Issue: Lockerbie Academy

Subtitle Neolithic and Early Historic timber halls, a Bronze Age cemetery, an undated enclosure and a post-medieval corn-drying kiln in south-west Scotland
Publication Type
Abstract Trial trenching carried out by CFA Archaeology Ltd in 2006 to the north of Lockerbie Academy identified four areas of archaeological significance covering a timescale from early Neolithic to post-medieval periods. The earliest site identified was the remains of a Neolithic timber hall, which was situated on top of the flat plateau towards the northwest end of the site (Area A). Pottery recovered from the Neolithic structure was of the Carinated Bowl ceramic tradition.<br /><br />At the summit of the rounded knoll in the centre of the area (Area D) a Bronze Age phase consisting of a cremation and inhumation cemetery enclosed by a possible ring-cairn was identified. The Bronze Age cemetery included a Collared Urn and a copper alloy dagger of Butterwick type.<br /><br />At the base of the rounded knoll, the remains of an Early Historic timber hall were identified (Area C). This Anglian timber hall reoccupied the site of a post-built structure, which was interpreted as a timber hall, possibly belonging to an earlier British tradition. Radiocarbon dates taken from the primary fill of two of the post-holes of the earlier structure gave dates which are broadly contemporary with the dates obtained for the Anglian hall, suggesting that the post-built structure immediately preceded it.<br /><br />A corn-drying kiln was identified cut into the same knoll as the Bronze Age cemetery (Area D) and has been dated to the late medieval or early post-medieval period.<br /><br />A segmented ditched enclosure was located towards the north-east end of the site (Area B), but the poor survival of this feature combined with a lack of finds and palaeobotanical evidence means that it remains undated and poorly understood.
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Author Magnus Kirby
Publisher Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
Year of Publication 2011
Volume 46
ISBN 0 903903 53 0
Source DigitalBorn
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Abstract
Magnus Kirby
1 - 67
Trial trenching carried out by CFA Archaeology Ltd in 2006 to the north of Lockerbie Academy identified four areas of archaeological significance covering a timescale from early Neolithic to post-medieval periods. The earliest site identified was the remains of a Neolithic timber hall, which was situated on top of the flat plateau towards the northwest end of the site (Area A). Pottery recovered from the Neolithic structure was of the Carinated Bowl ceramic tradition.\r\n\r\nAt the summit of the rounded knoll in the centre of the area (Area D) a Bronze Age phase consisting of a cremation and inhumation cemetery enclosed by a possible ring-cairn was identified. The Bronze Age cemetery included a Collared Urn and a copper alloy dagger of Butterwick type.\r\n\r\nAt the base of the rounded knoll, the remains of an Early Historic timber hall were identified (Area C). This Anglian timber hall reoccupied the site of a post-built structure, which was interpreted as a timber hall, possibly belonging to an earlier British tradition. Radiocarbon dates taken from the primary fill of two of the post-holes of the earlier structure gave dates which are broadly contemporary with the dates obtained for the Anglian hall, suggesting that the post-built structure immediately preceded it.\r\n\r\nA corn-drying kiln was identified cut into the same knoll as the Bronze Age cemetery (Area D) and has been dated to the late medieval or early post-medieval period.\r\n\r\nA segmented ditched enclosure was located towards the north-east end of the site (Area B), but the poor survival of this feature combined with a lack of finds and palaeobotanical evidence means that it remains undated and poorly understood.
1
Trial trenching carried out by CFA Archaeology Ltd in 2006 to the north of Lockerbie Academy identified four areas of archaeological significance covering a timescale from early Neolithic to post-medieval periods. The earliest site identified was the remains of a Neolithic timber hall, which was situated on top of the flat plateau towards the northwest end of the site (Area A). Pottery recovered from the Neolithic structure was of the Carinated Bowl ceramic tradition. At the summit of the rounded knoll in the centre of the area (Area D) a Bronze Age phase consisting of a cremation and inhumation cemetery enclosed by a possible ring-cairn was identified. The Bronze Age cemetery included a Collared Urn and a copper alloy dagger of Butterwick type. At the base of the rounded knoll, the remains of an Early Historic timber hall were identified (Area C). This Anglian timber hall reoccupied the site of a post-built structure, which was interpreted as a timber hall, possibly belonging to an earlier British tradition. Radiocarbon dates taken from the primary fill of two of the post-holes of the earlier structure gave dates which are broadly contemporary with the dates obtained for the Anglian hall, suggesting that the post-built structure immediately preceded it. A corn-drying kiln was identified cut into the same knoll as the Bronze Age cemetery (Area D) and has been dated to the late medieval or early post-medieval period. A segmented ditched enclosure was located towards the north-east end of the site (Area B), but the poor survival of this feature combined with a lack of finds and palaeobotanical evidence means that it remains undated and poorly understood.
2 - 5
Site location, archaeological background, setting, methodology and summary of the phasing with radiocarbon dates are discussed.
Alison Sheridan
Sue Anderson
Graeme Warren
Mhairi Hastie
6 - 26
All the evidence for Neolithic activity is presented in this chapter. The timber structure is described under the following headings: terminals, side walls, internal structural elements, internal features and external features, and possible interpretations are presented. There are specialist sections on radiocarbon dates, prehistoric pottery (including a single Iron Age sherd), fired clay, bone and charred plant remains. The discussion considers the evidence for a single structure or separate structures, function and destruction.
Alison Sheridan
12 - 18
Sue Anderson
18 - 19
Graeme Warren
19 - 20
Sue Anderson
20
Mhairi Hastie
20 - 23
Melanie Johnson
Alison Sheridan
Graeme Warren
Adam Jackson
Dawn McLaren
Peter Northover
Sue Anderson
27 - 42
The cemetery comprised three graves containing cremated remains and two possible inhumations. More interments may have been present prior to the insertion of the post-medieval drying kiln. A detailed archaeological description is followed by specialist reports on radiocarbon dates, a Collared Urn, worked flint, a hammerstone, an antler pin, a bronze dagger and cremated human bone.
Melanie Johnson
30 - 31
Graeme Warren
31 - 33
Dawn McLaren
34 - 35
Alison Sheridan
Peter Northover
35 - 38
Ray M McBride
Sue Anderson
Dawn McLaren
Mhairi Hastie
43 - 54
This chapter focusses on the Anglian hall and an earlier structure upon which it was partly superimposed. Although there is a significant amount of documentary evidence concerning the Northumbrian occupation of south-west Scotland, the archaeological evidence is comparatively sparse so the discovery at Lockerbie is important. Archaeological description is followed by discussion of the phasing and radiocarbon dates. There are specialist reports on fired clay, slag, charred plant remains, animal bone and a residual sherd of Roman pottery.
Ray M McBride
48
Sue Anderson
48 - 50
Dawn McLaren
50
Mhairi Hastie
50 - 51
Sue Anderson
50
Dawn McLaren
Sue Anderson
Jennifer Thoms
Mhairi Hastie
55 - 58
There is an archaeological description of the kiln and specialist reports on slag, pottery, animal bone and charred plant remains. Two radiocarbon dates were obtained.
55 - 57
Sue Anderson
55
Dawn McLaren
55
Mhairi Hastie
57
Mhairi Hastie
57 - 58
59 - 60
An enclosure ditch consisted of four segments and could not be dated due to the absence of artefacts or any material for radiocarbon dating.
61
The Neolithic timber hall is only the fourth to be excavated in Scotland while the Bronze Age cemetery is notable for the high-status artefacts recovered. The Anglian hall provides clear evidence of Northumbrian settlement in SW Scotland away from important monastic sites, which previously had been largely inferred from historical records, Anglian place-names and the discovery of Anglian crosses and other sculpture.
62
63 - 67