J. O'Sullivan, ed., (1999). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 129. Leeds: Maney Publishing.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 129
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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129 (1)
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Journal
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Editor:
Jerry O'Sullivan
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Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
Maney Publishing
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1999
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01 Feb 2001
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Abstract
Stephen Speak
Colin B Burgess
1 - 118
Rescue excavations on an extensive cropmark site at the conference of the Lyne Water and Meldon Burn in the 1970s revealed several episodes of activity. A limited Mesolithic presence is indicated by the stone finds, but more intensive use is attested from the early/mid fourth millennium BC. Widely scattered groups of pits contained Impressed Ware of the local style. Radiocarbon dates chart this activity down to the early/mid third millennium BC, when a massive timber wall, 600m long and up to 4m in height, was constructed to shut off the 8ha promontory fort between Lyne Water and the Meldon Burn. A timber avenue led into the enclosure on the north-west; standing posts and stones and settings of posts and stakes were erected; and cremation burials took place in the interior. No cultural material can certainly be associated with this phase and it probably lasted a century or less. A large stockade within the main enclosure could not be dated with certainty. A disturbed cist burial, yielding a jet pendant, `slug' knife and possible Food Vessel sherds, may have been interred as one of the final acts in this phase. Renewed activity came in the mid/late second millennium when the site was used for an extensive cremation cemetery. This involved erecting rows of posts, some standing in pits containing cremations. There was also a burial in a rough cist, and two cremations deposited in Cordoned Urns. There is no evidence for further activity until the Roman period when the road from Newstead to Castledykes was driven through the site, disturbing some of the prehistoric features. There were Roman forts just to the west at Easter Happrew and Lyne, and large temporary camps at Meldon Bridge itself. One of these partly overlay the prehistoric site, and appeared to have been constructed after the road. Long afterwards an eighteenth-century turnpike road was laid down on top of the old Roman road. At least some of the gravel pits found on both sides of the road were dug in this phase. Specialist contributions are as follows:
46 - 53
53 - 76
76 - 80
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81 - 93
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95
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100 - 101
Andrew Fleming
Mark Edmonds
119 - 159
On the western side of Village Bay, on the island of Hirta in the St Kilda archipelago, there are extensive dolerite quarries for the extraction of stone for production of `flaked stone bars' or hoe-blades, which are closely comparable to similar tools found in Neolithic and BA contexts in the Northern Isles. Broken hoe-blades are widely distributed among the walls and buildings of the village abandoned in 1930. Their use was probably coeval with that of irregular walled field systems in Village Bay and Gleann Mor. A viable community evidently occupied Hirta well before the IA. These findings suggest that current views of the prehistory of Hirta and of the role of agriculture in the island's history should be revised.
156 - 158
John C Barrett
Robert B Gourlay
161 - 187
Between 1980 and 1984 a number of finds of EBA metalwork were recovered via metal-detecting from an area of rough ground at the head of a small disused quarry. This report considers the character of the metalwork and the context in which that material was deposited. It concludes that the entire assemblage could have resulted from more than one period of votive deposition, and that these activities focused upon a prominent, but natural, long mound and occurred in an area which may have been demarcated by other natural points of reference.
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183 - 184
Ciara M Clarke
Jamie E Hamilton
189 - 201
A cist burial containing the fragmentary remains of a (probably) female skeleton, a decorated Northern British/Northern Rhine Beaker, a group of flints, a fragmentary copper awl and some fragments of burnt bone and charcoal, was unearthed by ploughing in 1995. A sample of skeletal bone yielded a radiocarbon date of 2135-1935 cal BC at one sigma. Analysis of the pollen and spore content in an area of stained cist-floor sediment surrounding the skeleton suggested that flowers of Brassicaceae and Filipendula were deliberately deposited in the cist at the time of the inhumation. A series of trial trenches was excavated around the burial to investigate whether any additional archaeological evidence was detectable, but none was found.
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198
Hazel Moore
Graeme Wilson
203 - 237
A group of burnt mounds vulnerable to coastal erosion was surveyed in Spring 1996. Rescue excavation conducted at one of these sites, Tangwick, uncovered a burnt mound in close association with a specialised, non-domestic, structure of BA date. It is concluded that Tangwick represents a distinct site-type, previously little recognised, and it is proposed that such sites may have been used for feasting, possibly on a seasonal basis. More broadly, the results of survey work indicate that burnt mounds in Shetland are not a homogenous class of site and this variety has not been adequately accounted for within the prevailing models.
218 - 225
226 - 227
Jonathan Wordsworth
239 - 249
The position of a circular enclosure identified by aerial photography was located on the ground. Trial trenching revealed that an extensive settlement, dating probably from the LBA to the MIA, lay to the north and east of the palisaded enclosure. Roads along the line of the Inverness southern distributor road, revealed traces of the same settlement and are also discussed in this report. There are two radiocarbon dates from features in Trench III.
Murray Cook
251 - 279
A rescue excavation in a machair blow-out at Sanaigmhor Warren, Islay, recovered two urned cremations, one under a cairn comprised mainly of white quartz, and the other in a cist, associated with an orthostat. The cremations were radiocarbon dated to the IA. The paper sets these finds in their local and regional context, and briefly discusses burial practices in the period concerned. The Sanaigmhor Warren area is discussed in terms of its future archaeological potential.
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271 - 272
Andrew J Dunwell
281 - 302
Recent excavations have confirmed the presence of an Atlantic roundhouse within a large mound at Durcha. The presence of a stone fortress at Durcha had been recorded in the eighteenth century, but following stone robbing in the nineteenth century no clear traces of the structure survived to allow confirmation of its identity. The difficulties of the identification and classification of such structures in Sutherland where little excavation has been carried out are highlighted. There are notes on
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295
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Andrew J Dunwell
303 - 357
A survey and excavations were undertaken in 1996 in response to evidence of rabbit damage to the earthworks. The work has shown that the evolution of the site is considerably more complex than had been recognised. The broch may have been constructed during the lifetime of the settlement. The status and wealth of the site are discussed, and considered in relation to aspects of Roman/native interaction and there are notes on
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343 - 345
Kirsty Cameron
359 - 372
Reports excavations undertaken in 1996/1997 by Edinburgh University Centre for Field Archaeology (CFA). The area had suffered extensive damage from quarrying prior to its recognition as an archaeological site and therefore less than one half of the relevant area remained. The structure was defined by a ring-groove that would have been c 15.5m in diameter; it enclosed three near-concentric rings of post-holes. Charcoal from these features was radiocarbon dated to the first millennium BC. The entranceway to the structure was massively built and, had the structure been roofed, could have formed a porch. Internal features included a large stone-filled pit and a suite of stake-holes located towards the centre of the structure. No artefacts were recovered.
366 - 367
Simon Clarke
Alicia Wise
373 - 391
Excavations in 1996 revealed information about the fort defences, north and west annexe defences, amphitheatre, and first- and second-century AD extramural settlement. This contributes to the debate on the function and status of annexes both at Newstead and in other contemporary Roman forts, and to understanding of Roman interaction with the indigenous population. Proposed identification of a small amphitheatre underlies that status of Newstead as a major military base, but also suggests that arenas were far more common than has generally been recognised, stimulating a search for similar structures at other Roman sites in Scotland.
J Walter Elliot
Martin Henig
393 - 398
This short note brings up-to-date the list of Roman gemstones found by fieldwalkers on the site. A previous paper by the authors listed all the intaglios which were then known from the site, together with a distribution map of their findspots (see 84/526).
Vivien G Swan
399 - 480
The study of utilitarian pottery from the Antonine Wall has distinguished small numbers of locally made vessels with North African affinities at nine or ten forts. Similar vessels at Chester and others made by Legio XX at the Holt works depot, one with a potter's graffito in neo-Punic suggest the presence of North Africans. It is suggested that detachments sent from Britain to Pius' Mauretanian war of AD 146-49 may have brought North Africans back with them to Britain. At the western sector of the Antonine Wall, changes in the legionary work-stints may be linked to troop reductions for the war, as the mural barrier and Bearsden Duntocher fort interiors were still unfinished. After the conflict, Bearsden and Duntocher were each partitioned to make an annexe and their internal buildings re-planned and completed; a programme of annexe construction began at other forts, and secondary alterations were made to many existing fort interiors. All may be connected with changes in units or in the composition of the returning garrisons, now perhaps mixed and augmented with small numbers of North African troops. Possible relevant epigraphic evidence is examined.
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462 - 471
John N Dore
John J Wilkes
481 - 575
Ian Armit
577 - 596
Ross Trench-Jellicoe
597 - 647
Stephen P Carter
649 - 661
Bruce A McAndrew
663 - 752
Heather F James
753 - 777
David Perry
779 - 815
Scott Cooper
817 - 839
Nigel D Melton
841 - 846
David M Bertie
847 - 849
Hugh Cheape
851 - 860
Athol L Murray
861 - 886
Neil Manson Cameron
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