Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 2015

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950
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Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2015) Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Transactions [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1032950

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2007) Series: 3, Volume 7.


Table of Contents

Frontispiece
Anon. (pp. i-iv)
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Contents
Anon. (pp. v)
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Earthworks, parchmarks and cropmarks: results of Cumbria County Council's 2006 aerial photographic survey.
Arnold Webster and Richard Newman (pp. 1-14)
Abstract

Abstract

Earthworks, parchmarks and cropmarks: results of Cumbria County Council's 2006 aerial photographic survey.
Arnold Webster and Richard Newman (pp. 1-14)

During 2006 Cumbria County Council commissioned a series of aerial photographic flights to identify and record previously unknown archaeological sites and to enhance the record for some known sites. The photographs were taken by Tim Gates, a specialist in aerial photography. The purpose of the initial two flights, carried out in early May, was to record earthworks during optimal conditions of low vegetation growth and evening sunshine. These flights had been planned almost a year in advance and were targeted at areas for which the County aerial photographic coverage was lacking, such as the northern Howgill Fells and Lazonby Fell. They were also intended to improve the coverage for areas such as the southern Cumbrian Pennines between Casterton and Sedbergh and the rising ground between the A596 Wigton to Maryport road and the Lake District National Park boundary, both areas partially covered by previous published surveys (Higham, 1979; Bewley, 1994). Subsequently, in July 2006 a further two flights were commissioned to take advantage of the parched conditions produced by the unusually hot weather of that month. Throughout England July 2006 proved to be an exceptionally productive month for discovering archaeological sites via aerial photography, as buried remains were revealed as parchmarks or cropmarks. In Cumbria these July flights were targeted at those areas considered most likely to produce good results in such conditions, the Solway Plain and the Eden valley. Whilst both areas have been the subject of much past aerial photographic survey, beginning with St Joseph's photographs in the 1950s (Blake, 1959; Bewley, 1986 and 1994; Higham and Jones, 1975), the extraordinary conditions of July 2006 ensured that a number of previously unrecognised sites were recorded for the first time.

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The Roman Fort at Castlesteads, Cumbria: a Geophysical Survey of the Vicus.
J. Alan Biggins and David J. A. Taylor (pp. 15-30)
Abstract

Abstract

The Roman Fort at Castlesteads, Cumbria: a Geophysical Survey of the Vicus.
J. Alan Biggins and David J. A. Taylor (pp. 15-30)

The Roman fort at Castlesteads (Camboglanna) is positioned between the Wall forts of Birdoswald and Stanwix, and sited on an escarpment above the Cam Beck. The fort is unusual in that, although it is classified as a Hadrianic Wall fort, it is not built on the line of the Wall but is positioned some 400 metres to the south. The easier line, which the Wall now follows, was probably taken in preference to the direct line between Milecastles 56 and 58, which would pass through the fort. One explanation why this route may have been taken was to avoid constructing the Turf Wall across the Cam Beck and up a steep escarpment to the east.

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The "Streetgate" at Conishead, the "Castellum" at Dalton, and Roman Furness.
Daniel W. Elsworth (pp. 31-48)
Abstract

Abstract

The "Streetgate" at Conishead, the "Castellum" at Dalton, and Roman Furness.
Daniel W. Elsworth (pp. 31-48)

From the late 18th century and until the end of the 19th a Roman military presence in Furness (specifically Low Furness) was taken to be a historical fact based on observed archaeological features. Although these remains were few in number they were considered to include a road across the peninsula and a fort at Dalton. During the 20th century, however, there was a complete reversal of opinion; the earlier evidence was ignored or rebuffed and the results of new fieldwork were taken to show that the opposite was in fact the case. A reexamination of the documentary sources, combined with evidence from aerial photographs and more recent discoveries, shows that the original claims still have considerable validity and that they actually indicate a greater degree of Roman activity in the area than previously thought.

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Who was Hubert de Vallibus?
R. H. C. Vaux (pp. 49-56)
Abstract

Abstract

Who was Hubert de Vallibus?
R. H. C. Vaux (pp. 49-56)

Early in the 12th century, Ranulph de Meschines, as lord of Cumberland, held the barony of Irthington. He gave this to his brother, William, who was never able to gain full possession of the lands because of their occupation by the Scots. Following the disaster of the White Ship in 1120, Ranulf was made Earl of Chester and gave up his interests in Cumberland, which reverted to the king. When Henry I died in 1136, the Scots under King David invaded the north of England, and Carlisle and Cumberland were ceded to him by Stephen. As a result, all the estates of Irthington were acquired by Gille son of Bueth, from which time they have been more usually known as Gilsland. He retained these lands until Henry II recovered Carlisle in 1157 when the fief was given to Hubert de Vallibus. This paper will provide further information about Hubert and his antecedents and, at the same time, help to correct some errors about the early history of the family.

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The Hesleyside charters, the Salkelds of Whitehall and the Charltons of Hesleyside.
John Thorley (pp. 57-84)
Abstract

Abstract

The Hesleyside charters, the Salkelds of Whitehall and the Charltons of Hesleyside.
John Thorley (pp. 57-84)

Hesleyside is a manor house and estate about a mile and a half to the west of Bellingham in Northumberland, and has been for many centuries the seat of the Charlton family. It is therefore not immediately obvious why Hesleyside should be associated with a collection of charters mostly referring to the estates of the Salkeld family of Whitehall in West Cumbria. The connection arose through two marriage alliances between the families, one in 1681 and another in 1737. It was apparently the second of these marriages that resulted in many charters from West Cumbria finding their way to Hesleyside.

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The Wigton Church Accounts, 1328-9: a translation into English.
Jeremy Godwin (pp. 85-94)
Abstract

Abstract

The Wigton Church Accounts, 1328-9: a translation into English.
Jeremy Godwin (pp. 85-94)

In transcribing and summarising the Wigton church agent's accounts of 1328-9, possibly the earliest of any churchwardens' accounts we have, and now preserved at York, Dr Katharine M. Longley has made a valuable contribution, but one for most readers now diminished in its effects by being wholly in Latin, and medieval technical Latin at that. Following a request from a Wigton historian for a translation, I thought that readers of Transactions might also like it. Despite the title of her article, there are few overt mentions of "the Scottish incursions of 1327" in these accounts but they give a vivid picture of an active farming enterprise run for the Rector by his agent and helpers. The Rector of Wigton from 1317 to 1332 was William de Hilton, who sent instructions to his agent from time to time, but mostly left him to carry on. Besides the domestic and church expenses, there was also the new farm ("grange") at Waverton, the use of Bolton Wood, and of land at Colmire and Dundraw. The Rector's tithes included those of Wigton Mill, Dockray Mill, and Waverton Mill.

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Archaeological evaluation of the salmon coops at Corby Castle, Cumbria.
Martin Railton and Gareth Davies (pp. 95-106)
Abstract

Abstract

Archaeological evaluation of the salmon coops at Corby Castle, Cumbria.
Martin Railton and Gareth Davies (pp. 95-106)

In September 2005, North Pennines Archaeology Ltd. undertook an archaeological evaluation of the salmon coops at Corby Castle, near Carlisle (NY 4687 5371). This comprised documentary research, an annotated survey, and a field evaluation, which focused on five small areas around the salmon coops and associated eyots or riverine islands (northern and southern), within the River Eden. Corby Castle, which is visible as an early 19th century house, is situated to the south of the modern settlement of Great Corby, above the eastern bank of the river.

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The first Market House at Bowness-on-Windermere, 1692.
Blake Tyson (pp. 107-112)
Abstract

Abstract

The first Market House at Bowness-on-Windermere, 1692.
Blake Tyson (pp. 107-112)

In 1936 the anonymous historian of Windermere Grammar School, using a minute book of 1763-1811, the present whereabouts of which is unknown, wrote that a subscription list, begun on 16 November 1764, was to pay for a "new Market House" with shops below, in Bowness. The rents were to fund a salary of 20s. for a person to teach younger pupils, with any surplus going to the headmaster. As the population and woollen industry had both increased, the market was to be revived, since elderly inhabitants stated that "Bowness had been a market town in times past". Donations raised £48 16s. 6d., but to cover building costs £10 more was borrowed from the school stock and if the market house failed, the school was to have all benefits from it. In 1771 an order was made that, once a debt had been settled, the shops should be let for the school's benefit. By 1788 the debt was cleared, so the income went to the master. However, any impression that this was the first market house in Bowness is misleading, since sources not open to the public in 1936 are now available and prove the erection of a market house in 1692.

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Some new light on the Websters of Kendal.
Janet D. Martin (pp. 113-120)
Abstract

Abstract

Some new light on the Websters of Kendal.
Janet D. Martin (pp. 113-120)

Since the publication in 2004 of The Websters of Kendal some further discoveries have enabled me to amplify the family history, to correct some errors, and to widen the Websters' connections. I am principally concerned with two of the children of Robert Webster (1726-99), Francis Webster's father, and with his will, although other members of the family will appear. Robert was born in Kendal, where he was baptised on 1 June 1726, as son of Thomas Webster. He became a mason and moved to Cartmel where he married Ann Crosfield on 7 July 1754. His first three children were baptised between 1755 and 1761 from Cark Hall, but from 17633 the family lived at Quarry Flat on the Holker estate, hard by the freestone which he worked.

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The Decline of the Cumbrian Yeoman: Fact or Fiction?
David Uttley (pp. 121-134)
Abstract

Abstract

The Decline of the Cumbrian Yeoman: Fact or Fiction?
David Uttley (pp. 121-134)

Twentieth century Cumbrian historians have claimed that an important sector of the landowning class, the yeoman farmers, plunged into a dramatic and irreversible decline at the end of the Napoleonic Wars. This work attempts to investigate if, when, and to what extent this occurred in Leath Ward, one of the five ancient divisions of medieval Cumberland, situated in the south-east corner of the old county, adjoining Westmorland. Although it is an area of considerable variety in its underlying geology, there was a remarkable homogeneity in farming practice, where pastoral activities were the bedrock of the system, and subsistence cereal crops, predominantly oats and barley, fed humans and cattle, with turnips as the preferred root crop for over-wintering sheep. The study involves the use of three primary national sources that will be examined on four occasions: the Land Tax Duplicates of 1780 and 1829; the Tithe Commutation Act applied locally about 1840; and the Inland Revenue Land Valuation Records of 1910-13. There is no suggestion of an inherent significance in this choice: they represent the occasions when appropriate data is available.

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The Windermere Gasworks, 1862-2004.
Blake Tyson (pp. 135-168)
Abstract

Abstract

The Windermere Gasworks, 1862-2004.
Blake Tyson (pp. 135-168)

Among many experiments that eventually led to the development of coal-gas as a valuable fuel, the chemistry research at Cambridge University of Revd Dr Richard Watson (1737-1816), who in 1782 became Bishop of Llandaff and lived at Calgarth, a mile-and a half north-west of Windermere, is of interest here because in 1781 his research results were made public. He had distilled coal and other substances to discover the amount of liquid, including tar, that each yielded and though he collected coal-gas in bladders and even burnt it, he, like other scientists, failed to realise its potential as a fuel.

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Seascale Gasworks.
James Cherry and Joyce Cherry (pp. 169-178)
Abstract

Abstract

Seascale Gasworks.
James Cherry and Joyce Cherry (pp. 169-178)

Seascale village owes its existence in its present form to the discovery of two sources of energy, steam and the atom. In the era of steam, West Cumbria was opened to development when the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway began operating from Whitehaven to Seascale in 1849, reaching as far south as Broughton-in-Furness, where it connected with the Furness Railway about 1851. By 1857 the through-rail connection to industrial Lancashire and Yorkshire was established, opening up the area to the transport of iron-ore, iron and coke, and also gradually provided a passenger service. In 1861 the Furness Railway took over the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway and a grand plan was conceived to build a holiday resort at Seascale based on the experience gained by the development of the resort of Grange-over-Sands, formerly a small fishing village. Like many other small villages round the shores of Britain, Seascale was already known as a bathing resort before the railway reached it and, in 1870, the Furness Railway Company considered it also ripe for development into a holiday resort, with a grand hotel, promenade and houses, built on land bought cheaply at £50 an acre.

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The Trollopes, the Tilleys and the Penrith connection.
W. G. Wiseman (pp. 179-192)
Abstract

Abstract

The Trollopes, the Tilleys and the Penrith connection.
W. G. Wiseman (pp. 179-192)

It is clear that the novelist Anthony Trollope had a fairly intimate knowledge of, and a regard for, the Lake District. The areas around Penrith and Shap occur in some detail in a number of his works. Sir Harry Hotspur of Humblethwaite is centred around the fictitious Humblethwaite Hall, "some ten miles to the north of Keswick", with the "Caldbeck" flowing through the park, and to the south "there stood the huge Skiddaw, and Saddleback with its long gaunt ridge". "Airey Force" was a full 15 miles from the Hall, and the Crown Hotel in Penrith has a mention. Vavasour Hall, in Can You Forgive Her, is situated between Penrith and Shap - much of the action takes place around Shap and Bampton, with the beauties of Swindale described from what can only be first-hand knowledge. Indeed Anthony and his new wife Rose Heseltine took part of their honeymoon at Windermere and Penrith after their wedding in Rotherham on 11 June 1844.

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J. A. Bernard's challenge: journalists on journalism in a Victorian country town.
Peter Lucas (pp. 193-214)
Abstract

Abstract

J. A. Bernard's challenge: journalists on journalism in a Victorian country town.
Peter Lucas (pp. 193-214)

A widespread debate is under way over how British journalists conduct themselves: their "ethics, working habits, and produce". Critics refer to reporting that is biassed, unfair and sometimes worse, that over-steps the bounds of decency, that is too easily tempted to orchestrate feelings, neglects matters of crucial importance, lacks balance, and is scarred by unapologetic inaccuracies rarely if ever set right. It is worrying for an allegedly mature democracy. However, debate about the nature of the media is not new, but has, with regard to print journalism, a long history. Were journalists fighters on behalf of liberty, giving people the opportunity to know what was going on, and thus an essential ingredient of emergent democracy? Or were they just tools of their owners' selfish political agendas, readily prepared to be insulting and disrespectful, thus making an orderly society more difficult to sustain? Or were they more truly businesses that found it useful to pretend to have some kind of moral mandate? Such questions were raised in the 19th century in books, speeches, meetings as diverse as those of trade unions and literary and philosophical societies, and in newspaper correspondence columns.

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NOTES
Various. (pp. 215-238)
Abstract

Abstract

NOTES
Various. (pp. 215-238)

A beehive quern from Braeside, Papcastle, by JAN WALKER; Watching brief at 1 The Croft, Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, by JAN WALKER; An old road to Knott Head from Thornthwaite, BY DEREK DENMAN, M.A., C.ENG., M.I.E.T.; The Anglo-Saxon pot in the Senhouse Museum, Maryport, BY IAN CARUANA; A list of the garrison at Carlisle Castle 1383, by WILLIAM COOK; Croft Cottage, a newly discovered true longhouse, by NINA JENNINGS; Unusual boundary markers, by NINA JENNINGS AND PETER MESSENGER; A portrait in Warcop Church, by MARK BLACKETT-ORD, M.A., F.S.A.

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A beehive quern from Braeside, Papcastle.
Jan Walker (pp. 215-216)
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Watching brief at 1 The Croft, Burgh by Sands, Cumbria.
Jan Walker (pp. 216-219)
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An old road to Knott Head from Thornthwaite.
Derek Denman, M.A., C.Eng., M.I.E.T. (pp. 219-223)
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The Anglo-Saxon pot in the Senhouse Museum, Maryport.
Ian Caruana (pp. 224-225)
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A list of the garrison at Carlisle Castle 1383.
William Cook (pp. 226-227)
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Croft Cottage, a newly discovered true longhouse.
Nina Jennings (pp. 228-231)
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Unusual boundary markers.
Nina Jennings And Peter Messenger (pp. 231-234)
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A portrait in Warcop Church.
Mark Blackett-Ord, M.A., F.S.A. (pp. 234-237)
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Archaeological Projects in Cumbria 2006
Anon. (pp. 239-278)
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General Index
Anon. (pp. 279-292)
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