarcophagus has animal carvings in bold relief at both ends. On the side there is a line of figures standing under an arcading of Norman style, whose arches and supporting columns were more or less clearly indicated at different points in the\r\nworn sculpture. This is believed to be a representation of Christ and the twelve Apostles, six placed on each side of the central figure of our Lord. The lid of the sarcophagus does not survive. The churchyard also contains a number of elaborate table-stones, a large representation of the symbolic designs common to the Lothians, and a few headstones. In the old churchyard of Edzell parish are a number of finely\r\nornamented tombstones, dating from the eighteenth century, several architectural features of the pre-Reformation church and a sculptured slab. At Lethnot there are two very elaborate table-stones and eight erect stones, all dating from or near to 1750. There are three massive inscribed stones at Stracathro.
James Ritchie
304 - 306
A dressed slab of sandstone, on one face of which was inscribed a simple cross, the arms of the cross standing between a series of symmetrically arranged circles was discovered during grave digging. It is a type which is very rare in Scotland.
W J Hocking
308 - 332
This collection includes a coinage die of the fourteenth century, a medal die of the\r\nsixteenth century, and a considerable number of both coinage and medal dies of the seventeenth century. The collection contains in all 163 matrices, puncheons, and dies which can be divided into those for coins, medals, tradesmen's tokens and sundry small punches.
G Baldwin Baldwin Brown
332 - 338
A west-east aligned long cist constructed from sandstone slabs contained teeth and a dozen glass beads. The possibility that the burial demonstrated Anglian influence is considered and in the main discounted.
Donald Macrae
339 - 340
In 1677 the bell was sent abroad to be mended. The ornamentation, which consists of grapes and vine leaves, is of a kind not uncommon on bells made in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century. When the bell was sent to be recast the original French inscription of 1595 was reproduced (badly) and a second inscription in Dutch was added.
J S Fleming
341 - 342
An artificial islet was revealed during a very dry summer. Waterlogged planks included two with mortice holes and the possible base of a canoe.
343 - 356