The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain: an online resource

Martyn Allen, Nathan Blick, Tom Brindle, Tim Evans, Michael Fulford, Neil Holbrook, Julian D Richards, Alex Smith, 2015 (updated 2016)

Data copyright © University of Reading unless otherwise stated


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Prof Michael Fulford
Professor of Archaeology
School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science
University of Reading
Whiteknights
PO Box 218
Reading
RG6 6AA
England
Tel: 0118 9318131
Fax: 0118 9316718

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Resource identifiers

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1030449
Sample Citation for this DOI

Martyn Allen, Nathan Blick, Tom Brindle, Tim Evans, Michael Fulford, Neil Holbrook, Julian D Richards, Alex Smith (2016) The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain: an online resource [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1030449

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Totterdown Lane, Horcott (Gloucestershire)


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Published Sources

J Pine and S Preston (2004) Iron Age and Roman settlement and landscape at Totterdown Lane, Horcott near Fairford, Gloucestershire Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services Monograph no. 6 Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services

Database ID 14051
Site Type (Major) Rural settlement
Site Type (Minor) farm, field system, funerary site
Non Domestic Stucture corndrier
Region Central Belt
County Gloucestershire
Summary Excavations on the first gravel terrace of the Upper Thames Valley revealed a middle Iron Age settlement, continuing into the late Iron Age/early Roman period. Features of the latter date comprise a number of possible roundhouses (defined by drip gullies) and larger enclosures, perhaps stock pens. During the early 2nd C, it is suggested that site was peripheral to the main area of settlement. Features comprised field boundaries and rectilinear enclosures along with a large T-shaped corndrier and waterholes. Soon afterwards (in the mid 2nd C) the whole site was re-organised as a series of rectangular enclosures/fields alongside two trackways which form a T-junction. A number of burials located alongside the N-S trackway. Enclosure and trackway system constantly re-modelled during 3rd C; another T-shaped corndrier and numerous pits belong to this phase. By later 3rd C the trackways had gone out of use, with new extensive field boundaries dug. No evidence for 4th C activity. Small assemblage of early Saxon pottery but no certain features of this date. Further excavation 700m to the west revealed 2nd-3rd C field boundaries and a hoard of iron currency bars.
Organisation Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services
Area of investigation (ha) 9
Easting 415200
Northing 199000
Start Date -100
End Date 300
Rural settlement form complex
Number of circular buildings 3
Number of rectangular buildings Not recorded
Paddocks Evidence
Multi-room building No evidence
Aisled building No evidence
Masonry building No evidence
Trackway/Road Evidence
Structured deposits No evidence
Burial data
Burials summary Seven inhumation graves, two cremation burials (one urned - both adult female) and three deposits of pyre debris (with human remains) dated to 2nd-3rd C AD, lying on either side of the N-S trackway. Fragmented sherds of pottery from backfill unlikely to represent grave goods. Varied orientation. One burial of a young adult male was flexed. Four with evidence for coffin in form of iron nails. Three other unurned cremation burials from western excavation area, of similar date. Also undated grave of a flexed adult female. Disarticulated adult human bone found in 19 contexts.
Burials start date 100
Burials end date 250
Number of burials 12
Cremations 5
Inhumations 7
Male 2
Female 6
Child Present
Adult 11
Flexed burial Present
Burials with coffins 4
Cremation urns Present
Disarticulated bone Present
Animal bone Not present or no data
Associated settlement Present
Associated enclosure Not present or no data
Grave goods Not present or no data
Brooch data
Brooch summary Copper alloy penannular brooch of 1st-3rd C AD date.
Number of brooches 2
Trumpet/derived 1
Penanular 1
Coins data
Number of coins 1
Unidentified 3rd-4th C 1
Other finds data
Finds summary Other finds comprise fired clay daub, loomweight, 45 pieces of brick/tile, iron nails, hobnails, tumbler lock slide key, sicle/billhook, glass bead, crucibles and small amounts of iron smithing slag. At least two leather hobnailed shoes from a 3rd C waterhole. A large number of iron sword shaped currency bar ingots were found in a shallow pit 700m to the west of the main excavated area.
Leather shoes 2
Agricultural tools 1
Security 1
Weaving (loomweights) 1
Glass objects 1
CBM 2
Iron slag Present
Hobnails Present
Evidence for salt production Not present or no data
Evidence for bone-working Not present or no data
Evidence for metalworking Present
Structural worked stone Not present or no data
Painted plaster Not present or no data
Window glass Not present or no data
Tesselated floor/mosaic Not present or no data
Tiled roof Not present or no data
Briquetage Not present or no data
Inscriptions Not present or no data
Hypocaust Not present or no data
Evidence for Christianity Not present or no data
Pottery data
Pottery summary Significant assemblage of 1st-3rd C date, mostly Wilts greywares and Dorset black-burnished wares. 98 sherds of amphora (Dr 20) from one pit and probably one vessel. Dominated by jars.
No. of sherds 10677
Weight (kg) 81
Amphora sherds 121
Mortarium sherds 17
Samian sherds 207
Religious vessels Not present or no data
Pottery wasters Not present or no data
Graffito Not present or no data
Amphora presence Present
Mortarium presence Present
Samian presence Present
Plant data
The data below is divided into an overarching record for the whole site and, if recorded, separate records for individual phases.
Summary Limited charred plant remains from 211 samples. One sample from a 3rd C ditch contained much cereal grain and chaff. All identifiable grain was spelt, with some hulled barley. The chaff comprised spelt glume bases. Much of the grain showed signs of germination and some had sprouted - possible evidence for malting? Another 2md-3rd C sample contained spelt grain and chaff. Quantified assemblage.
Barley minor
Evidence for malting Evidence
Evidence for horticultural crops No evidence
Oats minor
Overall
Spelt wheat abundant
Evidence for hay meadows No evidence
Start date 200
Evidence for imported foods No evidence
End date 300
Zooarchaeological data
The data below is divided into an overarching record for the whole site and, if recorded, separate records for individual phases.
Summary Modest assemblage in generally poor condition, dominated by cattle in the Roman period. Partial sheep articulation from a LIA-early Roman pit. A partial dog skeleton in one mid Roman pit and complete dog skulls in two other pits. One 3rd C pit contained all the chicken and cat bones from the site. Two oyster shells.
Sheep/Goat NISP 112
Cattle NISP 162
Pig NISP 20
Sheep/Goat ABGs 1
Domestic fowl NISP 6
Cat NISP 2
End date 300
Total bone fragments 2520
Dog NISP 25
Fish No
Egg shell No
Assemblage sieved? Yes
ABGs in NISP No
Dog ABGs 3
Marine shell Yes
Overall
Horse NISP 62
Start date -100
Sheep/Goat NISP 21
Cattle NISP 18
Pig NISP 2
Sheep/Goat ABGs 1
Total bone fragments 46
Fish No
Egg shell No
Marine shell No
LIA/ER (1st C BC/AD)
Horse NISP 5
Sheep/Goat NISP 91
Cattle NISP 144
Pig NISP 18
Domestic fowl NISP 6
Cat NISP 2
Total bone fragments 329
Dog NISP 25
Fish No
Egg shell No
Dog ABGs 3
Marine shell No
MR (2nd-3rd C)
Horse NISP 57
Faunal Ageing data
The data below is divided into an overarching record for the whole site and, if recorded, separate records for individual phases. Concordance with existing published ageing criteria is provided in the tables below

Cattle

Age category Grant stage Halstead stage Maltby stage
Neonate 0-2 A 1
Juvenile 3-16 B-C 2-3
Subadult 17-37 D-E 4-5
Young adult 38-42 F 6
Adult >43 G 7
Elderly >43 H-I 7

Sheep/Goat

Age category Grant stage Payne stage Payne stage Maltby stage
Neonate 0-1 A 0-2 months 1
Juvenile 2-17 B-C 2-12 months 2-3
Immature 18-28 D 1-2 years 4
Subadult 28-39 E-F 2-4 years 5-6
Adult >40 G 4-6 years 7
Elderly >40 H-I 6-10 years 7

Pig

Age category Grant stage Hambleton stage Maltby stage O'Connor stage
Neonate 0-1 A 1
Juvenile 2-14 B-C 2-3 juvenile
Immature 15-25 D-E 4-5 immature
Subadult 26-35 F 6 subadult
Adult 36-41 G 7 adult
Elderly >42 H-I 8 elderly
Summary Evidence for neonatal pig and sheep. Also very young calf tibia and juvenile horse.
Number of young adult cattle 6
Number of sub adult sheep/goat 3
Number of adult sheep/goat 6
Evidence of neonatal (unknown) bones No
Number of juvenile pig 1
Evidence of neonatal horse bones Yes
Evidence of neonatal domestic fowl No
Number of immature sheep/goat 1
End date 300
Evidence of neonatal sheep/goat bones Yes
Number of adult cattle 8
Number of sub adult cattle 2
CATTLE JUVENILE 1
Phase - Overall
Evidence of neonatal cattle bones Yes
Start date 100
Evidence of neonatal pig bones Yes
Evidence of neonatal (unknown) bones No
Evidence of neonatal horse bones No
Evidence of neonatal domestic fowl No
Evidence of neonatal sheep/goat bones Yes
Phase - LIA/ER (1st C BC/AD)
Evidence of neonatal cattle bones No
Evidence of neonatal pig bones No
Evidence of neonatal (unknown) bones No
Evidence of neonatal horse bones Yes
Evidence of neonatal domestic fowl No
Evidence of neonatal sheep/goat bones No
Phase - MR (2nd-3rd C)
Evidence of neonatal cattle bones Yes
Evidence of neonatal pig bones Yes
Site plans (published sources):
Thumbnail of 14051_1.png
14051_1.png
Image from: J Pine and S Preston 2004 Iron Age and Roman settlement and landscape at Totterdown Lane, Horcott near Fairford, Gloucestershire, Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services Monograph no. 6 Reproduced with permission of Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services
[DOWNLOAD] right-click and save link
Thumbnail of 14051_2.png
14051_2.png
Image from: J Pine and S Preston 2004 Iron Age and Roman settlement and landscape at Totterdown Lane, Horcott near Fairford, Gloucestershire, Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services Monograph no. 6 Reproduced with permission of Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services
[DOWNLOAD] right-click and save link
Thumbnail of 14051_3.png
14051_3.png
Image from: J Pine and S Preston 2004 Iron Age and Roman settlement and landscape at Totterdown Lane, Horcott near Fairford, Gloucestershire, Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services Monograph no. 6 Reproduced with permission of Thames Valley Archaeoloical Services
[DOWNLOAD] right-click and save link