English Heritage Archaeological Monographs

English Heritage, 2014

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English Heritage (2014) English Heritage Archaeological Monographs [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1028203

Goltho: The development of an early medieval manor c 850-1150

Beresford, G.

English Heritage (1987)


Goltho: The development of an early medieval manor c 850-1150

Excavations between 1971 and 1974 on the site of the earthwork castle at Goltho, Lincolnshire, in advance of its levelling and ploughing, revealed not only traces of structures belonging to the eleventh- and twelfth-century castle, but also a sequence of earlier manorial layouts. This report is a detailed presentation of the evidence from these buildings which forms an important insight into the origins and stages of growth of an early medieval manorial site. The earliest period of occupation was Roman (AD 30-200), with a series of circular timber buildings. The next two phases were middle Saxon (AD 800-850 and 850-950), with an undefended layout of houses within separate property boundaries, later replaced by a hall and other domestic buildings, built round three sides of a courtyard and protected by a rampart and ditch. The next phase (AD 950-1000) was marked by the restyling of the hall and the greater sophistication and privacy of the domestic buildings. In the late Saxon phase (AD 1000-1080), the manor was totally rebuilt within enlarged and strengthened defences. The early Norman phase (AD 1080-1150) saw the construction of a small motte and bailey castle, with a tower on the motte and an aisled hall in the bailey. During the final phase (AD1150-c1200), the motte was partially levelled and a more substantial hall built on the resulting mound, but soon abandoned. The report contains a full discussion of the documentary evidence for the tenurial history of the manor of Goltho and its neighbours in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, as well as of the rich series of pottery and other finds which help to portray the style of life in this developing manorial site at its formative stages. The excavation of the sequences of timber buildings showed evidence for surprising changes in construction method, which are discussed and analysed in the light of contemporary parallels in Europe and elsewhere. The detailed excavation plans are supplemented by many photographs and reconstruction drawings, and the pottery finds are fully illustrated.

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Goltho: The development of an early medieval manor c 850-1150 , Beresford, G., English Heritage (1987), ISBN: 9781848021563 PDF 45 Mb