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The Experimental Earthwork Project: 1960-1992

Edited by M.Bell, P.J.Fowler and S.W.Hillson

CBA Research Report No 100 (1996)

ISBN 1 872414 64 8


Abstract

Title page of report 100

This monograph reports on, provides a synthesis of, and assesses the results from the first 32 years of the Experimental Earthwork Project.

Contents

  • Title pages - Table of contents (pp i-viii)
  • List of figures (pp ix-vix)
  • List of tables (pp xv-xvi)
  • List of contributors' names and addresses (pp xvi-xviii)
  • Summaries, English, French, German (pp xix-xxi)
  • Acknowledgements (pp xxii-xxiii)
  • Preface (pp xxiv-xxvi)
    • Introduction by P.Fowler and G.Swanton (pp 1-7)
      • Nature of the experiment (pp 1-3)
      • Nature of this report (pp 4)
      • Editorial notes: (a) authorship, (b) mensuration (pp 4-5)
      • Organization and personnel (pp 5-7)
    • Background, Overton by P.Fowler and G.Swanton (pp 8-12)
      • Introduction (pp 8)
      • 1960-64: The historical background (pp 8)
      • Summary of results 1960-7(pp 8-10)
      • The photographic record (pp 10)
      • The setting (pp 10-11)
      • The weather (pp 11-12)
      • The coin experiment (pp 12)
    • The vegetation of the Overton Site 1969-92 by J.H.Hemsley (pp 13-26)
      • Editorial note (pp 13)
      • Vegetation survey 1984 (pp 13-19)
      • Vegetation survey 1992 (pp 19-24)
      • Note on the recording method (pp 24-25)
      • Exemplars from the Project Archive (pp 25-26)
    • The 1968 Overton excavation (8th year) by P.Fowler (pp 27-33)
      • Introduction (pp 27-28)
      • The bank and the berm (pp 28-32)
      • The ditch (pp 32-33)
    • The 1976 Overton excavation (16th year) by P.Fowler (pp 34-42)
      • Introduction (pp 34-35)
        • Appendix: a modern burial (pp 35)
      • The bank (pp 35-39)
      • The ditch (pp 39)
      • The geomorphology of the ditch infillBy K.Crabtree (pp 39-42)
    • Artefacts and buried materials from the Overton Down, 1968 and 1976 excavations by P.Fowler with major contributions by G.W.Dimbleby and S.Limbrey (pp 43-65)
      • Introduction (pp 43)
      • Lycopodium spores by G.W.Dimbleby (pp 43-45)
      • Ceramics and their experimental roles in the Overton Down Earthwork (pp 45-46)
      • Pottery discs, potsherd and flints (pp 46-52)
      • The buried materials (pp 52-65)
    • Overton Down 1992 excavation (32nd year) by M.Bell (pp 66-89)
      • Introduction (pp 66)
      • The research design (pp 66-67)
      • Methodology (pp 67-70)
      • Changes to the ditch (pp 70-73)
      • The bank (pp 73-78)
      • Placed objects (pp 78-80)
      • Buried materials in the chalk environment (pp 80-85)
      • Buried materials in the turf environment (pp 85-89)
    • Soils and sediments from the Overton Down 1992 section (pp 90-126)
      • Introduction (pp 90)
      • Particle size analysis of ditch sediments by K.Crabtree (pp 90-93)
      • Characterization of ditch sediments by J.Crowther (pp 93-95)
      • Soil micromorphology by R.Macphail and G.M.Cruise (pp 95-107)
      • Soil chemistry by J.Crowther (pp 107-118)
      • Magnetic susceptibility survey by A.J.Clark (pp 118-121)
      • Amino acid studies by J.Beavis and G.MacLeod (pp 121-126)
    • Biological evidence from the old land surface and ditch in the Overton 1992 section (pp 127-146)
      • Introduction (pp 127)
      • Lycopodium spores by K.Crabtree(pp 127-129)
      • Pollen analysis, old land surface by K.Crabtree (pp 129-131)
      • Microscopic charcoal by J.Moore (pp 131-134)
      • Seed flora studies by W.Carruthers and V.Straker (pp 134-138)
      • Seed persistence and plant decomposition after soil burial for 32 years by G.A.F.Hendry,S.R.Band and S.Johnson (pp 138-140)
      • Land molluscs by M.Bell and S.Johnson (pp 140-142)
      • Modern molluscs by A.Rouse (pp 142-146)
    • Buried materials from the Overton Down 1992 excavation (pp 147-177)
      • Field recovery and storage of teh buried materials by R.Janaway (pp 147-148)
      • Moisture content and pH within the earthworkR.Janaway and P.Maclean (pp 148)
      • Microbiological report by J.Kelley and P.Wiltshire(pp 148-155)
      • Micromorphological aspects of wood decay by R.A.Blanchette(pp 155-160)
      • Textiles by R.Janaway (pp 160-168)
      • The textiles and their fibres by M.L.Ryder (pp 168-174)
      • Infrared analysis of the textile samplesby S.Hardman (pp 174-176)
      • Leather samples by G.Edwards (pp 176-177)
    • Studies of the buried bone from the Overton 1992 excavation (pp 178-200)
      • Introduction (pp 178)
      • Surface modification of bone by M.Armour-Chelu and P.Andrews (pp 178-185)
      • A scanning electron microscope study of bone,cement,dentine and enamel by S.Hillson and S.Bond (pp 185-195)
      • Phosphate migration around buried bones by J.Crowther (pp 195-196)
      • A note on work-in-progress on the DNA content and other diagenetic aspects of Overton Down bone by R.E.M.Hedges,M.B.Richards and B.C.Sykes (pp 196-199)
      • Chemical structure of DNA in bone form Overton Down by T.A.Brown,K.O'Donoghue and K.A.Brown (pp 199-200)
    • The Experimental Earthwork on Modern Bog, Wareham 1973 (10th year) to 1990 (27th year)by S.W.Hillson (pp 201-224)
      • Introduction (pp 201)
      • Current vegetation and management of the siteby J.Hemsley (pp 201-205)
      • Excavation programme (pp 205)
      • The development of the ditch section (pp 205-206)
        • Geomorphology of the ditch by K.Crabtree (pp 206-208)
      • The development of the bank (pp 208-216)
        • The changing bank stratigraphy (pp 208-209)
        • Markers within the bank (pp 209-211)
        • Buried soils within and under the bank (pp 211-214)
        • Soil micromorphology by R.Macphail (pp 214-216)
      • Archaeological applications of ditch and bank studies (pp 216-217)
      • Buried materials (pp 217-223)
        • Wool following a report by H.M.Appleyard (pp 217-218)
        • Linen and rope (pp 218)
        • Leather and hide (pp 218-221)
        • Wood billetsby J.Hather (pp 221-222)
        • Animal bone (pp 222)
        • Cremated human bone and human blood (pp 222)
        • Glass (pp 222)
        • Fired clay (pp 222-223)
        • Flints (pp 223)
        • Halfpennies and steel discs (pp 223)
        • Lycopodium spores (pp 223)
      • Archaeological applications of the buried materials (pp 223)
      • Suggestions for future planning (pp 224)
    • Experimental domestic octagonal earthworksby P.J.Reynolds (pp 225-227)
    • Discussion and conclusions by M.Bell (pp 228-246)
      • Historical context (pp 228-230)
      • Issues of timescale (pp 230-231)
      • Vegetational history - Overton Down (pp 231-232)
      • Comparison of vegetation history at Overton and Wareham (pp 232)
      • The experiment's contribution to conservation issues (pp 232-233)
      • Comparison of the buried soils and turf stacks (pp 233)
      • Comparison of the banks (pp 233-234)
      • Comparison of the ditches (pp 234-236)
      • Earthworms and soil fauna (pp 236-237)
      • Biological evidence (pp 237-238)
      • The buried materials (pp 238-241)
      • Comparison between the buried materials at Overton and Wareham (pp 241-242)
      • Ongoing analysis (pp 242-243)
      • Problems with the experiment (pp 243-244)
      • Merits of the experiment (pp 244)
      • Work study (pp 244)
      • Experiment and the study of formation processes in archaeology (pp 244-246)
      • Acknowledgements (pp 246)
  • Bibliography (pp 247-258)
  • Index by S.Vaughan (pp 259-267)

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