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Click here to see strategies recommended for addressing agenda themes and topics for this period.
9.1 Urban and rural settlements
  1. How have industrialisation and population growth impacted upon settlement patterns and the agricultural economy?
  2. How have established and nascent settlements developed in terms of their morphology, internal organisation and functions, and how far may land ownership and legislative controls have influenced development?
  3. How have settlements expanded beyond their historic cores (e.g. suburban growth, peripheral housing estates and industrial parks)?
  4. What impact have co-operative movements and paternalism had on the social, economic and physical development of settlements?
  5. How have the expanding public utilities impacted upon development (particularly those relating to waste management)?
  6. How far may urbanisation and industrialisation have enhanced living conditions and diet (e.g. from assessment of environmental data)?

9.2 Buildings in town and countryside

  1. Can we establish a typology of modern buildings, particularly of the twentieth century, and how does this vary regionally?
  2. How have building types changed (e.g. adaption of industrial buildings to new uses) and what has been the impact of building regulations?
  3. How have mass housing developments and civic or public buildings such as prisons, schools and workhouses influenced settlement growth?
  4. To what extent are issues of power, control and status reflected in regional building types?

9.3 Cultural diversity and religion

  1. What has been the impact of cultural diversity upon the buildings record, settlement development and industrial and commercial growth?
  2. What is the range and nature of religious buildings, how do these vary between religious faiths, and how have buildings been adapted for use by different religious groups?
  3. How can we establish a typology of church and chapel styles, including internal furnishings, decoration and monuments?
  4. What may be deduced from cemetery studies about changing attitudes to burial and remembrance and evolving funerary architecture?

9.4 The transport infrastructure

  1. What linear transport features, river/canal craft and associated structural remains have survived, and how does this vary regionally?
  2. What roles have different transport systems played in the development of industry, commerce, agriculture and settlement?
  3. How has the relationship between linear transport systems developed over time (e.g. shift from canal to rail transport)?
  4. Can associated construction sites be identified (e.g. navvy camps)?
  5. What impact has airport development had upon the landscape and transport infrastructure?

9.5 Estates, parks, gardens and woodland

  1. What was the social role and influence of country houses and estates?
  2. What survives of country estates, parks and gardens, how are they distributed, and how should they be classified?
  3. Can we establish a typology of buildings and other structures associated with country estates, parks and gardens (e.g. estate villages)?
  4. How may élite landscapes have influenced municipal park designs?
  5. How was woodland managed and exploited for industrial use, and what is the range of surviving evidence?
  6. How have recreational activities, including gentry pursuits such as fox- hunting and game shooting, impacted upon landscapes and buildings?

9.6 Agriculture

  1. What was the impetus for the development of estate farming and rural agricultural industries, and what has been the landscape impact?
  2. How did Parliamentary enclosure and other agricultural improvements (e.g. water management) impact upon the rural landscape?
  3. What was the role and distribution of planned model farms?
  4. How can archaeology contribute to studies of the changing aspirations of the rural working classes (e.g. provision of allotments and schools)?
  5. What changes and improvements have occurred in animal husbandry and use (e.g. new breeds, traction and traded animal products)?
  6. What crops and garden plants have been recorded in the countryside and urban market gardens, and what innovations may be identified?

9.7 The growth of industry

  1. What craft industries existed prior to 1850 and can we identify the remains of associated buildings and other structures?
  2. How have agricultural processing industries such as brewing, malting and milling developed, and what structural remains have survived?
  3. How can we enhance our records of mines and surface features associated with extractive industry and their relationship to markets, settlements and transport?
  4. How can we develop further our understanding of brick-making and the manufacture of pottery, tiles and clay pipes?
  5. How did the wool, cotton, hosiery and lace mills and their water management systems develop and interrelate, and how did the relationship between home and factory production vary?
  6. Can we elucidate further the development and organisation of the Northamptonshire and Leicestershire boot and shoe industry?

9.8 Military sites

  1. Can we establish a typology of surviving post-1750 military remains?
  2. How are military sites distributed across the region?
  3. What impacts have military developments had upon settlement development, landscapes, industry and transport?

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Trent & Peak Archaeology
Site/Project Name
Darley Hall Icehouse
Darley Abbey
County/Unitary Authority
SK 35190 38317
Report and Web Link

Agenda Topic(s)

Research Objective(s)

How has this work addressed the Research Agenda and Strategy?

Excavations targeted the remains of an icehouse built in association with Darley Hall (1727) and located on the 1880 (revised) first edition OS map. The aims were to assess the remains to see if they could be consolidated, and to see if its structure contained any association with the remains of the lost Darley Abbey. Excavations actually revealed an octagonal platform believed to be the remains of a game larder, built around the turn of the century. It is possible that the game larder was recorded as an icehouse on the map, or it could be that the icehouse was too deep to be reached by hand excavation. Either way, the presence of a game larder in relation to the Hall stables and the Hall itself is something that is matched at other stately homes, suggesting a theme in distribution of such features (9.5.2) and their popularity and association with country houses of this period (9.5.3).

--Laura Binns, 05-Feb-2018 10:12

Trent & Peak Archaeology
Site/Project Name
Technology Then, Technology Now
County/Unitary Authority
Peak District National Park Authority
Report and Web Link
Strange-Walker, D 2014 'Technology then and now'. Archaeology and Conservation in Derbyshire 12, 8-9; http://www.derwentvalleymills.org/learn/learning-schools/school-projects/the-technology-then-technology-now/

Agenda Topic(s)

Research Objective(s)

How has this work addressed the Research Agenda and Strategy?

'The Technology Then, Technology Now' project was funded by the Heritage Lottery 'Young Roots' programme and developed during 2013 and 2014 by young people aged 16 to 24 years from Highfields School in Matlock, Belper School and Nottingham Trent University together with Derbyshire County Council, Nottingham Trent University, Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site and Trent & Peak Archaeology.

The project has demonstrated the potential of laser scanning technology as a tool for creating accurate high-definition and georeferenced digital surveys of 19th century industrial buildings and their fittings. The project surveyed multiple sites within the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site including Cromford Mills, Darley Abbey Mills, Strutt's North Mill and Leawood Pumphouse and thereby adresses Research Agenda Topic 9.7.2 and Research Objective 9K. The products of the project can viewed here and the project is further discussed in Strange-Walker, D 2014 'Technology then and now'. Archaeology and Conservation in Derbyshire 12, 8-9.

--Tina Roushannafas, 05-Feb-2018 16:00

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  This page (revision-80) was last changed on 05-Feb-2018 16:02 by Tina Roushannafas