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7. HIGH MEDIEVAL (1066-1485): RESEARCH OBJECTIVES#

High Medieval Updated Agenda and Research Objectives Table
Click here to see details of agenda themes and topics for this period.
For more information about each Research Objective, select from the links below:
Research Objective 7A Research Objective 7B Research Objective 7C Research Objective 7D Research Objective 7E Research Objective 7F Research Objective 7G Research Objective 7H Research Objective 7I Research Objective 7J


Research Objective 7A#

Undertake syntheses of urban excavation, survey and documentary data to develop understanding of town development #

Summary:
The East Midlands is particularly important as the location for the establishment in the ninth and tenth centuries of the five defended towns at Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham and Stamford (the celebrated Five Boroughs of the Danelaw)[1], together with Northampton[2]. These centres continued as major urban foci into the Post-Conquest period, which saw also the development of a range of smaller towns[3]. Archaeological excavation has been undertaken to a varying extent in these larger towns, but much less so in the smaller urban settlements, and the emerging knowledge remains fragmentary[4]. Syntheses of the results of excavation, successfully completed for Lincoln[5], remain largely absent elsewhere, while comparative data and detail are lacking on key ceramic assemblages crucial for developing regional chronological frameworks and for elucidating trading networks. Better understanding is needed of the development of urban centres and the nature and variations of industrial and economic activity. Completion of Urban Archaeological Databases for major centres, comparable to those developed for Lincoln, Leicester and Nottingham, is an urgent requirement in order to provide a foundation for further research and to assist in understanding the existing evidence[6].

Agenda topics addressed: 7.1.1-7.1.4; 7.4.1; 7.4.4; 7.4.5; 7.5.3-7.5.6; 7.6.1; 7.6.3; 7.6.4; 7.7.4; 7.7.5

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 7, 210-11

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: assessing regional historic environment components (11111.170); Realising the dividend from past unpublished historic environment investigations (11113.110); Tapping the motherlode: supporting synthesis of key commercial project research (11113.410)

Lincoln in the period from c.900 to c.1350, showing its principal elements (Jones et al 2003, Fig 9.1; reproduced by permission of the authors)
Lincoln in the period from c.900 to c.1350, showing its principal elements
NHPP 2011: Historic towns and suburbs (4A1)

Other research frameworks:

EH Thematic Research Strategy for the Urban Historical Environment 2010: Priorities UR1 (Synthesis of developer-funded research), UR2 (Urban characterisation) and UR 3 (Survival of early form and fabric in historic towns)
EH Thematic Research Strategy for the Historic Industrial Environment 2010: Priority IND1 (Origins of industrialisation: understanding early industry)
Medieval Pottery Research Group 2011, 22 (Priority A7) and 34-35, especially Research Aims EM 12 (Leicester) and EM 22-23 (Nottingham)

References:


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Research Objective 7B#

Enhance the record of urban and suburban secular standing buildings and associated subterranean structures #

Summary:
Surviving medieval urban secular buildings are few in number within the region, and are perhaps best represented by a variety of well-preserved buildings of twelfth century and later date surviving in Lincoln[7][8]. Dendrochronology[9] and detailed investigations of building plans can contribute significantly to our knowledge of the date and status of individual buildings, and cumulatively can contribute to greater understanding of the history and character of urban development. These techniques can usefully be combined with surveys and documentary studies of associated cellars, caves and other subterranean structures, which at Nottingham in particular have the potential for developing further our understanding of urban morphology and functions[10]. A review of urban and suburban standing buildings with the potential to contain medieval structural elements, and of associated subterranean structures, is recommended in order to enhance current Urban Archaeological Databases[11] and Historic Environment Records[12]. This will provide the basic information that is required to inform planning decisions and to guide the application of appropriate research techniques.

Agenda topics addressed: 7.1.1-7.1.4; 7.6.4

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 211, 216

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: assessing regional historic environment components (11111.170); New frontiers: understanding subterranean places (11112.210)

NHPP 2011: Historic towns and suburbs (4A1); Public, civil and communal buildings (4A4)

Other research frameworks:
EH Thematic Research Strategy for the Urban Historic Environment 2010: Priorities UR2 (Urban characterisation) and UR3 (Survival of early form and fabric in historic towns)
EH National Heritage Science Strategy Report 2 2009: Sections 4.2.1 (Chronology) and 4.5.1 (Detecting and imaging)

References:


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Research Objective 7C#

Investigate the provisioning of the medieval town by further detailed study of environmental data and human remains#

Summary:
The increasing use of cess-pits in medieval towns means that there is extensive evidence for the diet of the population in medieval Leicester, Lincoln and other urban centres[13]. At Causeway Lane in Leicester, for example, cess-pits and other contexts yielded remains of apple, blackberry, damson, grape, plum and pear, while vegetables included bean, leek and pea. Domestic animals and fowl were augmented by sea fish and oysters[14]. The evidence of diet may be used to identify the various social groups of the town and their access to food, and, together with isotope analysis, may identify elements of the population born and brought up elsewhere. There are also many other aspects of economy, trade and craft that can be illuminated by the further study of this evidence, as has been suggested for Lincoln[15]. For the medieval urban centres, environmental analyses may be supported by isotopic and other scientific studies of human remains obtained from cemeteries and by documentary research. This research objective has the potential to be expanded to cover Roman and Saxon urban centres, this longer time-frame allowing for the use of data from rural and other sites which may be represented more sparsely in a narrower chronology[16].

Fisher Gate, Nottingham: excavations revealed the remains of a corn-drying kiln dating from around 1200. This had burnt down and yielded an abundance of charred emmer wheat along with burnt wood and daub (photograph © Nottingham City Museums)
Fisher Gate, Nottingham: excavations revealed the remains of a corn-drying kiln dating from around 1200.
Agenda topics addressed: 7.1.1; 7.1.2; 7.1.4; 7.5.6; 7.7.4; 7.7.5

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 211, 283

SHAPE 2008: Understanding ancient environments and ecologies (11111.420); Understanding past populations of Britain: historical demography and human biology (11111.710)

NHPP 2011: Identification of wetland/waterlogged sites (3A5); Historic towns and suburbs (4A1); Churchyards, cemeteries and burial grounds (4D2)

Other research frameworks:

EH Thematic Research Strategy for the Urban Historic Environment 2010: Priorities UR1 (Synthesis of developer-funded research) and UR2 (Urban characterisation)
EH National Heritage Science Strategy Report 2 2009: Section 3.3.1 (People and environment)

References:


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Research Objective 7D#

Investigate further the role of markets, fairs and ports and trading routes #

Summary:
Markets played a key role in the development of medieval towns[17], as demonstrated recently at Lincoln[18], and it has been suggested that regularised market places with their links to road networks and wharves may provide important evidence of early planning[19]. Coastal and inland ports and fairs performed broadly similar functions to markets and provided foci for communal economic and social activity on a regular basis. There is a need to focus inquiry on fairs and ports, which have generally been accorded little attention[20], and in particular upon such regionally important sites as the long-lived Lenton Fair[21] in Nottingham and the inland port at Boston in Lincolnshire[22]. There needs to be more targeting of deposits yielding environmental remains (particularly fish bones, which are especially poorly represented in the archaeological record). Excavations and landscape assessments could usefully be carried out alongside metal-detecting programmes, since port and fair sites in particular have traditionally served as foci for metal-detecting. In addition, further scientific analyses of pottery and other traded commodities such as building stone from quarries at Collyweston in Northamptonshire and Ketton in Rutland[23] or the internationally important alabaster of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire[24] may shed further important light upon trading networks in Britain and beyond and assist in the identification of exchange foci.

Agenda topics addressed: 7.1.1; 7.1.2; 7.1.4; 7.5.6; 7.7.4; 7.7.5

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 211, 283

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: assessing regional historic environment components (11111.130); Understanding artefacts and material culture (11111.510)

NHPP 2011: Historic ports, dockyards, harbours and coastal resorts (4A3); Identification of wetland/waterlogged sites (3A5)

Other research frameworks:
EH Thematic Research Strategy for the Urban Historic Environment 2010: Coastal towns and historic ports (UR6); Survival of early form and fabric in historic towns (UR3)
EH National Heritage Science Strategy Report 2 2009: Sections 3.3.1 (People and environment) and 3.4.1 (Understanding materials)
Medieval Pottery Research Group 2011, 22-23 (Research Priority A8); see also regional priorities: 34-35

References:

Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire alabaster was used widely for church monuments, such as this fine monument to Sir Sampson de Strelley (d.1390) and his wife (d.1405) that is preserved in All Saints Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire (photograph: Richard Sheppard)
Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire alabaster was used widely for church monuments, such as this fine monument to Sir Sampson de Strelley (d.1390) and his wife (d.1405) that is preserved in All Saints Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire

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Research Objective 7E#

Investigate the morphology of rural settlements #

Summary:
The East Midlands preserves evidence of a complex landscape, including zones dominated by a hierarchy of nucleated villages, hamlets and farmsteads, mainly in Northamptonshire, Lincolnshire, eastern Derbyshire and southern and eastern parts of Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire[25]. Away from these zones, landscapes are characterised by dispersed farmsteads and hamlets, notably in Charnwood, Whittlewood and Sherwood Forests, north and west Derbyshire, the Coal Measures of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, and the coastal marshes and fenlands of Lincolnshire. This spatial complexity has yet to be fully characterised or explained, and priorities for further work include assessment of the date of establishment of nucleated settlement, the date of origin of the region's many planned villages, and the factors underlying observed variations in settlement morphology[26]. Nucleated settlement appears to have developed, in some areas at least, no later than the ninth century[27], but the date of establishment of the more obviously planned villages remains unclear. Concentrations of royal estates in eastern Leicestershire, northern Nottinghamshire and north-west Derbyshire, documented in Domesday Book but acquired over a period of time, are suggested to have been a springboard for the development of planned villages during the eleventh century[28]. They particularly merit further detailed investigation by techniques such as test-pitting in gardens and open spaces in village cores, as has been undertaken at Kibworth, in Leicestershire[29] and as part of the Whittlewood project in south Northamptonshire and north Buckinghamshire[30].

Agenda topics addressed: 7.2.1-7.2.4; 7.5.4; 7.7.1; 7.7.2

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 211-212

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: assessing regional historic environment components (11111.170) and researching regional diversity (11111.310)

NHPP 2011: Rural historic buildings and their settings (4F1)

References:

West Cotton, Northamptonshire: general view of excavations, showing the wall trenches of a 10th to late 11th century timber courtyard manor and in the foreground the leat feeding a mid-10th to 12th century watermill complex (Chapman 2010, Plate 4; reproduced by permission of Northamptonshire Archaeology)
West Cotton, Northamptonshire: general view of excavations, showing the wall trenches of a 10th to late 11th century timber courtyard manor and in the foreground the leat feeding a mid-10th to 12th century watermill complex

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Research Objective 7F#

Investigate the development, structure and landholdings of manorial estate centres #

Summary:
Regional manorial centres, whether secular or lay, remain poorly investigated and merit further systematic study. The East Midlands preserves a rich resource of manorial sites, ranging in status from castles and granges to more modest establishments that, relative to neighbouring regions, are comparatively rarely moated[31]. Moated sites have received the greatest attention from researchers, and where excavated may preserve elaborate structural remains. Saxilby, for example, was provided with a timber hall and solar[32], while Epworth preserved an impressive stone-constructed complex[33]. The silted ditches of moated enclosures may also preserve waterlogged artefactual and environmental remains with significant potential for the reconstruction of past environments[34]. Non-moated sites have proved less attractive to archaeologists, with occasional exceptions such as Holyoak in Leicestershire, which preserved a two-storey main building of the thirteenth century[35]. The landholdings associated with these establishments have seldom been examined by excavation, although earthworks often survive well and in many cases have been the subject of field survey. It is recommended that the results of survey should in selected instances be tested by excavation. It is hoped that this will confirm the identity of features and clarify the chronology of manorial development, which in some instances may have roots in the pre-Conquest period.

Agenda topics addressed: 7.2.1; 7.2.4; 7.3.1-7.3.5; 7.5.4; 7.7.3-7.7.5

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 212-21, 283

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: assessing regional historic environment components (11111.170); Understanding ancient environments and ecologies (11111.420)

NHPP 2011: Rural historic buildings and their settings (4F1); Identification of wetland/waterlogged deposits (3A5)

Padley Hall, Hathersage, Derbyshire: surviving range of 14th century manorial hall, now in use as a chapel (photograph: Anna Badcock; reproduced by permission of ArcHeritage)
Padley Hall, Hathersage, Derbyshire: surviving range of 14th century manorial hall, now in use as a chapel
Other research frameworks: EH National Heritage Science Strategy Report 2 2009: Section 3.3.1 (People and environment)

References:


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Research Objective 7G#

Estates, architecture and power: investigate the relationship between castles and great houses and their estates #

Summary:
The architecture of many castles and great houses is relatively well-known, but there remains a need to investigate the relationship between these structures and the estates in which they are located. For example, are particular forms of building plan associated with particular magnates, such as William Peverel of Derbyshire[36], and do the similarities encompass estate components and layout? There are over 250 castles in the region, many of which started as motte and bailey earthwork and timber fortifications in the late 11th and 12th centuries. The date of establishment of the earliest castles, which were important not only for their role in battle but also as visually dominating symbols of overlordship, has long been debated, and the possibility of pre-Conquest origins for some remains a topic for further research. The investigation of Barnard Castle points the way forward in castle and estate studies, emphasising the need to examine the estate core within the context of the estate lands, the wider countryside and the local community[37]. There have been several recent studies of castles in their wider environment[38], but the approach has yet to be applied to castles and manorial centres in the East Midlands.

Agenda topics addressed: 7.1.1; 7.1.2; 7.4.1; 7.4.5

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: analysis of specific historic assets and locales (11111.130)

References:

  • [#36] Associated with the Norman castles at Bolsover and Castleton in Derbyshire and Castle Rock, Nottingham: Beckett, J V 1988. The East Midlands from AD 1000. London: Longman, 25-26, 58; Hart, C 1981. The North Derbyshire Archaeological Survey. Chesterfield: North Derbyshire Archaeological Trust, 145, 148; Hart, C R 1988 Bolsover. A Town is Born: its Origins, Change and Continuity. Bolsover: Bolsover District Council
  • [#37] Austin, D 2007 Acts of Perception: A Study of Barnard Castle in Teesdale (Archaeological and Architectural Society of Durham and Northumberland Research Report 6). Archaeological and Architectural Society of Durham and Northumberland; Stocker, D 2008 'Review article'. Landscapes 9, 82-85
  • [#38] Liddiard, R 2005 Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, 1066-1500. Macclesfield: Windgather Press
Peveril Castle, Castleton, Derbyshire and aerial view of the castle

Peveril Castle, Castleton, Derbyshire: late 12th century stone keep (above) (photograph: Richard Sheppard) and aerial view of the castle (left) (NMR20450/18; SK1482/39; 9/11/05; © English Heritage. NMR). The latter shows the location of the keep atop the ridge dividing Cave Dale from the medieval town; Peak Cavern dissects this ridge and separates the eastern stone-walled bailey and keep from the ditch and rampart enclosing the western bailey (right of image)
Peveril Castle, Castleton, Derbyshire: late 12th century stone keep

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Research Objective 7H#

Investigate the location and character of medieval battlefields #

Summary:
Medieval battlefield sites have long remained the preserve of the local historian more concerned and more familiar with documentary evidence than the landscape. Aside from castle sites that acted as foci for military actions, the region preserves a number of important battlefield sites that would repay further investigations. These include two key battlefields of the Wars of the Roses: a period which has been identified as a key focus of archaeological interest (in particular for evidence of the introduction of gunpowder weapons in England)[39]. The first is the pivotal Battle of Bosworth in Leicestershire, where Henry VII's defeat of Richard III in 1485 marks the beginning of the Tudor period[40]. The second is Stoke Field in Nottinghamshire, marginally beyond this period, where in 1487 Henry VII's forces crushed a Yorkist rebellion[41]. At both of these sites, the evidence for the locations of battlefields would benefit from careful reviews of documentary sources and of the topographical and archaeological evidence (primarily in the form of unstratified artefact scatters and mass graves)[42]. Direct archaeological investigations of battle archaeology through metal detecting, as demonstrated at Bosworth[43] and Towton[44], should be undertaken. Prospecting for mass graves through geophysical survey and excavation should also be considered.

Agenda topic addressed: 7.4.6

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 196, 213

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: analysis of specific historic assets and locales (11111.130)

NHPP 2011: Identification of terrestrial assets via non-intrusive survey (3A4); Battlefields (4E1)

Other research frameworks: Foard, G 2008 Conflict in the Pre-Industrial Landscape of England: a Resource Assessment. University of Leeds, 265-269

References:

The Battle of Bosworth (1485): interim plan, showing the distribution of lead munitions and other battle-related artefacts in relation to the main terrain features (British Archaeology 112, 2010, 29; reproduced by permission of Glenn Foard and British Archaeology)
The Battle of Bosworth (1485): interim plan, showing the distribution of lead munitions and other battle-related artefacts in relation to the main terrain features

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Research Objective 7I#

Investigate the development of the open-field system and medieval woodland management #

Summary:

The White Cross: a unique survival of a medieval forest boundary cross, mentioned in a 1299 perambulation of the forest. The cross stands on the boundary between the Northamptonshire townships of King`s Cliffe and Blatherwycke (photograph © Glenn Foard; see Foard et al 2009, 21)
The White Cross: a unique survival of a medieval forest boundary cross, mentioned in a 1299 perambulation of the forest.
The origins of the open-field system have long attracted discussion, and are nowhere better addressed than in the East Midlands[45]. Large areas of the lowland zone were dominated in this period by unhedged open fields rotating between arable and pasture and, particularly in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire, ridge and furrow earthworks remain important elements of the landscape character. The only English village where open-field farming is still conducted under the guidance of a court leet is to be found at Laxton in Nottinghamshire[46], and detailed surveys here and elsewhere have enhanced significantly our understanding of the origins of this flexible and long-lived agricultural system, developments over time, and the relationship between arable, pasture and woodland[47]. Fieldwalking[48], targeted excavation, and earthwork, geophysical, air photographic and lidar surveys can elucidate the origins and development of field systems and their relationship to earlier systems of land allotment[49], and should be encouraged. There is also much potential for further investigations of woodland, including hunting parks, by documentary research, earthwork surveys and remote sensing. Studies have been undertaken of Rockingham Forest[50] and of Leicestershire[51] and Lincolnshire[52] woodlands. Building upon these, further work should aim to integrate documentary and landscape evidence, with emphasis upon the evidence for former management and exploitation, access and changing boundaries. There is also a need to compare and contrast the information on woodland management and exploitation in the Champion lands with that in less favoured upland areas. Woodlands offer particular opportunities for a wide range of local fieldwork as well as potential partnerships with the Woodland Trust, National Trust and community groups, which are often concerned with the amenity value of woodlands.

Agenda topics addressed: 7.2.1; 7.2.2; 7.3.2; 7.5.4; 7.7.1-7.7.3

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 215, 286

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: assessing regional historic environment components (11111.170); Understanding place: researching regional diversity (11111.310)

NHPP 2011: Identification of terrestrial assets via non-intrusive survey (3A4); Field systems (4F2)

Ridge and furrow earthworks preserved in pasture outside Burrough Hill hillfort, Leicestershire (photograph: D. Knight)
Ridge and furrow earthworks preserved in pasture outside Burrough Hill hillfort, Leicestershire
Other research frameworks:
EH National Heritage Science Strategy Report 2 2009: Section 3.3.1 (People and environment)

References:

Laxton in Nottinghamshire is the only English parish where open-field farming is still conducted under the guidance of a court leet, and provides a landscape resource of international significance (Beckett, J V 1989 `A History of Laxton: England`s Last Open Field Village`. Oxford: Blackwell). This illustration shows part of a map recording the cultivation strips and other features of the open fields, compiled in 1635 by Mark Pierce (© Manuscripts and Special Collections Section, University of Nottingham).
Ridge and furrow earthworks preserved in pasture outside Burrough Hill hillfort, Leicestershire

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Research Objective 7J#

Research the regional communications infrastructure#

Summary:
The medieval period is important for the study of communication routes, which may well have varied in importance from one time to another and intra-regionally[53]. The physical infrastructure, comprising roads, rivers and related appurtenances such as bridges and wharfs, and associations of these with landscape features, are under-investigated. In addition, the evidence that pottery and other artefacts can provide for the use of inland and coastal waterways such as the Trent and Nene has also not been maximised[54]. At Hemington Quarry near Castle Donington, Leicestershire, three phases of timber and stone bridge piers dated to 1090, 1215 and 1238 respectively have been recorded and fully investigated during gravel extraction in the river floodplain[55]. Such investigations are rare, however, and many communications features are not listed in Historic Environment Records. Landscape features, such as hollow-ways, fords and bypassed stretches of major and minor highways, also remain little researched, while roads are seldom accorded archaeological excavation[56].

Agenda topics addressed: 7.1.2; 7.1.4; 7.6.1; 7.6.2; 7.7.5

Archaeology of the East Midlands: 216

SHAPE 2008: Understanding place: assessing regional historic environment components (11111.170); Understanding artefacts and material culture (11111.510)

NHPP 2011: Historic water management assets (4B1); Transport and communications (4B3)

Bridge I, Hemington Quarry, Leicestershire: foundations of a late 11th to early 12th century timber bridge across a former course of the Trent, revealed during gravel extraction. The photograph shows two `caisson` pier bases (hollow boxes sunk into the river bed and filled with sandstone rubble) and in the right foreground the remains of a trestle that had been lifted by flood over the adjacent caisson (Ripper and Cooper 2009, Plate 2; this and photographs of Bridge III reproduced by permission of University of Leicester Archaeological Services and Leicestershire County Council)
Bridge I, Hemington Quarry, Leicestershire: foundations of a late 11th to early 12th century timber bridge across a former course of the Trent, revealed during gravel extraction.
Other research frameworks:
EH Thematic Research Strategy for the Historic Industrial Environment 2010: IND4 (Impact of industrialisation: transport systems, communications and public utilities)
Medieval Pottery Research Group 2011, 22-23 (Priority A8; see also 34-35)

References:

Bridge III, Hemington Quarry (Ripper and Cooper 2009, Plates 8 and 11): pier bases of a mid-13th century bridge, built upstream of Bridge I after the destruction by flood of both this bridge and a replacement timber bridge built in the late 12th century (Bridge II): Pier Base 1 (above): plinth stones after initial cleaning. Pier Base 4 (right): hexagonal setting of timber piles and sandstone infill. The rectangular timber structure may have acted as a buffer to prevent damage to the bridge from river traffic, flotsam, etc., and by displacing river flow may have prevented scouring around the pier bases
Bridge III, Hemington Quarry (Ripper and Cooper 2009, Plates 8 and 11): pier bases of a mid-13th century bridge, built upstream of Bridge I after the destruction by flood of both this bridge and a replacement timber bridge built in the late 12th century (Bridge II)

Bridge III, Hemington Quarry (Ripper and Cooper 2009, pls 8 and 11): pier bases of a mid-13th century bridge, built upstream of Bridge I after the destruction by flood of both this bridge and a replacement timber bridge built in the late 12th century (Bridge II)

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Organisation
Trent & Peak Archaeology
Site/Project Name
Lenton Priory Main
Parish
Lenton
County/Unitary Authority
Nottingham City
NGR
SK55151 38755
HER No
Awaiting deposition
OASIS ID
Trentpea1-20451
Museum No
To be finalised
Report and Web Link
B6-Abbey Street, Lenton. Archaeological Assessment Report and Updated Project Design on the Excavations

Agenda Topic(s)

Research Objective(s)

How has this work addressed the Research Agenda and Strategy?

The excavation of the site of Martinmas Fair, held at Lenton Priory, provided an opportunity to explore a rare example of a trading event which was conducted on the grounds of a monastic house under the authority of a religious order.

The rich assemblage of material culture recovered during the excavation may be able to elucidate the differences between secular and ecclesiastical trading enterprises. Furthermore, the involvement of European merchants throughout the use of the fair may raises the possibility that analysis may shed light upon changing international economic relationships during the High Medieval period. Analysis of the spatial organisation of the market may be able to inform us of how buildings and plot demarcations were structured and how individual plots may have varied depending upon the wealth, status and geo-political provenance of the traders.

--Paul Flintoft, 05-Jan-2017 16:17


This page (revision-13) was last changed on 22-Jun-2017 13:57 by Tina Roushannafas