n.a., (1920). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 55. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. https://doi.org/10.5284/1000284.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 55
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06 Oct 2013
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1 - 28
J G Callander
29 - 37
The objects consisted of a rapier blade, a spear-head, a flanged axe, a knife, two small chisels or punches, two small bars of square section, a razor, a pin, and fragments of a twisted tore, all of bronze, and a number of amber beads. Some time later a second razor and two beads, one of glass and the other of amber, were found. This group of relics consists of a series of weapons, tools, instruments of toilet, and ornaments which belonged to, and were used by, a single individual, and consequently is to be classified as a personal hoard in contradistinction to the stock of a merchant or founder.
J G Callander
Thomas H Bryce
37 - 52
A group of five urns containing cremated human remains were found in a cluster at Kingskettle. One of the deposits included two barbed arrowheads which were calcined. It is suggested that the arrowheads may have been the cause of death of the associated individual. A very well constructed short cist contained the remains of a mature adult male. He was accompanied by a small thin plate of corroded iron.
R S G Anderson
53 - 54
A feature thought to be a hut circle proved to be a dilapidated cairn. A short cist was located just off centre. It contained a Food Vessel, a deposit of cremated human bone, three quartz pebbles and a flint scraper. The remains were identified as an adult of uncertain sex.
William Douglas
56 - 83
The ruined castle stands on a rocky promontory on the Berwickshire coast. Only parts of the keep and the surrounding walls now survive. An account of the ownership and history of the castle is presented along with plans and pictures, the earliest of which dates back to 1549. It is not clear who was responsible for the construction of the castle though during the fourteenth century the castle appears to have been sometimes in the hands of the Scots and sometimes in those of the English.
Alexander O Curle
83 - 94
Dun Troddan also known as the Upper Broch lies a quarter of a mile from Dun Telve, the Lower Broch. Excavation revealed that the ground plan of Dun Troddan survived intact while in part it survives to a height of 25 feet showing remains of three galleries. Eleven postholes and hearths survived in the interior. Artefacts included worked bone, burnt animal bone. a paste bead, part of a rotary quern and a large number of ovoid pebbles which may have served as missiles.
John H Dixon
95 - 99
An account of three cup-marked stone outcrops and the local legends traditionally attached to them.
John Stirton
100 - 107
The items reported include a 17th-century prayer book which belonged to Lewis Innes, Almoner to Queen Mary of Modena, Consort of King James II and VII, a manuscript account of the life of Father Henry Innes, a birth-brief in favour of Walter Innes who was in the service of Queen Henrietta Maria, consort of Charles I, when resident in Paris. The portrait of Prince Charles Edward Stuart as a youth was a a gift from the Chevalier de St George to Lewis Innes, shortly before the death of the latter in 1738.
J G Callander
110 - 131
During excavation the inner court as well as two small cells, a staircase, and the greater part of a gallery, all within the thickness of the wall, were cleared out; also, a section of the outer face of the wall on the southern arc, which was obscured by fallen stones, was laid bare. An interesting assortment of relics in stone, pottery, glass, and metal was recovered. These included rotary querns, a stone cup, an iron knife and a glass armlet. A number of items were much later in date and not linked to the main period of occupation of the broch.
William Kirkness
131 - 134
The coped stone has sloping sides covered with three rows of well-defined tiles, or shield-shaped scale-like ornamentation. Along the ridge, which is flat, there is a deeply-cut channel. The stone, which is of red freestone much covered with lichen,\r\nlies due east and west, the broader end to the west. The cross-slab was found while a grave was being dug. Incised on the face is a geometrical four armed cross within a circle, the diameter of which is 10 inches. This cross is surmounted by a small equal-armed cross, the top arm being imperfect. It has a single step at the foot, and to this extent it resembles a Calvary cross. Each end of the side arms terminates in a crescent, a very unusual occurrence.
W D Simpson
135 - 149
The five ruined castles are all situated in the valley of the Aberdeenshire Don. With the exception of Tillycairn, no architectural description or plan of any of them has yet been published, and the notes and sketches of Tillycairn are not reliable. All five castles are excellent examples of the different types of fortified mansions, or "houses of fence," which were being constructed during the last half of the sixteenth century. In addition to Tillycairn, the castles at Pitfichie, Balfluig, Asloun and Culquhonny are described with accompanying plans.
Alexander O Curle
153 - 206
Further excavation extended along the west and part of the north sides of the ground excavated in 1919. Amongst the ground plans of structures and associated hearths two courses of drystone masonry were identified; the first example of actual building. Early artefacts included Bronze Age cinerary urns and tools, demonstrating that there was a phase of activity which predated the four Iron Age levels identified. Numerous artefact of Iron Age and Roman date are described and include pottery, brooches, glass armlets, beads and vessels, tools, jet armlets and Roman coins.
J Garrow Duncan
207 - 212
A round cairn at East Lyne overlaid a stone-built short cist which contained two fragments of charcoal and one of bone. An adjacent cist had been previously removed. The round cairn at Chapelton is the last surviving of a group of three. It appears undisturbed. A cross in the graveyard at Kirkmichael is roughly hewn of local whinstone. It has rounded corners and in the centre of the head on either face is a circular cavity.
Stewart Orr
213 - 221
The skeleton of a man, dressed in a complete suit of clothing, was found in a peat moss, lying with the arms straight along the sides, on its face, at a depth of three\r\nfeet from the surface. The body was wrapped in a plaid or blanket, and as this was unfolded the cap and shoes were found above the knees. The hair was long and of reddish colour. Evidently the man had met with a violent death, as the skull showed the mark of a heavy blow. The clothing, in a wonderful state of preservation, consisted of a round, flat bonnet or cap; an outer jacket or coat, tight fitting to the waist and very full-skirted; an inner coat of similar shape and material; an outer pair of breeches cut very wide; an inner pair of breeches, of similar\r\ncut and material; a pair of hose or stockings made of the same cloth as the clothes; a pair of light, low-heeled leather shoes, in fragments; a plaid or blanket'; and a detached shaped piece of cloth.
James Ritchie
221 - 229
The paper describe mortsafe tackle at Inverurie, mortsafes at Oyne and Auchlossan, watch-houses at Nigg and Dyce, and public vaults at Culsalmond and Marnoch. The mortsafes which were so frequently in use about a century ago were intentionally made very heavy to prevent their removal or destruction by unauthorised persons who might wish to gain access to the bodies they protected. Therefore for lowering them into position in the grave at the time of burial, and for lifting them out again when all danger of body-snatching was past, strong tackle was required. Auchlossan possesses two mortsafes, both of the iron, coffin-shaped variety. The mortsafe at Oyne had not been constructed for the use of the public, but was made for a single private burial, and this accounted for its somewhat weak construction. In the corner of the churchyard at Nigg there is a small building formerly used as a watch-house, but now kept as a storeroom for the tools required by the gravedigger. A watch-house was erected in the south-east corner of the churchyard at Dyce. At Culsalmond a two-storied building stands in the north-west corner of the churchyard. Its lower portion consists of a vault which was built for the purpose of storing coffins in safety till the bodies they contained were useless for anatomical purposes. In the churchyard of Marnoch, Banffshire, there is a vault, almost entirely underground, over which a second story has been built like that at Culsalmond. A flight of ten steps leads down to the entrance, just above which a stone tablet has been built into the wall, bearing the words " Built by Subscription in the year 1832. Addition 1877."
John Hewat Craw
231 - 255
Since the Eoyal Commission issued its Report on the Ancient Monuments in the County of Berwick, several additional forts have been discovered in that area. In the Commission's Inventory ninety-three are reported, of which seventy-eight are figured. The number now on record of which surface evidence still exists is one hundred and five, in addition to twenty-two sites where forts are stated to have formerly been visible. To these should be added thirteen place-names which seem to indicate the previous existence of a fort. This brings the total number of forts to one hundred and forty.
P M C Kermode
256 - 260
Recent discoveries come from the parishes of Jurby, German and Braddan and include plain incised crosses along with two of Celtic design.
Laura E Start
261 - 264
The piece of sixteenth-century embroidery is an example of an almost unique kind, its decoration consisting solely of an embroidered text used as a border and enclosed between lines of fine stitching and drawn-thread work. A rather elaborately plaited tassel still decorates one corner of the cloth. From the torn condition of the other corners it seems likely that at one time each was weighted by a tassel, and this possibility, combined with the number of rows of stitching and grouping\r\nof the drawn-thread border and the use of a text as the decorative motive, make it almost certain that the linen was intended for use as a chalice veil. The beginning of the quotation is marked by a heart worked in silver foil outlined with crimson silk and runs, " cal upon me cayeth the lord in tym of the trebil and i sal delyvir the and thou sal honour me."
J Storer Clouston
265 - 272
It has previously been considered that the tax called the " Wattel formed (in the case of Orkney) a payment to the parish bailies, or (in the case of Shetland) to the corresponding underfouds. The word probably derives from veizla ( = veitsla), the\r\nreception or entertainment which the Norse kings, or their barons and stewards, were entitled by law to exact from the landowners of the different districts visited. In Orkney the earl would, of course, take the place of the king, and that this obligation should then crystallise into a tax, and its name be corrupted from "veitsla" into "wattel," seem very natural developments. The earliest documentary evidence is contained in the grants of the island of Burray to the Bishop of Orkney in 1494, and of the lordships of Orkney and Shetland to Lord Sinclair in 1501, and in Lord Sinclair's rentals of 1492 and 1502-03.
Herbert Eustace Maxwell
276 - 277
The shaft of a large cross, sculptured on both sides was discovered on the site of a chapel, mentioned in documents of 1684 but now completely destroyed. The head of the cross had been chopped off and it was being used as a grave slab. It is decorated on both sides by Celtic knotwork.
George Macdonald
278 - 285
The hoard consisted of a mass of coins adhering to one another firmly. Probably the money had been contained in a bag of canvas or leather, which had rotted away completely in the course of centuries. The total was made up of 18 pieces of gold, 611 of silver, and 499 of billon (an alloy that contains gold or silver with copper or another base metal). The hoard must have been concealed not long after the accession of James IV in 1488. He is the latest king represented, and his coins are relatively very few in number.
Francis C Eeles
285 - 289
The silver-gilt cup was almost certainly made in Scotland. There are three incised inscriptions: one in broad Scots and the other two in Latin, in capital letters between incised lines encircling the cup and cover. The initials of the silversmith are VH.
289 - 324