Series: English Heritage Research Department unpublished report series

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Year of Publication (Start): 1985
Year of Publication (End): 2020
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon A J Arnold
R Howard
Analysis undertaken on samples from 3 and 11-13 Cornmarket resulted in the successful dating of 16 timbers. The front and rear range roofs of 3 Cornmarket are likely to be contemporary, with the timber utilised within them being felled in the ranges AD 1605- 30 and AD 1606-30, respectively. The rear range roof also contains a timber, presumably reused or possibly stockpiled, felled in AD 1587. The crown post from the roof of 11-13 Cornmarket was felled in c AD 1590 with two other timbers, both with a terminus post quem for felling of AD 1556, likely to be coeval with this late sixteenth century felling date. The remaining dated timber from 11-13 Cornmarket has a terminus post quem for felling of AD 1480 and could thus represent either an earlier felling phase or could be a heavily trimmed inner-section of a much longer-lived tree.
Abstract icon
2015
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon M Conway
K Averby
Sheerness is a historic naval town with a unique heritage. Whilst its military installations have been well-studied, the development of civilian settlement and civic facilities have received less attention leading to biases in understanding historic development and, potentially, protection of heritage assets. It is also a town where changes in economic fortunes since the latter part of the 20th century have had a serious effect on the use and survival of heritage assets and where current and foreseeable land use proposals threaten to continue this trend. This project was developed to address these issues by providing a thorough study of the town which explains its current character, the historic influences which have shaped it, the significance of its heritage assets and trends in archaeological potential across the town. The key project outputs are this report and accompanying GIS data. Together these encapsulate aspects of the town's historic character spanning developmental influences, phases of growth, below-ground archaeological potential and built environment character. This research was carried out by Ramboll with input from Archangel Heritage, on behalf of Historic England.
Abstract icon
2016
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon J Minnis
The report was commissioned by Historic England as part of its Heart of Nottingham Heritage Action Zone project, undertaken in partnership with Nottingham City Council. It is intended to increase levels of understanding about the development, architecture, character, use and significance of the buildings in the block bounded by Carrington Street, Canal Street, Greyfriar Gate and Collin Street, to provide information contributing to the consideration of them for statutory and local listing, to contribute towards an improvement in their appearance and to increase public awareness of their importance.
Abstract icon
2017
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon A Bayliss
C Bronk Ramsey
G Cook
S Freeman
W Derek Hamilton
J Van der Plicht
Tree-ring analysis was undertaken on a total of 30 core samples from the principal oak timbers of the roof and ceiling ribs of the nave of Ripon Cathedral. This produced two major site chronologies, one of six samples, 226 rings long (RIPCSQ01), and another of nine samples, 117 rings long (RIPCSQ02). Two other site chronologies each containing two samples were also created. None of these site chronologies, nor any individual samples, could be dated by dendrochronology. A series of ten contiguous decadal blocks of wood from the two main site chronologies were submitted for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Two different cores from each site chronology were sent for dating to two different laboratories. Analysis of these results by wiggle-matching suggests that the timbers in site sequence RIPCSQ01 were felled in cal AD 1855-1870 (95% probability), and the timbers in site sequence RIPCSQ02 were felled in cal AD 1850-1870 (95% probability). This dating suggests that the truncated trusses of the nave roof, both those with single larger principal rafters and those with two very slightly smaller principal rafters in close-set pairs, as well as the ceiling ribs, date to the alterations undertaken under the direction of Sir Gilbert Scott in AD 1862-72
Abstract icon
2014
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon C Hegarty
S Knight
R I Sims
This illustrated report describes the archaeological results and methods of the air photo and lidar mapping and interpretation undertaken for the East and Mid Devon River Catchments National Mapping Programme (6634). The project was funded by the Historic England Heritage Commissions Programme (HCP) and carried out by Cain Hegarty, Stephanie Knight and Richard Sims on behalf of Devon County Council Historic Environment Team. Mapping took place between August 2014 and November 2015 with the report completed in early 2016. The project used Historic England National Mapping Programme methods and standards. This report includes an overview of the sources of aerial imagery and the methods used to create maps and records of the archaeological monuments. There is an overview of the archaeological results which highlights some of the discoveries and analysis arising from this work.The report includes recommendations for further work.
Abstract icon
2016
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Dana Challinor
Z Hazell
In the late 1800s-early 1900s the Iron Age site Glastonbury Lake Village, Godney, Somerset (Scheduled Monument 406) was subjected to extensive excavations by Bulleid and Gray (1911, 1917). This was followed more recently in 1984 by Coles et al (1988), and then in the summer of 2014 when excavations led by R. Brunning (South West Heritage Trust ref. 71/2014; Historic England ref. Pr6989) were carried out in order to i) assess the condition of the in situ archaeological remains, ii) derive a more-detailed chronology and iii) to initiate longterm hydrological monitoring. As part of this most-recent work, a series of waterlogged wood samples were taken for wood identifications, condition assessment, dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating. Over 300 samples were recovered from the trenches that targeted settlement mounds and palisade features, as well as a wood reburial site where Bulleid and Gray had reburied timbers from their excavations.
Abstract icon
2018
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon K Sather
Haven Mill is a 19th-century flour mill situated in Grimsby, North East Lincolnshire. The building is Grade II listed. The structure was erected as a warehouse between 1815 and 1821 and was owned by William Marshall and Sons. The building was then enlarged and converted for use as a steam mill between 1821 and the 1840s. Between 1848 and 1879 a detached two-storey range was added to the west of the site and between 1879 and 1887 the mill was enlarged again. The building remained in use as a mill and warehouse until the mid-20th century and in 1978 it was converted to a public house and shops to the ground floor, restaurant to the first floor and a decade later, a nightclub to the second floor. The ground-floor shop units are currently occupied, but the rest of the structure is no longer in use. The two-storey range to the west of the mill is currently empty, but may soon be developed to form part of the offices of an architecture firm. This report has been undertaken as part of the Grimsby Heritage Action Zone Project (HAZ) and to provide an understanding of the evolution of the structure, providing a chronological interpretation of the building's development to its current form.
Abstract icon
2019
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon A J Arnold
R E Howard
Dendrochronological analysis was undertaken on 23 of the 24 samples obtained from different timbers in the barn at Hall Farm, Hemsby. This analysis produced a single dated site chronology comprising 12 samples with an overall length of 126 rings. These rings were dated as spanning the years AD 1158-1283. Interpretation of the sapwood on the dated samples indicates the timbers represented were all probably cut as part of a single episode of felling in AD 1283 for the construction of the barn. The remaining 12 samples are all ungrouped and undated.
Abstract icon
2015
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon J Clarke
Post-war coal or oil-fired electricity generating power stations, with their massive cooling towers are becoming increasingly rare as they come to the end of their service lives. This report puts them into their historical, technological and engineering context. Jonathan Clarke carried out this research over the course of 2013. The work was originally commissioned by English Heritage - now Historic England - as scoping work for the National Heritage Protection Plan's Responsive Designation activity. Where the report refers to the work of English Heritage, these functions are now carried out by Historic England.
Abstract icon
2016
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon A J Arnold
R Howard
Dendrochronological analysis was undertaken on two of the three samples obtained from the remaining timbers in the ruin of Landmoth Hall. This analysis was unsuccessful and hence the two samples remain undated.
Abstract icon
2015
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon M C Bridge
Samples were taken from ten oak timbers in the Little Chishill windmill of which six were dated. A reused diagonal front brace gave a likely felling date range of AD 1696-1728, making it much earlier than the other dated timbers. The remaining five dated timbers formed a coherent group of which one, with complete sapwood, was derived from a tree felled in the winter of AD 1817/18. It is therefore suggested that the major part of the buck seen today was constructed in AD 1818 or within a few years after this date, which is in accordance with a published note that the mill may have been rebuilt in AD 1819.
Abstract icon
2015
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon C Tyers
M Hurford
M C Bridge
Dendrochronological analysis was undertaken on 16 samples from the barn at Manor Farm. This resulted in the production of two site sequences, KDMBSQ01 and KDMBSQ02. The former comprises eight samples with an overall length of 150 rings and the latter two samples with an overall length of 81 rings. Site sequence KDMBSQ01 is dated as spanning the years AD 1260-1409. Site sequence KDMBSQ02 is undated. A single sample, KDM-B09, with an overall length of 113 rings is dated as spanning the years AD 1371-1483. Five samples remain ungrouped and undated. The results indicate that the timbers used in the primary construction of the barn were probably all felled in the last few years of the first decade of the fifteenth century. A single dated arcade post from the southernmost truss indicates that the building underwent repairs or modifications just under a century later, in the last few years of the fifteenth century or, the first few years of the sixteenth century.
Abstract icon
2014
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon R Howard
M Barber
This survey involved the interpretation, transcription and recording of all significant archaeological features seen on aerial photographs at and in the immediate environs of the 'henge enclosure' known as Mount Pleasant on the outskirts of Dorchester, Dorset. The survey followed observation of previously unrecognised features visible on photographs taken in 2003, as part of English Heritage's annual aerial reconnaissance programme. Assessment of historic photographs in the National Monuments Record (now English Heritage Archive) collection at Swindon demonstrated that many of these 'new' features had been photographed before, but that despite the significance of the site, and the amount of work undertaken in the vicinity over the years, no systematic analysis of the aerial photographic evidence had ever been undertaken. Among the key features discussed are additional entrances into the henge enclosure, evidence for external ditches, enlarged or heightened banks, and a possible approach linking the enclosure to the River Frome, along with a number of previously unrecognised ring ditches outside the enclosure.
Abstract icon
2014
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon A J Arnold
Dendrochronological analysis of eight oak samples from window lintels in the north wing of the Chantry at Kilve has produced a single dated site chronology (KLVASQ01) comprising two of the samples measured from lintels at the upper floor levels. This site chronology has an overall length of 120 rings, these dated as spanning the years AD 1425-1544. Interpretation of the sapwood indicates that at least one of these lintels was felled in the period AD 1559-84, while the second lintel was not felled before AD 1539 and may well be coeval with the sixteenth century felling date identified. A second site chronology (KLVASQ02) comprising two further samples, and the three ungrouped samples, remain undated. One sample was rejected as unsuitable prior to measurement. Single ring subsamples from two of the undated timbers, KLV-A01 (part of KLVASQ02) and KLV-A04, were submitted for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Analysis of these results by wiggle-matching suggests that both of the ground floor lintels in site sequence KLVASQ02 were felled in the late thirteenth century cal AD, along with the ungrouped timber KLV-A04.
Abstract icon
2015
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon A Arnold
R Howard
C Tyers
Analysis was undertaken on samples from timbers of the roof and wall framing, believed to be associated with the primary construction phase, and also from timbers associated with the later alterations in relation to the doorways, resulting in the construction of three site sequences. Site sequence NRTNSQ01 contains 13 samples from the primary structure and spans the period AD 1384-1481. One of these timbers, a wall plate, was felled in c AD 1489, with the other dated timbers having felling dates ranges of between AD 1469-94 (earliest) and AD 1488-1513 (latest). It is thought likely that all of these primary timbers were felled in, or around, c AD 1489, with construction following shortly after. Site sequence NRTNSQ02 contains seven samples associated with later alterations and spans the period AD 1519-1626. Doorway 1 contains two timbers which were felled in AD 1626, Doorway 2 contains two timbers felled in AD 1625-50, a single timber from Doorway 3 was felled in AD 1627-52, whilst two timbers from Doorway 4 were felled in AD 1613-38. These dates suggest the four doorways were all altered or inserted in the first half of the seventeenth century, possibly all in the AD 1620s. The third site sequence, NTRDSQ03 is undated.
Abstract icon
2017
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon S Paynter
D Dungworth
A survey of selected metal statues was carried out to determine the nature of the metal, as well as any coatings applied to them in the past or more recently, to inform future conservation work. Portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) was used to confirm the existing identifications of zinc and 'bronze' metals given in the curatorial report (Hunter 2015). Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, but the term is often used more broadly when referring to decorative metalwork or art, encompassing a range of copper alloys. Documentary accounts describe how the zinc statues were originally plated with a copper alloy (Hunter 2015), a process repeated in 1860, some of which still survived at the time they were conserved in 1991. The zinc statues were also coated in a protective coating in 1991, which gave the otherwise grey metal a 'bronze' appearance. This coating is now cracking and is lifting in places, exposing grey metal beneath. Two fragments of failed protective coating were characterised using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
Abstract icon
2017
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon R Howard
M Barber
This survey involved the interpretation, transcription and recording of archaeological features seen on aerial photographs in the immediate vicinity of the Stoke Down Neolithic flint mines near Chichester, West Sussex. The main stimulus was the discovery during the annual English Heritage reconnaissance programme of new cropmark detail, including an extension to the area of mining itself as well as the recognition of some nearby ring ditches. The opportunity was also taken to examine the history of investigation at the flint mines. This represents a considerable updating of the survey undertaken for the 1999 RCHME publication The Neolithic Flint Mines of England.
Abstract icon
2014
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon A J Arnold
Dendrochronological analysis was undertaken on 42 of the 43 samples obtained from the northern and southern parts of the Great Tythe Barn at Bolton Abbey. This analysis produced a single site chronology comprising 37 samples, being 169 rings long, and dated as spanning AD 1350-1518. Interpretation of the sapwood on the dated samples indicates that the entire barn is the product of a single programme of felling starting in the spring of AD 1518 and finishing in the dormant period during the winter of AD 1518/19. As such, it is clear that the two parts of the barn, in spite of showing some differences in construction, are coeval. Five measured samples remain ungrouped and undated.
Abstract icon
2015
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Kathryn Morrison
Stewartby Brickworks, Bedfordshire, closed in May 2008. At one time this was not just the largest brickworks in Bedfordshire, nor even just the largest within the extensive Fletton-making industry that spread from Hunts to Bucks between the 1880s and the late 20th century. Stewartby could also claim to be the largest brickworks - in terms of output - in the world. Beside the brickworks, the company (until 1984, the London Brick Company) built a model village for its workforce. Begun in 1926, this was laid out on 'Garden City' principles. Successive groups of overseas workers arrived to work in the local brick industry and settled in the village and surrounding area with their families. In this way, Stewartby is a reminder of how Bedfordshire acquired its rich multi-cultural society. The Fletton industry is of particular significance, as huge numbers of mid-20th century buildings, the length and breadth of the country, are constructed of this type of brick, whether plain or decorative. One of the best known facing bricks is the Rustic Fletton, invented at Stewartby in 1923. With the closure of Stewartby, only two of the 50 principal Fletton brickworks remain in production (see Table 1). At its peak, Stewartby had numerous Hoffman kilns, with a total of 32 chimneys which were visible for miles in all directions. Although greatly reduced in number, the surviving chimneys are a dramatic and iconic feature in the local landscape, and are known not only to local people but to those who pass through the county.
Abstract icon
2018
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon C Tyers
M Hurford
Dendrochronological analysis was undertaken on 15 of the 18 timbers sampled in the roofs of the hall and east wing of the Old Manor House. This resulted in the production of two site chronologies, WLOMSQ01 and WLOMSQ02. These comprise 12 and two samples with overall lengths of 234 rings and 62 rings respectively. The first site chronology can be dated as spanning the years AD 1264-1497, whilst the second chronology is undated, as is the single ungrouped sample. The results identified that the dated timbers used in the primary construction of the roofs of the hall and east wing are likely to be coeval and all were felled during the first third of the sixteenth century.
Abstract icon
2014
 
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