Issue: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 72

Publication Type:
Title: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 72
Year of Publication: 1937
Volume: 72
Number of Pages: 409
DOI: 10.5284/1000184
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1 - 22
V G Childe
Wallace Thorneycroft
C H Desch
23 - 43
Excavation focussed on the outer face of the rampart and sections through the rampart. Although the whole interior of the fort was excavated to bed-rock, the number of relics recovered was small. Pottery and bone implements were totally absent. A broken flint scraper, two saddle querns and a looped and socketed iron axe and a bronze La Tene brooch were among the objects found. The brooch strengthens the evidence from Dunagoil and Duntroon for a date in the La Tene period for vitrified forts north of the Clyde-Forth line.
V G Childe
Wallace Thorneycroft
44 - 55
The term vitrified is applied to those forts in Scotland or abroad that comprise within their ramparts broken stones fused together to form a solid mass. The extent of such vitrifaction varies enormously from site to site. The idea that the combustion of the walls would generate a temperature between 800° C. and 1100° C. such as was necessary to melt the stones employed at Rahoy and Finavon was tested by experiment. An essential moment in the production of vitrifaction is the conversion of the wood into charcoal by a process of distillation in which heat is absorbed by the timbers. It is only after the completion of this endothermic reaction that the combustion of the resultant charcoal under suitable conditions of ventilation and in contact with the stones produces the high temperature needed to fuse the rocks.
J D Gilruth
56 - 67
Two seals were found in the debris of the monastery of the Abbey of Arbroath. The church of the monastery was founded by King William the Lion in 1178 and dedicated to Thomas a Becket. The translation of the legend of one of the items is "Seal of Robert de Lambile". The second seal bears the legend "Prior W. (or Dom. W.) the son of Matheus, monk of Aberbrothock." Both the seals belong to the early thirteenth century, and are connected with Arbroath Abbey Monastery. They were probably made by the same person, and about the same time. They were probably used by a prior of the family of De Lambeley, which family gave at least two other officials to the monastery, Richard de Lambeley, Prior, and Radulph de Lambeley, Abbot; and a prior named W. whose father may have been one of the several persons called Matheus mentioned in the documents, and whose name may be recorded in a particular charter. The seals were probably in use by those Priors in the election of new Abbots, and when they acted as Vice-Regent in the Abbot's absence.
Charles Taylor
This portable money-box is of oak, circular on plan, made from a single stick, and cored, bound and riveted with wrought iron with a lock and double hasp covering the key-hole, and with an additional protection of a ring or hasp for a padlock. The slot in the centre of the hinged lid for the admission of coins has a good balance-flap inside which makes it impossible for any unauthorised person to abstract any coin. A handle and ring surmount the hinged lid. Nothing is known about the history of the box.
W D Simpson
73 - 83
Doune Castle was built within the earthworks of an earlier dun or fort towards the end of the fourteenth century, by Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland in the reign of Robert III and James I. The castle is an irregular pentagon in plan, the habitable buildings being on the north and north-west sides, while the remainder of the enclosure is screened by a high and massive curtain wall. The components of the castle are described in detail. it has much in common with the French Chateau de Pierrefonds, erected by the Duc d'Orleans about 1390'”1400. There also similarities with Sanquhar Castle in Nithsdale.
J Storer Clouston
84 - 114
The Armorial Rolls in Scotland begin comparatively late in the sixteenth century, and there is very little of definitely certain date then, till one reaches the 1540s. Before that period, however, some limited light is thrown by three of the great Continental armorials: the Armorial de Gerle, the Armorial de L'Europe and the Armorial de Berry which is the latest. It is much longer than the other two, including 125 names (not counting one repetition presumably in error), and some 93 separate families who can with reasonable confidence be identified. it has been deliberately designed to cover the greater part of the country and display a representative collection of arms for\r\nall Scotland. A detailed description of the document is given along with a list of all the Scottish names and their accompanying arms.
Mary E Boyle
115 - 121
The article is concerned with the dating of sculptured stones from churches of Fowlis Wester, St Vigean's near Arbroath, Invergowrie and Benvie. It is argued that the generally accepted early date of the stones is incorrect and that they are in fact medieval.
C H Dakers
122 - 128
All the coin types are described in detail and an attempt is made to classify them typologically. Some previously unpublished coins are included.
R S G Anderson
137 - 142
The bowl was found inverted in the soil while ploughing. It is a simple bowl of hammered bronze, made from a single sheet of metal without ornamentation. The most distinctive feature of the Awhirk bowl is a small circular perforation surrounded by a finely incised circle in the centre of the rounded base. The bowl is thought to be a clepsydra, or water-clock; and as such is in a separate category from the other cauldrons in Scotland, which in all likelihood were intended for culinary purposes or brewing. The clepsydra was at first a very simple affair '” a plain bowl with a\r\nsmall perforation in the base, which could be floated on water and gradually filled by percolation till it finally sank '” an attendant noting the time taken to fill, and the number of refills needed in a given period.
Alison N Young
143 - 149
The larger group of carvings is on a flat piece of living rock. The smaller group is found on a tilted rock face. The larger group comprises twenty cups, nine surrounded\r\nby circles. One cup is encircled by two concentric rings, a second by three rings, and a third by three rings and a fourth ring only partly discernible. In the last\r\ncase there is a cup in the third ring and another in the remains of the fourth. There are some vestiges of channels from the cups through the circle, but the whole is badly weathered. The smaller group consists of eight cups, twice associated with circle and channel, twice with a circle only, and twice with two circles and a channel which in one instance ends in a cup. These markings are also weathered, but less than in the first group.
William Henderson
150 - 177
A list of all the socketed axes and leaf-shaped swords in Scotland is presented along with maps showing their geographical distribution. From the main body of these two groups, distinctive types have been selected and by comparative study an effort has been made to establish reliable connections with areas outside Scotland. The objects were not evolved here; in common with most of the Scottish Late Bronze Age metal types they originated outside the country. An attempt is made to explain the presence of these Continental types in Scotland.
A D Lacaille
180 - 192
Gravers were common during the Upper Paleolithic and continued to be used in degenerate form in the Mesolithic. The essential characteristic of the graver is the chisel-edge formed by the meeting of two bezels, single or multi-faceted, at the extremity of a flake or blade, or sometimes of a core lending itself to suitable treatment. Most Scottish examples have been found in Tweedside.
Charles S T Calder
193 - 213
A Neolithic burial cairn contained two separate but contemporary chambers, one above the other. Each chamber had a separate entrance-passage at its floor-level, the openings to them being placed diametrically opposite one another on the circumference of the cairn in a line running east and west. The lower chamber is entirely subterranean, and the upper has been constructed in the mass of the superstructure above the natural level of the ground. Pottery sherds, flints and a broken axe were recovered. A second circular cairn covered a central chamber and passageway. Pottery and stone tools were recovered along with evidence of later Iron Age activity. A third cairn was poorly preserved and had been investigated in the 19th century.
Charles S T Calder
217 - 223
A conjectural reconstruction has been based on the details of the three fragments. The decoration includes zoomorphic and interlaced panels. All the details of the fragments correspond with the Anglian ornamentation on similar Northumbrian crosses, which series seems to begin about AD 670.
J S Bisset
224 - 231
The two plates of pewter were presented to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 1870 in a small oaken chest, which also contained, amongst other articles, a note by the donor stating that the chest had been preserved in a gipsy family before coming into his possession and was known as the Charter Chest of the celebrated Border gipsy, Johnny Faa and his descendants. The plates are stamped with the marks of the members of the Edinburgh Pewterers craft. It is argued that they are samples of pewter of approved quality, on which each master pewterer has stamped his mark as an acknowledgment of his obligation to employ pewter of at least that fineness in making his wares.
Alex G McLeod
235 - 247
The excavation of a stone circle and associated burial cairn at Beoch revealed fourteen large stones, one of which was prostrate and resembled a tombstone. The cairn had been disturbed and scatters of burnt bone with sherds of three cinerary urns were identified. One cist contained a ring-marked block of stone while the second cist was empty. A second circle at Nith Lodge comprised fifteen stones. Excavation of the interior revealed eight cremation burials, two incense cups, a cinerary urn, charcoal and a stone axe-hammer.
W D Simpson
248 - 272
Tolquhon is a sixteenth century baronial mansion in Aberdeenshire. It was greatly enlarged by William Forbes, the seventh laird between 1584-1589. An account of his life and activities is presented. The ruins of the castle are described and incorporate new discoveries. Removal of the ruins of the fallen Preston's Tower has enabled a complete plan of the east wing to be made. The work of consolidation disclosed a number of interesting features in the sixteenth-century buildings.
Eric Birley
Ian A Richmond
J A Stanfield
W P Hedley
275 - 347
In the original excavation no attempt was made to discover whether the two structural periods accounted for the whole or only a part of the occupation of Birrens by the Romans; dating evidence was limited to inscriptions and coins. It is argued on the basis of further excavation that the phases originally identified were only a part of the total occupation and that the fort was re-occupied in the third century and continued into the fourth. A detailed report on the pottery and other artefacts is included.
V G Childe
348 - 363
The remains of Bronze Age occupation were stratified below Viking/medieval layers at Jarlshof and included stone dwelling, walls, hearths, middens and paved floors. Stone and quartz tools were found in large numbers. Other artefacts included bone tools, querns and a carved bone plaque.
Arthur J H Edwards
363 - 365
The object was found in a pit in the course of tracing out the boundary wall of the prehistoric settlement which in turn was crossed by the wall of a Viking house. The ornamentation consists of a combination of chip-carving and interlacing work, together with an enrichment of geometrical patterns. It is conceivable that the mount was re-used as a brooch.
H E Kilbride-Jones
366 - 395
The article considers as many as possible, if not all, of the known specimens of glass armlets found in Britain, the periods during which the various forms were made, and what can be learned from a study of their distribution. Although there is a wide range of forms and colours, three main types are identified.
397 - 409