Contents |

List of Tables
List of Figures |

1 |
Introduction |

2 |
Methods of Analysis |

3 |
Practical Details |

3.1 |
Tell Brak |

3.2 |
Kilise Tepe |

4 |
Discussion of Results |

4.1 |
Charcoal Densities |

4.1.1 |
Comparison of the charcoal densities for the Tell Brak samples |

4.1.2 |
Mean charcoal densities - by deposit class |

4.1.3 |
Mean charcoal densities - by horizontal context |

4.1.4 |
Mean charcoal densities - by vertical context (period) |

4.1.5 |
Mean charcoal densities - by trench |

4.1.6 |
Summary of the results for Tell Brak |

4.1.7 |
Comparison of the charcoal densities for the Kilise Tepe samples |

4.1.8 |
Mean charcoal densities - by deposit class |

4.1.9 |
Mean charcoal densities - by vertical context (period) |

4.1.10 |
Mean charcoal densities by trench |

4.1.11 |
Summary of the results for Kilise Tepe |

4.2 |
Preservation Indices |

4.2.1 |
Comparison of the preservation indices for the Tell Brak samples |

4.2.2 |
Preservation indices - by deposit class |

4.2.3 |
Preservation indices - by horizontal context |

4.2.4 |
Preservation indices - by vertical context (period) |

4.2.5 |
Preservation indices - by trench |

4.2.6 |
Comparison of the preservation indices for the Kilise Tepe samples |

4.2.7 |
Preservation indices - by deposit class |

4.2.8 |
Preservation indices - by vertical context (period) |

4.2.9 |
Preservation indices - by trench |

4.3 |
Fragmentation Indices |

4.3.1 |
Comparison of the fragmentation indices for the Tell Brak samples |

4.3.2 |
Fragmentation indices - by deposit class |

4.3.3 |
Fragmentation indices - by horizontal context |

4.3.4 |
Fragmentation indices - by vertical context (period) |

4.3.5 |
Fragmentation indices - by trench |

4.3.6 |
Comparison of the fragmentation indices for the Kilise Tepe samples |

4.3.7 |
Fragmentation indices - by deposit class |

4.3.8 |
Fragmentation indices - by vertical context (period) |

4.3.9 |
Fragmentation indices - by trench |

4.3.10 |
Summary of the preservation and fragmentation analyses for the Tell Brak samples |

4.3.11 |
Summary of the preservation and fragmentation analyses for the Kilise Tepe samples |

4.4 |
Comparison of the taxonomic composition of the samples |

4.4.1 |
Comparisons of the ratios of cereal taxa in the samples from Tell Brak - overall site trends |

4.4.2 |
Composition - by deposit class |

4.4.3 |
Composition - by horizontal context |

4.4.4 |
Composition - by vertical context (period) |

4.4.5 |
Composition - by trench |

4.4.6 |
Summary of the results for Tell Brak |

4.4.7 |
Comparisons of the ratios of cereal taxa in the samples from Kilise Tepe - overall site trends |

4.4.8 |
Composition - by deposit class |

4.4.9 |
Composition - by vertical context (period) |

4.4.10 |
Composition - by trench |

4.4.11 |
Summary of the results for Kilise Tepe |

4.4.12 |
Comparison of the proportions of pulses in the samples - Tell Brak |

4.5 |
Comparisons of the taxonomic composition of the samples using correspondence analysis |

4.5.1 |
Correspondence analysis using the cereal taxa - Tell Brak |

4.5.2 |
Correspondence analysis - by deposit class |

4.5.3 |
Correspondence analysis - by horizontal context |

4.5.4 |
Correspondence analysis - by vertical context (period) |

4.5.5 |
Correspondence analysis - by trench |

4.5.6 |
Summary of the results for Tell Brak |

4.5.7 |
Correspondence analysis using the cereal taxa - Kilise Tepe |

4.5.8 |
Correspondence analysis - by deposit class |

4.5.9 |
Correspondence analysis - by vertical context (period) |

4.5.10 |
Correspondence analysis - by trench |

4.5.11 |
Summary of the results for Kilise Tepe |

4.5.12 |
Correspondence analysis using pulses - Tell Brak |

5 |
Discussion and Conclusions |

5.1 |
Resolution of the data: the suitability of the sites for the investigation of 'use of space' |

5.2 |
Comparisons between Tell Brak and Kilise Tepe |

Bibliography |

*List of Tables* |

1 |
Quantitative methods used in the analysis of the charred plant remains |

2 |
Tell Brak: Context types |

3 |
Tell Brak: Lists of contexts, charcoal density, preservation and fragmentation indices, cereal ratios |

4 |
Tell Brak: HS1 lists of cereal taxa |

5 |
Tell Brak: HS3 lists of cereal taxa |

6 |
Tell Brak: HS4 lists of cereal taxa |

7 |
Tell Brak: HS5 lists of cereal taxa |

8 |
Tell Brak: HS6 lists of cereal taxa |

9 |
Tell Brak: HF lists of cereal taxa |

10 |
Tell Brak: HN lists of cereal taxa |

11 |
Tell Brak: Cereal taxa used in correspondence analysis |

12 |
Tell Brak: HS1 lists of pulses, oil plants, fruits |

13 |
Tell Brak: HS3 lists of pulses, oil plants, fruits |

14 |
Tell Brak: HS4 lists of pulses, oil plants, fruits |

15, 16 |
Tell Brak: HS5 lists of pulses, oil plants, fruits |

17 |
Tell Brak: HF lists of pulses, oil plants, fruits |

18 |
Tell Brak: HN lists of pulses, oil plants, fruits |

19 |
Tell Brak: Pulses used in correspondence analysis |

20 |
Kilise Tepe: Context types |

21 |
Kilise Tepe: Lists of contexts, charcoal density, preservation and fragmentation indices, cereal ratios |

22 |
Kilise Tepe: H lists of cereal taxa |

23 |
Kilise Tepe: I lists of cereal taxa |

24 |
Kilise Tepe: J lists of cereal taxa |

25 |
Kilise Tepe: K lists of cereal taxa |

26 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal taxa used in correspondence analysis |

*List of Figures* |

1-4 |
Tell Brak: Mean charcoal densities by context class |

5 |
Tell Brak: Frequency histogram showing charcoal densities |

6 |
Tell Brak: Preservation indices by deposit class |

7 |
Tell Brak: Preservation indices by horizontal context |

8 |
Tell Brak: Preservation indices by vertical context |

9 |
Tell Brak: Preservation indices by trench |

10 |
Tell Brak: Fragmentation indices by deposit class |

11 |
Tell Brak: Fragmentation indices by horizontal context |

12 |
Tell Brak: Fragmentation indices by vertical context |

13 |
Tell Brak: Fragmentation indices by trench |

14 |
Tell Brak: Frequency histogram showing preservation indices |

15 |
Tell Brak: Frequency histogram showing fragmentation indices |

16 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by deposit class - Tip/midden/rubbish dump, FI contents |

17 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by deposit class - Pit fills |

18 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by horizontal context - Craft activity, Unspecified space |

19 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by horizontal context - Street/lane, Kitchen |

20 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by vertical context - I,II |

21 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by vertical context - III, IV |

22 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by vertical context - V |

23 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by trench - HS1, HS3 |

24 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by trench - HS4, HS5 |

25 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by trench - HS6, HF |

26 |
Tell Brak: Cereal proportions by trench - HN |

27 |
Tell Brak: Cereal ratios - Barley: wheat grains |

28 |
Tell Brak: Cereal ratios - Barley grains: rachis |

29 |
Tell Brak: Cereal ratios - Glume wheat grains: chaff |

30 |
Tell Brak: Cereal ratios - Glume wheat grains: free threshing wheat grains |

31 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all cereal taxa |

32 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all cereal grains |

33 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all cereal grains except Hordeum |

34 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all chaff items |

35 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all taxa except Hordeum grains and rachis |

36 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa by deposit class |

37 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all chaff items by deposit class |

38 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all taxa except Hordeum grains and rachis by deposit class |

39 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa by horizontal context |

40 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all taxa except Hordeum grains and rachis by horizontal context |

41 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa by vertical context |

42 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all taxa except Hordeum grains and rachis by vertical context |

43 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal grains by vertical context |

44 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysisis - sample plot: all cereal grains except Hordeum by vertical context |

45 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all chaff items by vertical context |

46 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa by trench |

47 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal grains by trench |

48 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal grains except Hordeum by trench |

49 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all chaff items by trench |

50 |
Tell Brak: Pulse proportions by vertical context and trench |

51 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all pulses |

52 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all pulses by deposit class |

53 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all pulses by horizontal context |

54 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all pulses by vertical context |

55 |
Tell Brak: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all pulses by trench |

56-59 |
Kilise Tepe: Mean charcoal densities by context class |

60 |
Kilise Tepe: Frequency histogram showing charcoal densities |

61 |
Kilise Tepe: Preservation indices by deposit class |

62 |
Kilise Tepe: Preservation indices by vertical context |

63 |
Kilise Tepe: Preservation indices by vertical context - I-L14 samples |

64 |
Kilise Tepe: Preservation indices by trench |

65 |
Kilise Tepe: Fragmentation indices by deposit class |

66 |
Kilise Tepe: Fragmentation indices by vertical context |

67 |
Kilise Tepe: Fragmentation indices by vertical context - I-L14 samples |

68 |
Kilise Tepe: Fragmentation indices by trench |

69 |
Kilise Tepe: Frequency histogram showing preservation indices |

70 |
Kilise Tepe: Frequency histogram showing fragmentation indices |

71 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal proportions by deposit class - Constructional materials, Occupation sequences |

72 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal proportions by deposit class - In situ deposits, Pit fills |

73 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal proportions by vertical context - Bronze Age and Iron Age |

74 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal proportions by vertical context - Byzantine |

75 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal proportions by trench - H, I |

76 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal proportions by trench - J, K |

77 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal proportions by trench - I-L14 |

78 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal ratios - Barley: wheat grains |

79 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal ratios - Barley grains: rachis |

80 |
Kilise Tepe: Cereal ratios - Glume wheat grains: chaff |

81 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all cereal taxa |

82 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all cereal taxa omitting samples 69, 81 |

83 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all taxa except Hordeum grains and rachis |

84 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all cereal grains except Hordeum omitting samples 36, 69 |

85 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - taxa plot: all chaff items |

86 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa by deposit class |

87 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal grains except Hordeum omitting samples 36, 69 by deposit class |

88 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa by vertical context |

89 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa omitting samples 69, 81 by vertical context |

90 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all taxa except Hordeum grains and rachis by vertical context |

91 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all chaff items by vertical context |

92 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa by trench |

93 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all cereal taxa omitting samples 69, 81 by trench |

94 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all taxa except Hordeum grains and rachis by trench |

95 |
Kilise Tepe: Correspondence analysis - sample plot: all chaff items by trench |

96 |
Frequency histogram showing charcoal densities in the Tell Brak and Kilise Tepe samples |

97 |
Frequency histogram showing preservation indices for the Tell Brak and Kilise Tepe samples |

98 |
Frequency histogram showing fragmentation indices for the Tell Brak and Kilise Tepe samples |

99 |
Comparison of the ratios of cereal taxa in the Tell Brak and Kilise Tepe samples |