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Dept of Archaeology
University of Southampton
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Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are persistent identifiers which can be used to consistently and accurately reference digital objects and/or content. The DOIs provide a way for the ADS resources to be cited in a similar fashion to traditional scholarly materials. More information on DOIs at the ADS can be found on our help page.
DOIs should be the last element in a citation irrespective of the format used. The DOI citation should begin with "doi:" in lowercase followed by the DOI with no spaces between the ":" and the DOI.
DOIs can also be cited as a persistent link from another Web page. This is done by appending the DOI Resolver with the DOI. This would look like:
However, if it is possible it is best to hide the URL in the href property of the <a> tag and have the link text be of the form doi:10.5284/1028192. The HTML for this would look like:
University of Southampton (2014) Roman Amphorae: a digital resource [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] (doi:10.5284/1028192)
This website is an online and introductory resource for the study of Roman amphorae, rather than a definitive study of all amphorae for specialists. It encompasses most of the principal types manufactured throughout the Roman empire between the late third century BC and the early seventh century AD. In the amphora descriptions that follow, the word "Type" is used loosely and is taken to represent a shape which has been recognized as being significantly different from other known shapes by previous studies. The defining characteristics are usually details of key aspects of a vessel's shape, such as its rim, neck, handles, body and spike (foot).
It builds upon two works published in the 1980s (Peacock and Williams, 1986; Keay, 1984) and presents basic typological information for c. 250 forms. It would have been impossible to include all amphorae and their variants on this site, not least because new types continue to be discovered on excavations, particularly in the eastern Mediterranean. Preference has thus been given to providing basic information about the more common types of amphorae while trying to ensure as broad a geographical spread as possible. Inevitably, therefore, some types of regional or local significance will not be represented. The site also largely excludes those amphorae, such as Punic, Iberian and Ebussitanian types, which were produced during the Roman Republican period but whose shape lies outside the mainstream Roman amphora tradition. Detailed typological information about variants has been kept to a minimum. The distinguishing feature of this website is that it provides information about the clay fabric of most types derived from the physical analysis of the clay by visual and thin-section analysis. This arises from the belief that while typological issues are important in identifying amphorae, the characterization of clay fabrics has a greater role to play than has often been the case to date.
The website has been designed by the ADS to have a standard ADS look and feel so as to be familiar to users of other ADS resources. There are basically three main sections to the website: Amphora types, fabric types and bibliographic references. These are supported by additional background information on the resource and search tools. The information is organised in such a way as to allow a user to browse in a non-linear fashion, with hyperlinks between related concepts. For example, a user may wish to find an amphora type by name initially, then find amphorae which share a particular characteristic, and finally view which fabrics are associated with these amphorae. Alternatively, a user may be interested in a particular fabric and begin by searching the catalogue of fabric types before viewing particular amphorae of interest and finally associated references. A third option would be to search for a particular reference of interest and follow the links through to see which amphora are referred to by the specified reference. As such, there are a number of starting points and paths through the information resource.
Each page within the website has the standard ADS ArchSearch banner on the left hand side providing a standard set of ADS links. At the top of each page is the project banner and below this, the website navigation pane. This navigation pane provides the following links:
Follow this link to access the main section of the database; the catalogue of amphora. The catalogue is presented as an alphabetical list of amphora names. Each amphora type represented on this website has been assigned its own entries, many of which have been put together by different contributors. Since the amount of information known about each amphora type varies quite considerably, there is some variation in the level of detail recorded - although every attempt has been to ensure a basic level of consistency. Click on a name to go to the detailed information page for that particular amphora type.
It begins with a leading Type name, and is that by which it is frequently known. Since many types have featured in a number of different typologies, many types have several names, which are listed under the heading "Classification". The type names applied to amphorae either refer to scholars (e.g. Dressel or Beltrán), ancient provinces (e.g. Tripolitania), sites (e.g. Augst), modern places near to where they were manufactured (e.g. Forlimpopoli) or general names (e.g. Late Roman Amphora).
Each amphora "page" is structured in the following way:
A brief description of the complete amphora type, emphasizing the distinguishing characteristics of its rim, handles, and spike. This is accompanied by a line-drawing(s) of a complete example, or a fragment where this is known: all the drawings on the website are drawn to a common scale of 1 to 10, and details at 1 to 5. Colour photographs are also provided. More detailed analysis of the shape, sub-types and general variations in shape can be found in the publications cited for the type. In those cases where an amphora was stamped, there is a link to the stamps hosted by the CEIPAC (Centro para el Estudio de la Interdependencia Provincial en la Antiguedad Clásica) website, hosted by the Universitat de Barcelona.
The approximate dates (earliest and latest) for production of the amphorae. These mostly, but not always, tend to derive from the sites on land to which the amphorae had been imported and used, rather than from the sites at which they were produced since well-dated kiln sites are still comparatively rare. In some cases wrecks provide important sealed assemblages of amphorae dated to the time that the ships foundered.
A brief statement as to main known areas of production. Preference is given in this website to origins known directly from the discovery of specific forms at an identified kiln site, the identification of mineral inclusions distinctive to a particular part of the Roman empire (see fabric below), or information recorded in tituli picti and stamps. Vagueries of discovery make distribution maps a potentially erroneous way of assigning origins to amphorae. Similarities in shape are subjective and can be misleading.
Search criteria for a list of countries or areas where the type is known or thought to have been manufactured.
This statement attempts to summarize what is known about the broad areas of the type distribution. It is not intended to read as a list of all known find-spots, which would be well beyond the scope of this resource. The regions and places cited for each type give an approximate idea as to the extent to which the type was traded: some of the more important sites can be located on maps of the Roman empire. Detailed distribution maps have not been provided since, without a list of all known published and unpublished examples of each type, this could be potentially misleading.
Search criteria for a list of countries or areas where the type has been found.
A statement as to the known or hypothesized content. Occasionally this is known from food residues (mainly wine, fish sauce, olive oil) found in the amphorae themselves. In other cases, it is suggested on the basis of the content of tituli picti. For many, however, it is little more than an educated guess based upon the crops known to have been produced in the suggested production area, or the similarity of the form to others whose content is better known. It should also be borne in mind that some amphorae were re-used, holding different contents at different time, while others may have been designed as non-commodity specific.
Search criteria for a list of the specific products transported or thought to be transported by the amphorae.
Names of the individuals responsible for compiling the description of the amphorae (see Scientific Collaboration Below). Unless otherwise stated, all fabric and petrological descriptions were undertaken by David Williams.
Alternative names that have been assigned to that amphora type.
This page also includes:
Search criteria for capacity. This statement attempts to provide an idea of the capacity of the amphora type. Since there is often variation in the size of amphorae within a type, this should be regarded as approximate and the upper limit of size. The capacity of types known only as fragments is impossible to calculate.
Min Height, Max Height, Min Rim Diameter, Maximum Rim Diameter:
These are the approximate measurements of complete examples, or fragments if these survive. These are often an important criterion in assigning fragments to one form or another. Further measurements of rim, base or handle fragments can be found in the more detailed studies and site reports cited under references.
Search criteria for the type of fabric in which the amphora is made.
It is hoped that this information, together with the hand specimen photos (see below), will allow comparisons to be made with material belonging to those accessing the site and for the origins of particular amphorae to be confidently sourced. In this site we have emphasized the hand-specimen and petrographic descriptions of amphorae because of their visual nature in the aid to characterization and identification. However, a growing body of work on the provenance of amphora fabrics has also been deduced from chemical analysis (see for example Gurt Esparraguera et alii, 2004; Eiring and Lund, 2004). Although that kind of evidence is not presented here in detail it is incorporated into discussions about origins where relevant.
In some cases, fabric samples were unavailable for certain types so that a detailed fabric description was not possible. Nevertheless it was felt worthwhile to include the typological information in the interests of making the type better known.