Issue: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 75

Publication Type:
Title: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 75
Year of Publication: 1940
Volume: 75
Number of Pages: 233
Note: Date Of Issue From: 1940 Date Of Issue To: 01
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1 - 4
James Ritchie
5 - 22
In Ireland the practice of burying butter and other items such as tallow continued into the seventeenth century in contrast to Scotland where it appears to have stopped long ago. The Skye keg was discovered during peat cutting. A detailed description of the birch keg and its method of manufacture is provided followed by analysis of the butter. Chemical analysis could not confirm that the deposit was made up of butter fat but this could be due to decomposition. Animal and human hair were found within it.
Alexander O Curle
23 - 39
Wags were folds for cattle, sheep or other livestock. The ruin consisted of a long chamber on the western side, lying approximately NNW and SSE, with the entrance from the latter direction, and two similar chambers, contiguous, on the eastern side, with an indeterminate mass of ruins occupying the space between the eastmost pair and that first mentioned, the whole contained within an encircling wall, reduced in parts almost to foundation level. The westernmost structure had a clay floor and a few fragments of coarse pottery were recovered. One of the chambers on the east was clearly intended for human occupation. A hearth, fire cracked stones, pots and pot lids were found. The structure appears to have been abandoned when the roof collapsed.
Ian A Richmond
39 - 43
The fort is located high above the water-table in their valleys, and impossibly deep well-digging would be required to reach any good supply. In the excavation of 1901, a number of tanks, cisterns and sewers were identified and these are re-interpreted as part of the system for water supply. It is difficult to determine, however, if these features were all of one period as there is evidence for both Antonine and Flavian occupation at Lyne.
V G Childe
43 - 54
The excavation was restricted to determining the structure of the ramparts in\r\nthe threatened area and their relations to one another and to the hut-circles which\r\noccur on or close to the apparent crest of the inner rampart. Two sections were\r\naccordingly cut through the ramparts, and the two most conspicuous circles were examined. Two previously unrecorded ramparts were discovered and three phases of occupation were identified. Only a shapeless crumb of poorly made pottery was discovered along with a dozen carefully rounded sling-balls, animal bone and an iron arrowhead.
A D Lacaille
55 - 92
The relics are distributed throughout the upper part of the raised beach deposits, but locally they are concentrated. They originate from shore occupation-sites dating back to the period of rising sea-level, and they were incorporated into the beach\r\nformation during the emergence. The rolled and/or heavily patinated condition of some of the lithic products suggests they are older than their unscathed companions; yet no typological difference whatever can be detected between the altered and\r\nunchanged artefacts. Flint from Northern Ireland and local native rocks were employed including quartz and schistose grit. All the artifacts are of pre-Neolithic character. The Campbeltown industry may be grouped with the Mesolithic\r\nof Northern Ireland. The Argyll artefacts have their ancestry in the English Upper Palaeolithic (Creswellian), and consequently have their roots in the Aurignacian,\r\nindustrial vestiges of which are retained in the assemblage. Although no worked bone was obtained at Campbeltown, the infiltration of Baltic Forest Culture is suggested by a few objects, a small pick being particularly significant. The presence of these different forms also indicates that the Argyll stone industry is culturally more advanced and is possibly of lesser antiquity than the second stage of Movius's Early Larnian, which it otherwise so clearly resembles. Climatic conditions on the coasts of Northern Ireland and South Western Scotland in the Early Post-Glacial period being alike, and human needs being similar, these factors dictated the development of a local provincial culture. So far, only the more complex sections of the Antrim\r\nraised beach provide adequate proof of the evolution of this pre-Neolithic\r\nculture, but it is confidently expected that future researches in the Scottish\r\nlittoral deposits will afford equally conclusive evidence.
Robert B K Stevenson
92 - 115
A class of sites described as scooped enclosures are characterised by a hillside location. The area marked off by an enclosing rampart or wall is mostly lower than the ground outside. This is markedly so on the uphill side, where the enclosing wall stands on the level of the ground outside and is clearly not meant to be defensible against attack from above. The interior is not uniformly level, but consists of a number of separate level "floors," quasi-circular, arranged in the main in two horizontal rows. The downhill side of the lower row is probably levelled up by terracing. The general shape of the enclosure is oval, usually with the long axis\r\nhorizontal. The partial excavation of one of these is described and its function as a dwelling is confirmed. Excavation of a nearby hut-circle failed to recover any dating evidence.
W D Simpson
115 - 122
Tradition suggests that the castle was built by William the Lion. It was originally likely to have been a timbered earthwork. A brief history of the castle is presented along with a description of the ruins. The architectural features of the surviving tower house point to a date in the fifteenth century.
Kenneth M White
122 - 127
The coal workings are believed to be about two hundred years old based on historical references and the coal workings themselves. The wooden coal shovel was found in the old Four Feet workings. No superficial evidence now exists to mark the entrance to this old working, but entry was by a short stair-pit at a point near the present railway. The bottom of this old pit was encountered recently in the course of working the seam. The birch shovel is described and is thought to date to the seventeenth century.
J D Lyford-Pyke
127 - 144
A survey of all the known cup-marked stones is presented and includes stones which have been moved or are no longer extant. Three new groups are described for the first time.
Robert Kerr
144 - 183
Communion tokens discovered over the last thirty years are published here and are intended as a supplement to the earlier group of over 1400 published by Brook in the Proceedings of 1906-7.
James S Richardson
184 - 204
During the reign of James V the close connection between the Scottish Royal Court and that of France had a marked influence on the plastic art and architecture of Scotland and this is illustrated by the mural decorations at the House of Kinneil. From 1546 to 1550 large sums were spent on building and furnishing the tower at Kinneil, and in 1553 the foundation of the Palace was laid. The surviving murals are described in detail and many illustrations are included.
David Waterston
205 - 207
A toggle and an ivory buckle were found in a cinerary urn in association with cremated human bone of a probable male adult. The toggle was probably made from a hollow bone of a bird or small animal. The buckle was made of bone and had been burnt.
David Waterston
207 - 208
Chemical analysis proved that the halberd was made of copper rather than bronze. Many specimens of copper halberds of similar form have been discovered in Ireland, but comparatively few in Scotland. To date this is the twenty fourth example from Scotland.
Arthur J H Edwards
208 - 209
The four halberds are well patinated; only the one with the rivet holes may have been in use, the other three having still to be bored before they could be attached to the shafts. Chemical analysis indicated that one of the halberds was made from copper rather than bronze.
Robert B K Stevenson
209 - 212
Two urns were discovered during quarrying for gravel. Both were damaged and each contained the cremated remains of an adult. One had been inverted. In each case a few of the bones bear green stains, which indicate that a small object or objects of bronze or copper had accompanied each burial. One of the urns also contained a burnt flint scraper and a flake.
G P H Watson
All that remains of the Jacobean mansion of the Giffords of Sheriffhall is the stair-wing, now put to use as a dovecot. Among the stones in secondary use at a nearby farm as rubble were two pieces of fifteenth-century ecclesiastical work. One, which has since disappeared, was a section of a moulded cornice enriched with floral paterae; the other was the canopy of a niche; both had obviously been removed from a church of some importance. The arms depicted are those of an unidentified abbot who may have belonged to Newbattle.
V G Childe
213 - 218
The inner face of the inner ring of the fort nearly all round the site was revealed, showing that the central fort was an irregular oval. Extensive robbing of the stonework had taken place. Parts of the outer rampart were also detected. Artefacts included a jet suspension ring, a bronze terret, a hollow hemisphere of lead, and a bronze object of uncertain use.
219 - 224
225 - 233