Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, (1922). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 57. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 57
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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08 Dec 2008
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1 - 17
R S G Anderson
17 - 19
James Ritchie
20 - 28
Raedykes is well known for its Roman Camp, however, there are also four circles or ring-cairns on the site. The four circles are situated within a short distance of each other, so that a line joining their centres would form a slight curve little more than a hundred yards in length. They are nearly equal in size, and each consists of a ring-shaped cairn with a hollow centre, the interior depression and the exterior circumference being bounded by a setting of earthfast stones, set upright to support the smaller loose stones of which the cairns are composed. Only two of these ring-cairns, the most northerly and the most southerly, are surrounded by standing stones, and each is furnished with a circle of upright stones placed at a distance of a few feet beyond the outer circumference of the cairn. The recumbent\r\nstone, so important a feature in the Aberdeenshire type of circle, is entirely absent.
G P H Watson
29 - 40
Caerlaverock Castle near Dumfries is one of the foremost examples of secular architecture in Scotland. The site is naturally protected in part by its swampy location and elsewhere by a system of ramparts and ditches. Caerlaverock was essentially a residence, a strong one certainly, of the type termed the " gatehouse castle," since the house is concentrated over the entry. The surviving elements of the ruin are described and comparisons made with other castles in Britain and France. The present castle is thought to have been mostly constructed between 1375 and 1410.
41 - 45
The pigments used on early Byzantine and early Celtic manuscripts are considered with particular reference to the difficulties involved in preparing ultramarine from lapiz lazuli. The Rosslyn Missal is believed to be of late thirteenth or early fourteenth century. The letters down the margin of the MS. are outlined in black, and are tinted with four pigments, vermilion, orpiment, ultramarine, and shell-fish purple. The Celtic psalter is thought to be of eleventh-century date. The pigments used are lead in place of vermilion as in the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Irish variety of orpiment, transparent copper-green, badly washed ultramarine, and shell-fish purple. The gold used on a single page consists of little rounded and\r\nkidney-shaped particles obtained as the fine gold dust from river gold.
G S Graham-Smith
48 - 54
One of the so-called otter or beaver traps was discovered during peat digging on the Moss of Auquharney, Aberdeenshire, together with three fragments of a stout stick, apparently used in connection with the trap. This trap appears to be the only one of its kind hitherto discovered in Scotland. Most writers have regarded them as traps to catch otters, beavers, wild-fowl, fish, etc., but no very satisfactory explanation of their mode of use has been given, while others have considered them to be machines for making peat blocks, musical instruments, models of boats, etc. The writer is of opinion that these traps were constructed for the capture of large animals, such as deer, and suggests that their remains are only found in peat because in other situations they have perished.
Arthur J H Edwards
55 - 74
A long cairn at Drannandow was very badly denuded and much disturbed. The cairn was near oval and five separate chambers were revealed by excavation. Four of the chambers were split into two compartments. No passage was identified. There were no portal stones and no artefacts. Two cists were found within a nearby round cairn. The central cist was surrounded by a stone setting and contained a Food Vessel, an unworked flint and a fragment of charcoal. Sherds of a Food Vessel were found within the secondary cist. A hut-circle in Knockman Wood was a shallow oval depression with a doorway composed of two portal stones. The hut had been formed of a stone wall. A roughly paved floor and a hearth were revealed in the interior.
W D Simpson
75 - 97
The ruined castle survives mainly as foundations, none of the walls being more than ten feet high. A ground plan based on careful survey has been produced. The chief feature of this castle appears to have been a great mastertower or keep. The style of construction is typical of the fourteenth-and fifteenth-century castles in Aberdeenshire, marked by the very free use of mortar in filling the interstices between the large irregular stones. Small flat pinnings inserted horizontally, which are so characteristic a feature in sixteenth-century work, are here totally absent. The surviving elements and the surrounding topography are considered along with documentary evidence.
Ludovic Maclellan Mann
98 - 107
A cinerary urn containing cremated bone and charcoal was recovered from a previously disturbed burial. An accompanying incense cup contained larger fragments of bone and charcoal. The bones in the latter were those of a child while the bones in the former could not be identified. The pit had been lined with stones. An axe hammer and mould were found a short distance away. The mould is of an unusual type while parallels for the axe hammer are presented. An 'apron' made from moss fibres was found close to a cairn.
Thomas Reid
112 - 119
The Lee Penny is the name of a charm, amulet, or talisman, preserved at Lee Castle, the seat of the ancient family of Lockhart. It consists of a small stone set in the centre of a silver coin. The stone comes from southern Spain. The coin is thought to be a groat from the reign of Edward I. The traditional story of the acquisition of the talisman and its history as an object with healing powers is recounted along with references which appear in one of Sir Walter Scott's novels.
George MacDonald
120 - 122
A small earthenware jug contained a minimum of 228 coins. The hoard is of interest as none of the coins were Scottish: seven were pennies of Edward I of England and the remainder were foreign, mainly from the Low Countries. The probable date of burial of the hoard is AD 1300.
J G Callander
123 - 166
The article presents a classification, analysis, and comparison of the component parts of Scottish hoards. The discovery of two associated objects is treated as a hoard, even though they may be examples of the same type of relic, and an attempt is made to correlate, as far as possible, the weapons and implements with the pottery of the period. Owing to the absence of the larger objects of bronze from the sepulchral deposits, from which practically all the pottery has come, this is not easy. The number of Scottish implements is not large when compared with those found in England and Ireland. Seventy Scottish hoards are arranged in four chronological horizons according to the occurrence in them of flat copper axes, flat bronze axes, flanged axes and palstaves, and socketed axes, or of known contemporary types of objects.
James L Anderson
167 - 170
The artefact was the standard or gauge by which the ellwands (so called whether containing 36 or 37 inches) were tested and regulated. it is made of iron and has a hinge in the centre so that it can be folded over into half its real length. Between the flanges at each end its total length is exactly 36 inches. This standard was issued by the Chapmen of Fife, based upon the official dimensions, and by it the travelling Chapmen regulated the measuring rods they carried as they perambulated,\r\nsometimes on horseback, their several districts. False measures were stigmatised by the Societies, and the condemned ellwands (units of measurement) were destroyed.
George MacDonald
173 - 180
The inscription was found on a fragment of a stone which had originally been part of an altar. The altar was set up by the First Cohort of Vardulli, an auxiliary regiment which long helped to garrison Britain, and by its then commanding officer, G. Quiritius Severus who it is argued, was a native of Ravenna. The fragment may have come from a fort of which no trace now survives. Two sculptured stones re-used in a building at Croy are also described. One of these is inscribed with a legend dedicated to Victory.
James Edward Cree
180 - 226
In the previous season of excavation, after determining that the ground examined had been under continuous occupation, at least during the period from the end of the first to the beginning of the fifth centuries AD, the excavators reverted to the original method of removing the ground in four more or less arbitrary levels of occupation. This method was continued during the present year, and therefore the plans do not represent accurately the actual conditions existing at any particular period. However, the method of removing the soil in four levels has a certain stratigraphical value, as it aids in approximately dating the relics recovered. Two further areas were excavated along with minor investigations elsewhere on the hill. The features identified and the associated relics are described in detail. One of the gateways penetrating the rampart at the west end of the hill was also examined.
Andrew Sharp
226 - 241
The jewellery of the Stuart period is of special interest, in particular the exquisite little rings, brooches, and clasps which were worn by the followers and adherents of the Stuart and Jacobite causes. The memorial jewellery, dating from the death of Charles I is often of fine and rare design and workmanship, and the backs of the items are beautifully enamelled in black and white and occasionally in colour. The fronts were mostly formed of a piece of rock-crystal cut in the shape of a rose diamond, and in special cases of a diamond itself covering sometimes a miniature of the king or his initials worked in gold wire surmounted by a crown\r\nand supported by cherubs. A range of rings, necklaces, earrings, neckslides and pendants are described.
Mungo Buchanan
J G Callander
243 - 250
The first discovery was a short cist containing cremated bone and a burnt flint scraper. The second of the cists contained a Food Vessel accompanied by unburnt and burnt human remains. The third longer cist contained fragments of a skeleton and an iron sword. A wheel-turned vessel of dark-coloured pottery, with a number of objects made out of thin sheet bronze or brass, and some much corroded fragments of iron and particles of wood was found nearby.
Hugh Marwick
251 - 265
In Orkney, as is seen in Shetland, in spite of the lapse of over a thousand years and the total extinction of the Celtic vernacular, a considerable number of the old place-names still survive, corrupted at times, but often preserving their old Celtic form unchanged. It is suggested that for a couple of centuries before the great Viking age prior to AD 800, intercourse had been taking place between Scandinavia and these northern isles, and that Norsemen had gradually secured a footing, and made settlements, both in Orkney and Shetland. It would be difficult to explain the adoption of these loan-words otherwise. The words discussed include those for hill pasture, hill, cliff and church. In addition, a few words seem to commemorate the names of some early Celtic saints.
Angus Graham
R G Collingwood
266 - 287
This new account of the castle was prompted by the removal of farm buildings which increased visibility and allowed for the production of large-scale accurate plans. It is concluded that a ditch, mound and motte never existed as had previously been argued. The strategic value of the site is small, and its military aspect may be summed up by saying that the castle is capable enough of looking after itself but does not appear to be looking after anything else. The whole structure is now\r\nreduced to a bare enceinte with a keep in its north-east corner which is described and illustrated in detail. The earlier account of the castle is largely discounted.
Fred T Macleod)
288 - 293
This paper is intended as a correction to an earlier published account and relates entirely to the question of who the original donor of the cups was and to which parish the presentation was made. The arms which appear on the cups, including the stag's head, were borne by Sir Rory Mor MacLeod of Dunvegan. They appear on an old gourd or water-bottle which has been in the possession of the MacLeods of Dunvegan from the time of Sir Rory Mor, and is preserved to-day in the castle among the relics of that chief. He received the honour of knighthood in London in the year 1613, the date of the hall-mark on the cups. It is highly probable that on his return to Skye he brought with him the cups for presentation to the parish of\r\nDuirinish for the use of the church he worshipped in.
J G Callander
Thomas H Bryce
299 - 302
The first cist was removed by workmen who thought it was a drain. The second cist contained parts of two decayed skeletons one of which appeared to have been disarticulated when deposited. They were identified as an adult female and a younger person of uncertain sex. A third cist was empty.
R R Boog Watson
303 - 307
A detailed plan of the hill fort is presented. Examination of the highest part shows that though the natural formation is almost entirely rock, there is evidence of a more or less continuous rampart or wall along the edge of the plateau on the top of the hill. The entrance or gateway is at the south-east end. There is no indication of any water supply, unless it be one or two places where there seem to be earth-filled hollows. Surface finds include a mortar and a fragment of a jet armlet.
J Storer Clouston
307 - 313
The paper refers to points raised by another author in an earlier paper with which the writer disagrees. These mainly relate to a slab bearing the arms of Flett impaling Tulloch whose interpretation the two writers disagree upon. These include a depiction of a drinking horn rather than a crescent and a letter F rather than a B and the likely date of the slab. The origins of arms-bearing in Orkney is touched upon.
Ludovic Maclellan Mann
314 - 320
The ornaments include a fine, hollow, penannular ring and a larger possible bracelet. There were also found about two dozen fragments of pottery characteristic of a late phase of the Bronze Period, and belonging to two vessels. The penannular object is of a type usually considered to be worn as an earring though it is argued here that it is more likely to have been worn as a hair ornament. The larger object has been made by bending into oval shape a solid gold rod, somewhat thickened in the middle of its length, and by bringing the ends nearly together. To either end has been most skilfully melted on or sweated a calyx or trumpet-shaped piece. This is also interpreted as a hair ornament.
J G Callander
Further information on two of the hoards discussed in the main article came to light after the article was in press. These are the flat axes from Nairnshire and the hoard of broken bronze swords and other objects found in Duddingston Loch.
321 - 350