Neanderthal climate preferences and tolerances: the need for a better chronology

Rupert Housley, Philip Allsworth-Jones, Christopher Burbidge, Nick McCave, David Pyle, David Sanderson, Oliver Bazely, Simon Crowhurst, T van Andel, 2008

Data copyright © Dr Rupert Housley unless otherwise stated

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Dr Rupert Housley
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University of Glasgow
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Rupert Housley, Philip Allsworth-Jones, Christopher Burbidge, Nick McCave, David Pyle, David Sanderson, Oliver Bazely, Simon Crowhurst, T van Andel (2008) Neanderthal climate preferences and tolerances: the need for a better chronology [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor]


Archive Description

The archive, described below, is divided into a number of different sections and can be accessed via the links above.

  • Project Publications and other output
    • Project Design
      This download is a copy of an article published in 2006 in an edited conference volume. The paper is authored by Rupert Housley, Tjeerd van Andel and David Sanderson, who together were the members responsible for setting out the concepts which influenced the design of this project within the EFCHED programme. The paper is entitled A new research project to investigate the chronology connected with Neanderthal climate preferences and tolerances in the North-East Black Sea Region and can be found in a monograph called The Early Upper Palaeolithic of Eurasia: General Trends and Local Developments (the materials of an International Conference devoted to the 125th anniversary of the Palaeolithic Investigations in Kostenki, 2004 August 23-26th), pp. 26-38, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for the Material Culture History, Saint-Petersburg. The paper is valuable in that it clearly sets out what the project hoped to achieve and the rationale behind the approach which was adopted. A version of the same paper was presented at a conference in Istanbul on October 14-16th 2004, held to consider 'The Black Sea Region; Past, Present and Future'.
    • Site Summaries and Fieldwork Report, 2004
      This 470 page report is a detailed summary of the sites visited and sampled in 2004 in the course of two field visits to the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. It was written mostly by Christopher Burbidge and Philip Allsworth-Jones and summarises the archaeological context of the fieldwork, the sampling localities which were visited, the materials removed for subsequent laboratory analysis, and the field dosimetry measurements connected with OSL sampling. It is essentially an internal report which pulls together much of the information found elsewhere in this archive. As a compendium of data relating to the field sampling aspects of the project it is invaluable for understanding the extent of the sampling which was undertaken in 2004 and the nomenclature associated with the sampling strategy. Copies of this report have been lodged with the UK copyright libraries.
    • Preliminary Tephra Report
      This is an internal project report summarising the particle size data from the sedimentary work undertaken by Nick McCave and Simon Crowhurst, and the tephra analyses made by Oliver Bazley and David Pyle. It mostly consists of colour plots of particle size compositions of sites against stratigraphic depth, with very little explanatory text. The report demands quite a high knowledge of the stratigraphy and the sampling strategy adopted within the project. The results are not easily comprehended without a firm grasp of limitations of the methodologies and the stratigraphies of the sites being analysed.
    • New AMS Radiocarbon Dates from Kostenki 12
      This is a copy of a published paper which appeared in the same edited volume as the Project Design paper. Authored by Rupert Housley, Thomas Higham and Michael Anikovitch, the article outlines a series of six new AMS 14C dates from the Upper Palaeolithic site of Kostenki 12. It discusses how the new determinations fit with existing age control from the site and gives provisional corrected ages based on data from the Cariaco Basin.
    • References
      This file was created to store the relevant archaeological literature associated with the project. It does not claim to be totally comprehensive of the available literature but is a good start to finding the relevant, and sometimes quite obscure, documentation.
    • NERC EFCHED Finale Poster
      This is one of three posters that the project prepared for NERC's EFCHED finale on the 11 November 2006. The focus of this poster was on the field sampling, archaeology and environmental evidence.
  • Site Summaries and Images
    • Summaries of the Site Archaeological and Environmental Information
      Philip Allsworth-Jones reviewed and translated a good part of the Russian literature relating to the sites which were visited and sampled in 2004-05. He wrote a number of summaries in 2004-07 setting out the stratigraphy and archaeological associations. Because the pollen was to be used as a climate proxy for environmental change within the project a lot of attention was paid to this. All this information is summarised in a series of reports and image files. File names are self explanatory and relate to the name of the sites. Figures relate to the most important tables and diagrams of plans, sections, faunal, floral or lithic artefact lists. They come mostly from existing publications. Some sites have more than one entry because information came in over the lifetime of the project and addendums were produced as new information was uncovered.
    • Site Photograph Record
      A number of team members took photographs in 2004. This is an abridged compendium of the more useful photographs from the three persons who were using digital cameras. It is organised by site and consists of a series of jpg files. Most attention was paid to producing a record of the stratigraphic associations that were being sampled. The photographs are not individually discussed but it is possible to understand them if viewed alongside the fieldwork report and the site summaries. File names take the format of abbreviated site code, date when photo was taken, and a running sequential number.
  • Analyses
    • Field Sample Spreadsheets
      These are lists of the field samples collected in 2004 and 2005. Project prefix was EFD4 for 2004 and EFD5 for 2005. Sample code was L for luminescence, TMS for tephra, magnetic and sedimentary particle size samples (all treated the same and so subdivision is irrelevant; C for radiocarbon; P for pollen; and X for others). The spreadsheet is divided into 5 worksheets: one covers the OSL and TL samples; one is for all the other field samples; two worksheets summarise the outcome of analysis of the OSL measurements and the 14C age determinations; and a fifth worksheet listing the GPS readings for the field sites visited in 2004. The lists show within which Higher Educational Institution or organisation the samples are housed in March 2007. They also show whether the sample has been processed. There is likely to be little residual material remaining from processed samples. It is possible that the unprocessed material will be transferred to BGS at Keyworth, Nottingham should renewed funding for the project not be obtained.
    • 14C Data Files
      These files consist of copies of the University of Oxford RLAHA radiocarbon submission forms for all the submitted samples. A list of 14C samples can be found in the relevant spreadsheet of the field samples. Outcome of AMS dating is summarised on the forms, in the spreadsheet and in copies of letters from Oxford.
    • Luminescence Sediment Dating Archive
      These files contain data pertaining to the luminescence dating of sediments in the project. The archive contains sets of files relating to each type of data that was gathered and include metadata files explaining their content. Details of sampling, instruments, methods and calculations can be found in Burbidge et al. (2007; In Prep) and internal SUERC luminescence laboratory protocols.
      • Burbidge, C.I., Sanderson, D.C.W., Housley, R.A., Allsworth-Jones, P. (2007) 'Survey of Palaeolithic sites by luminescence profiling, a case study from Eastern Europe', Quaternary Geochronology 2, 296-302.
      • Burbidge, C.I., Sanderson, D.C.W., Housley, R.A. et al. (In Prep) 'Luminescence geochronologies of sand and silt sediment fractions from Palaeolithic site North and East of the Black Sea', to be submitted in 2008 to a yet unspecified journal.