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Danebury: An Iron age hillfort in Hampshire Vol 2 The excavations 1969-1978: the finds

Barry Cunliffe

CBA Research Report No 52b (1984)

ISBN 0 906780 29 2

Abstract

Title page of report 52b

This is the second volume of Report 52, which focuses on the finds. The Iron Age hillfort of Danebury, in Hampshire, has been the scene of a major programme of excavation which began in 1969. There are three volumes; Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with the site and the material remains from it, while volume 3, produced by the RCHM(E), presents a survey of the cultural landscape within which Danebury lies. The excavations from 1979 until the end of the project will be published in one or two more volumes, reserving a final volume for ancillary studies generated by the Danebury data-set.These reports merely advertise what is available and offer some general approximations to the truth which may help those interested in these matters to design new and more penetrating analyses.

Contents

  • Title pages
  • 6 The Iron Age pottery (p 231)
    • 6.1 (p 231)
      • 6.1.1 (p 231)
      • 6.1.2 Approaches to analysis(p 231)
    • 6.2 The typological categories defined (p 231)
      • 6.2.1 Vessel forms (p 231)
      • 6.2.2 Fabrics (p 232)
      • 6.2.3 Surface treatment (p 22)
    • 6.3 Ceramic sequence (p 233 )
      • 6.3.1 Current scheme (p 233)
      • 6.3.2 The hypothetical model of ceramic phases (p 233)
      • 6.3.3 Test 1: the sequence of ceramic phases in the quarry hollows (p 234)
      • 6.3.4 Test 2: fabric change within the stratified sequence by Lisa Brown (p 236)
      • 6.3.5 Test 3-5: fabric change according to ceramic phase by Gary Lock (p 237)
      • 6.3.6 Test 6: intercutting pits by Barry Cunliffe and Lisa Brown (p 240)
      • 6.3.7 Test 7: the ceramic phase sequence tested by radiocarbon dating (p 242)
      • 6.3.8 Test 8: the assignment of absolute dates (p 242)
      • 6.3.9 Test 9: fine phasing by seriation within cp 7-8 by Gary Lock (p 242)
    • 6.4 The fabrics and their origins (p 244)
      • 6.4.1 Resources (p 244)
      • 6.4.2 Ceramic phases 1-7 : local fabrics(p 244)
      • 6.4.3 Ceramic phases 1-7: imported fabrics (p 246)
      • 6.4.4 Ceramic phases 8-9: local fabrics (p 246)
      • 6.4.5 Ceramic phases 8-9: imported fabrics (p 247)
    • 6.5 Technological change (p 248)
      • 6.5.1 Ceramic phases 1-7 (p 248)
      • 6.5.2 Ceramic phase 8-9 (p 248)
    • 6.6 Forms and function (p 249)
    • 6.7 The distribution of pottery within the fort (p 250)
    • 6.8 Regional implications (p 251)
      • 6.8.1 The earliest Wessex haematite-coated wares (p 253)
      • 6.8.2 (p 254)
      • 6.8.3 The saucepan pot style (p 254)
      • 6.8.4 Atrebatic pottery (p 256)
    • 6.9 Other approaches to analysis (p 258)
    • 6.10 Summary (p 258)
      • 6.10.1 Sequence (p 258)
      • 6.10.2 Sources of supply (p 259)
      • 6.10.3 Social implications (p 259)
      • 6.10.4 Regional implications (p 259)
    • Appendix 1: the ceramic forms described and illustrated (p 259)
    • Appendix 2: the fabrics (p 308)
    • Appendix 3: surface treatment and decoration (p 308)
    • Appendix 4: some typical stratified groups (p 314)
    • Appendix 5: the nature of the avilable archive (p 331)
    • Bibliography (p 331)
  • 7 The material remains (p 332)
    • 7.1 Small finds (p 332)
      • 7.1.1 Introduction (p 332)
      • 7.1.2 Coins by Lyn Sellwood, Melinda Mays, and John W Taylor(p 332)
      • 7.1.3 The late Bronze Age hoard by Dennis Britton, Brendan O'Connor, and Barry, Cunliffe (p 335)
      • 7.1.4 Other objects of copper alloy by Martyn Jope and Barry Cunliffe (p 340)
      • 7.1.5 by Lyn Selwood (p 346)
      • 7.1.6 Objects of bone and antler by Lyn Sellwood (p 371)
      • 7.1.7 Objects of Kimmeridge shale by Barry Cunliffe (p 396)
      • 7.1.8 Beads of amber and coralby Barry Cunliffe (p 396)
      • 7.1.9 Beads of glass by Julian Henderson (p 396)
      • 7.1.10 Objects of baked clay by Cynthia Poole (p 398)
      • 7.1.11 Objects of stone by Lisa Brown (p 407)
      • 7.1.12 Wooden shovel or paddle by Barry Cunliffe (p 426)
      • 7.1.13 Briquetage containers by Cynthia Poole(p 426)
    • 7.2 Metallurgical analyses (p 430)
      • 7.2.1 Introduction (p 430)
      • 7.2.2 Analysis of the bronze metalwork by Peter Northover(p 430)
      • 7.2.3 Metallurgical aspects of the ironwork Sris Salter(p 426)
    • 7.3 Manufacturing activities (p 436)
      • 7.3.1 Metalworking (p 436)
      • 7.3.2 Pottery manufacture(p 438)
      • 7.3.3 Pottery manufacture (p 438)
      • 7.3.4 Textile manufacture by Lyn Sellwood (p 438)
      • 7.3.5 Bone and antler work (p 439)
      • 7.3.6 Ornaments of rare materials(p 439)
    • Bibliography (p 439)
  • 8 Population and behaviour (p 442)
    • 8.1 The deposition of the human remains by Lucy Walker (p 442)
      • 8.1.1 Types of burial practice (p 442)
      • 8.1.2 Treatment of the data in the burial assemblage (p 442)
      • 8.1.3 Burial tradition (p 442)
      • 8.1.4 Deposition categories (p 443)
      • 8.1.5 Chronological factors in burial practice (p 456)
      • 8.1.6 The spatical distribution of human remains (p 457)
      • 8.1.7 The population structure of the skeletal remains (p 457)
      • 8.1.8 Discussion (p 461)
    • 8.2 Anatomical considerations by Bari Hopper(p 463)
      • 8.2.1 Introduction (p 463)
      • 8.2.2 Estimation of age at death (p 463)
      • 8.2.3 Determination of sex (p 464)
      • 8.2.4 Estimation of stature (p 465)
      • 8.2.5 Skeletal adaptation (p 465)
      • 8.2.6 Epigenetic variants (p 465)
      • 8.2.7 Pathology (p 465)
      • 8.2.8 Dental pathology (p 465)
    • Bibliography (p 474)
  • 9 Environment and economy (p 475)
    • 9.1 The Danebury environment by Barry Cunliffe (p 475)
    • 9.2 Land snail analysis by John Evans (p 476)
      • 9.2.1 Pre-bank soils (p 479)
      • 9.2.2 Hut levels (p 479)
      • 9.2.3 The pits (p 479)
      • 9.2.4 Layer 200 (p 480)
    • 9.3 The woodlands and their use by Cynthia Poole (p 481)
    • 9.4 The plant remains by Martin Jones (p 483)
      • 9.4.1 Introduction (p 483)
      • 9.4.2 The floristic compostion of the assemblages (p 483)
      • 9.4.3 The distribution of carbonized material within features (p 489)
      • 9.4.4 The distribution of carbonized material between features (p 491)
      • 9.4.5 The nature of the special 'rich' samples (p 491)
      • 9.4.6 The process behind these qualitative and quantitative parameters (p 493)
      • 9.4.7 Changes through time (p 495)
    • 9.5 Animal husbandry by Annie Grant (p 496)
      • 9.5.1 Introduction (p 496)
      • 9.5.2 The condition of the bone material (p 496)
      • 9.5.3 The recovery of the bone material (p 496)
      • 9.5.4 The provenance of the bones (p 497)
      • 9.5.5 The provenance of the bones (p 497)
      • 9.5.6 Methods of analysis (p 498)
      • 9.5.7 The dating of the animal bones (p 501)
      • 9.5.8 The domestic animals (p 501)
        • Sheep (p 501)
        • Goats (p 509)
        • Cattle (p 510)
        • Pigs (p 514)
        • Horses (p 518)
        • Dogs (p 522)
        • Cats (p 525)
      • 9.5.9 Wild animals (p 525)
        • Deer (p 525)
        • Badgers and foxes (p 526)
        • The small mammals and ampibira by Jennie Coy (p 526)
        • The bird bones by Jennie Coy (p 527)
        • Fish (p 531)
      • 9.5.10 Bone and antler as raw materials(p 531)
      • 9.5.11 Ritual behaviour: the special bone deposit(p 533)
      • 9.5.12 Discussion and conclusions (p 543)
    • Bibliography (p 547)
  • 10 Community, continuity, and change (p 549)
    • 10.1 Site development (p 549)
    • 10.2 Hierachy in the regional settlement pattern (p 550)
    • 10.3 Subsistence economy (p 555)
    • 10.4 Production, distribution, and exchange (p 556)
    • 10.5 Society and ranking (p 559)
    • 10.6 The dynamics of change (p 559)
    • Bibliography (p 559)

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