n.a., (1998). British Archaeology 40.

Title
Title
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Title:
British Archaeology 40
Series
Series
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Series:
British Archaeology
Volume
Volume
Volume number and part
Volume:
40
Pages
Pages
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Number of Pages:
18
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DOI
DOI
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DOI
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Publication Type:
Journal
Year of Publication
Year of Publication
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Year of Publication:
1998
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Source
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Source:
biab_online
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URL: http://www.archaeologyuk.org/ba/ba40/ba40toc.html
Created Date
Created Date
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Created Date:
31 Dec 2015
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Abstract
4
Two of the forty-three sites that are on English Heritage's Battlefields Register have been threatened by new development proposals. At Adwalton Moor near Bradford, where a Civil War battle was fought in 1643, a huge new industrial plant has been approved in principle by Bradford Council. In Sussex, proposals by English Heritage for a new visitor centre and cafe with an upgraded access road at the site of the 1066 Battle of Hastings have been called into question by members of the Battlefields Trust and other historians. Further details of the two cases are outlined in this short article. LD
4
Short item on the recent discovery of a previously unknown Roman town on farmland near Ashford in Kent. Using geophysical survey, Brian Philp of the Kent Archaeological Rescue Unit has located what appear to be several hundred houses arranged around a crossroads. One rectangular roadside enclosure has been excavated and found to contain the remains of a substantial timber-framed building. Development proposals for the site have been adjusted to avoid building over the main area of the town. LD
4
Short item on the recent discovery of part of an underground Roman drain, large enough for an adult to walk along, at Monument House in the City of London. The drain may have served either the 2nd century forum and basilica or a nearby bathhouse, and can be entered through a square Roman shaft 3.3 metres deep. LD
5
This short item reports on the discovery of an inverted oak tree pushed into the ground, surrounded by a ring of timber posts, on a beach at Holme-next-the-Sea near Hunstanton on the north Norfolk coast. The site is without known parallel, but is likely to date from the Bronze Age. Some archaeological recording has been undertaken, but funds are needed for further excavation as the coastal erosion that revealed the site threatens its continued existence. LD
5
170 ship's timbers were discovered several years ago beneath the floor of a late 18th century workshop at Chatham Docks in Kent, during restoration of the building. A recent survey has found that all of the timbers appear to have come from one large English vessel, and suggests they may represent the remains of an important warship interred by dockyard workers in a kind of shrine. This short article outlines why this seems the most likely explanation for their presence. LD
Harold C Mytum
6 - 7
This article describes some of the changes in the styles of grave markers and their inscriptions and decoration over the last few centuries, first outlining some of the ways in which graveyards themselves developed over time. Before the Reformation most churchyards contained few gravestones, with most people buried in unmarked graves which overlapped with earlier burials. However, by the mid-19th century most people were commemorated by stones. These can provide information about family relationships, occupation, cause of death and place of residence. Inscriptions nowadays are generally brief, and mass production of memorials has led to a decrease in variety of form. LD
Stan Beckensall
8 - 9
Outlines some of the characteristics of the prehistoric rock art that can be found within the landscape and on some monuments in northern Britain and Ireland. Almost all designs are abstract, leading to a huge variety of interpretations, including unsubstantiated conjecture. Although difficult to date, rock art is now generally regarded as late Neolithic, with a use over at least a thousand years into the early Bronze Age. Some burial monuments of this date contain reused panels of formerly open-air rock art. However, it is beginning to be recognised that some decorated cist slabs were produced specially for the monuments in which they were discovered. In these cases the decoration had been used in a way that suggests its meaning had changed or was in the process of change. Some possible explanations are discussed. LD
Bernard Lowry
10 - 11
The Home Guard in Britain -- a body of men who would assist the regular army in the event of a German invasion -- was formed in 1940. By the middle of the Second World War it was relatively well armed, and its members exceeded 1.7 million. However, the Home Guard possessed no purpose-built barracks or drill halls and despite its size, half a century later it has left little in the way of recognisable structures. This article describes some of the features that can be found, including emplacements for Blacker Bombard sub-artillery pieces, loopholed walls, fieldworks such as trenches, and small shelters for guards at vulnerable points such as beaches, rivers and railway tunnels, and outlines some of the ways in which the responsibilities of the Home Guard changed during the course of the war. LD
Mark Redknap
12 - 13
Historical sources record a series of terrifying attacks by Viking marauders on the coasts of Britain, France and Ireland from the last decade of the 8th century. Wales also suffered raids, but to judge from the Welsh annals, its armies avoided yielding large tracts of land to the newcomers. This article outlines the historical context and looks at the archaeological evidence from North Wales, which seems broadly to confirm that the Vikings failed to colonise the country to any significant extent. However, it does suggest the existence of pockets of strong contact between the Welsh and Vikings of Dublin and the Isle of Man, with the adoption of some Viking fashions. Some of the isolated burials, finds and Norse funerary sculpture may even suggest occasional intermarriage and individual Viking settlement. It remains to be seen whether the same pattern holds for other parts of Wales. Au/LD
Francis M M Pryor
15
Presentation to the public of the Neolithic monument of Stonehenge in Wiltshire is considered to be a national disgrace. Current proposals which aim to rectify this include the closure of one nearby road and the creation of a tunnel for another, as well as the construction of a new visitor centre outside the area designated as a World Heritage Site. The proposed tunnel is controversial as it could mean the cutting of a very large trench through the World Heritage Site. This article discusses the issue, focusing on the concepts of access to and experience of the site and how requirements vary for different kinds of visitors as well as passers-by. LD
John M Steane
18
For the last two years negotiations have been underway between Oxfordshire County Council and developers regarding proposals for the site of Oxford Castle. Finding the proposals unacceptable, an action group composed of archaeologists, historians and county and city amenity groups is requesting a delay in order to explore potential options. This article highlights the case against the background of the many elements of the city's architectural heritage that have been destroyed from the 18th century onwards. References are made to the paintings of John Malchair (1730--1812), which include numerous buildings and other features that are now lost or damaged. LD