Issue: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 59

Publication Type:
Title: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 59
Year of Publication: 1924
Volume: 59
Number of Pages: 318
DOI: 10.5284/1000284
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Abstract
1 - 18
James Curle
Harry F Tagg
18 - 20
A pointed stone set in a wooden haft of gean or wild cherry was founded embedded in peat. The stone shows no sign of working.
J G Callander
21 - 28
A note on the topography of a variety of monuments including two long cairns, a standing stone, round cairns and hut circles. A short cist discovered at Bruceton contained the fragmented remains of an adult of uncertain sex. Other cists have been discovered in the vicinity over the years.
John M Corrie
29 - 33
This class of artefact comprises small stone implements which are wholly or partially chipped round the edges from one face only. They have been found in a number of locations in Roxburghshire and Berwickshire.
W D Simpson
34 - 71
During the thirteenth century the ancient Culdee settlement at Monymusk was replaced by a priory - sometimes in later records styled an Abbey '” of Augustinian Canons Regular, under the Bishop of St Andrews.The possibility that the settlement was Celtic in origin is suggested by the existence of a sculptured stone at Monymusk. The remains of the priory were plundered in the late 16th century for the construction of the House of Monymusk. The parish church is much altered but retains many Norman features although the question of whether it was the parish church or the church of the priory is unresolved.
William A Gillies
75 - 78
The Old Statistical Account of Kenmore, published in 1796 refers to a number of wells or tiobairts thought to have healing properties. Five were identified by the author. A stone circle on Remony Hill has six stones remaining though originally there were probably nine. Excavation in the centre of the circle revealed a deposit of cremated human bone and charcoal.
William Thomson
79 - 84
The cross-slab sits on a mound at the roadside though it is known to have been moved in recent times. It is decorated with two crosses, interlaced work and a floral boss. Diarmaid's Pillar is a large standing stone close to an irregular circle of stones. The outcrop of rock at Glen Buckie has cup-and-ring markings.
Arthur J H Edwards
85 - 95
Excavation of a round cairn at Ham revealed a single chamber and an entranceway. The presence of only limpet shells and fish bones within the chamber suggested that it had been re-used as a habitation. A stone-built hut circle had an entrance, a paved floor and a possible hearth. Two earth-houses lay side by side and were of broadly similar form with two chambers and an entranceway. Limpet shells were found in both structures. The larger earth-house also contained the skull and mandible of a child, a saddle quern and rubber. A few sherds of pottery were found outside. One of the lintels in the chamber of an earth-house at Crichton Mains has the carved figure of a pegasus or winged horse.
William Douglas
96 - 105
Five documents relating to land conveyancing were found among a number of charters relating to the extinct barony of Cleish. They appear in full translation and comprise a Letter of Reversion dated 1453, two notarial copies of an Instrument of Resignation dated 1499, a gift of Reversion dated 1541 and a crown letter dated 1542.
Thomas C Lethbridge
105 - 108
Gorten Bay is traditionally the site of two battles, one between the Scots and the Scandinavians and one 'later'. A variety of artefacts have been recovered including Viking clinch nails and glass, medieval weapons and a coin of Edward I. Later finds include a coin of Charles II and musket balls and these may hint at a third skirmish.
James S Richardson
113 - 119
A collection of bronze objects, one of which the author recognised as having been illustrated in Dr Joseph Anderson's "Scotland in Pagan Times, Bronze and Stone Ages" was recovered from an antiques shop. The hoard consists of two socketed axes, a curved socketed tool, a gouge, a socketed knife, a penannular armlet, and two fragments of a neck-ring. All these objects belong to the end of the Bronze Age, exhibit the same degree of patination, and have now been identified as the hoard\r\nunearthed from under the corner of a large earth-fast boulder on the farm of Wester Ord, on the Invergordon property, in 1859, where apparently they had been buried wrapped up in cloth. An extended prone burial with a bronze armlet was found in the grounds of Blackness Castle. The north-south aligned grave was lined with small water worn stones and the skeleton was identified as a female aged approximately 30 years.
J G Callander
120 - 127
A quantity of coins, two spoons, and a cane top of silver were discovered in 1923. The spoons are similar in shape and ornamentation. On the back of the stem of both spoons are the Edinburgh hall-marks I S (John Scott), a castle, and I F (John Fraser). On the cane top is engraved a shield bearing the arms of Cuninghame of Cuninghamehead, in the parish of Dreghorn, in Ayrshire, the arms being a shake-fork between two garbs and a mullet-in-chief, with the letters DEC. The coins number 351 and range in date from the reign of Edward VI to Charles I. The silver spoon from Haddington has on the front of the top of the stem an engraved rude foliaceous\r\ndesign with a heart-shaped ornament below, and there is an incised triangle at the foot. On the back of the stem are the hall-marks D B (David Bog, maker), a castle, and I S (James Symonstoun, deacon of the incorporation, 1665-7), and the groove\r\nmade in testing the quality of the metal. On the back of the bowl are the initials B M. The spoon was made in Edinburgh about 1666.
James Ritchie
128 - 142
Until comparatively recently much of the land now in cultivation was waste and the methods of cultivation were primitive. During times of scarcity whins or gorse came to be used as animal feed. Sheep browse only upon the tender shoots of the year, but\r\ngeneral whin-cutting included the more woody portions of the plant and demanded, that the spines should be destroyed if injury to the feeders was to be avoided. So whin-bruising had to be undertaken. This led to the development of a series of simple crushing implements and other tools. These were the flail, wooden mallet and block, roller type of whin-mill and wheel or grindstone shaped whin-mill. A survey of sites where some of these survive is included.
A D Lacaille
143 - 153
At Craigmaddie Muir the complete group of carvings on a living rock consists of the cruciform figure, a small cup-shaped hollow, a small serpent-like carving, and another like the impression of the right foot of an adult above the medium height, all fairly well preserved. Three crosses are in the churchyard at Luss. Two are carved slabs with Latin crosses. The third had originally been free-standing and was carved on both sides. Two stones at Roseneath have crosses and swords, while the third has plain rope moulding. At Dumgoyach and Kilmun crosses are associated with cup marks. An example from Barnakill has a cross and Hiberno-Saxon miniscules (lower-case lettering).
A S Carruthers
158 - 161
An account of a notebook containing six or seven pages of instructions for dances. In this book there are also " Rules for pronouncing ye French." The date of the entries is uncertain but may be 18th-century. The instructions are reproduced in full.
R S G Anderson
162 - 165
A small incised cross in a circle was discovered close to the four already known at St Ninian's Cave. At Barmore a fragment of a cross-slab is set into a modern drystone shrine. It has a large central cross with a smaller cross in each angle. Each of the smaller crosses is enclosed by brackets.
W D Simpson
165 - 193
The now ruined castle has a very complex architectural history and dates mainly, if not entirely, to the 13th and 14th century. There is very little surviving documentary evidence. Gilbert de Moravia, Bishop of Caithness from 1223 to 1245, who founded Kildrummy Castle, belonged to the same distinguished family that owned the Castle of Bothwell. Alike in their great size and in their architectural development, these two sister castles stand entirely apart from the native military structures of their time in Scotland. A summary historical and architectural survey is presented.
George Macdonald
Alexander O Curle
194 - 195
The result of the excavations has been to reveal three, if not four,systems of ditches. The defences of the Antonine Fort were found to have consisted of a rampart,\r\nprobably made of clay, and raised on a cradling of quarried stone, with two ditches in front of it on the south side and, seemingly, three on the west. Where the rampart forms a junction with that of the Antonine vallum, the remains of a small circular turret were discovered. The western gateway was located. The foundations of the Principia were identified, and gave conclusive evidence of, at least, two periods of reconstruction, the dimensions of the earliest of the structures showing a headquarters building, probably as large as, if not larger, than any other found in\r\nBritain. Flanking this foundation on either side were the sites of two long buttressed buildings. Pottery, brooches and iron objects were recovered, in addition to a coin of Pius of AD 151.
James Hewat Craw
198 - 204
The long cairn was first excavated in 1871 and nothing of significance was revealed. The discovery of a wall in this excavation proves that the monument must be included in the category of the long cairns, which enclosed chambers of one sort or another.
J G Callander
204 - 210
A skeleton was buried with a small, pointed bronze blade, two other small pieces of bronze, a barbed and stemmed arrow-head without its shaft, and a flint knife, the last two objects being calcined. The grave was cut into the natural rock and had a cover slab. The condition of the bone suggests that it had been partially burnt and may well have been a failed attempt at cremation. Brief accounts of a beaker from a cist at Elrick Hill, a Food Vessel and a socketed axe from Pitcaple are also presented.
Charles E Whitelaw
211 - 1120
John Mathieson
221 - 223
Tigh nan Fiarnain consists of a roughly circular drystone chamber with a annexe abutting on the south-west. six pillars supported the roof of the structure. There is an entrance but no passageway.
Walter L Bell
224 - 231
The 16th-century portrait is part of Sir Walter Scott's collection at Abbotsford. The subject, Sir Thomas Hervey, was one of the Herveys of Ickworth, Co. Suffolk, and was Knight Marshal to Queen Mary I of England, Mary Tudor. A coat of arms is also depicted. The Knight Marshal was an officer of the English Royal Household with the functions of a domestic magistrate '” a sort of Chief of Police.
William Kirkness
236 - 237
A stone-built short cist with cover slab was discovered at Castle, Rendall. The only item within was a hammer-stone.
Thomas C Lethbridge
238 - 239
The cairn was one of a pair of small structures standing on the foreshore. When the outer layer of stones had been removed, the mound was found to consist of alternating bands of red and black soil. The black soil was full of charcoal, and the red consisted of some burnt clay-like material. it is suggested that the whole probably represents the remains of a funeral pyre scraped up and covered by a heap of stones. No urn or cist was discovered. Artefacts comprised pottery, a thumb scraper, a hammer-stone and burnt bone which was thought to be animal.
John Mooney
239 - 251
Four skeletons buried in a row, heads to the west, were found in the choir between the two lines of pillars, right on the main axis of the church; and in one of the graves the upper portion of a crosier and what appears to be a chalice and paten were also found suggesting this was the grave of a bishop. An oak case containing human bones was found in one of the pillars and are supposed to be part of the skeleton of St Magnus. The report refers to earlier discoveries of human bone and considers whether they might be the remains of St Magnus and St Rognvald. The fact that the bones were hidden in pillars suggests they were moved at some point for safekeeping.
Ludovic Maclellan Mann
252 - 256
A round cairn with passage, central chamber, and ring of stones was excavated near Carmahome. The central circular chamber was well-constructed with flooring and walls formed of vertically set slabs. The chamber sat within a circle of originally ten uprights, all covered by the cairn. A flint knife was found below one of the floor slabs. Three fragments of bronze axe-heads of the flanged or early palstave type were found at Pirnmill during building work. The axe-heads are very similar, yet were made in different moulds. The little hoard was probably left by an itinerant founder; it was not a merchant's stock or a personal hoard. The axes were old before\r\nthey were deposited in the ground, as they have anciently been broken up into convenient fragments, perhaps for the crucible.
Francis C Diack
257 - 269
The Lang Steen is a large unshaped monolith which bears an inscription in ogam and a double disc connected by a cross-bar. The inscription is interpreted as 'Avuo Anunao soothsayer of Dovenio'.
George MacDonald
270 - 295
An account of further work included tracing the line of the wall from Inveravon to Bridgeness and more detail on the construction of the vallum. One of the defensive pits or lilia was excavated at Rough Castle Fort. Excavation at Croy Hill Fort demonstrated that the defences had seemingly been constructed on a system entirely different from any of those known to have been employed elsewhere on the line of the Wall. Work at Kirkintiloch 'Fort' revealed definite evidence of Roman occupation lending weight to the antiquarian belief that it was in fact a fort.
296 - 318