Hollis Croft, Sheffield, South Yorkshire. Archaeological Excavation (OASIS ID: wessexar1-309354)

Milica Rajic, Ashley Tuck, Emma Carter, Jenny Crangle, 2020

Data copyright © Wessex Archaeology, Emma Carter, Jenny Crangle unless otherwise stated

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https://doi.org/10.5284/1079016
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Milica Rajic, Ashley Tuck, Emma Carter, Jenny Crangle (2020) Hollis Croft, Sheffield, South Yorkshire. Archaeological Excavation (OASIS ID: wessexar1-309354) [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1079016

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Introduction

Hollis Croft, Sheffield, South Yorkshire. Archaeological Excavation (OASIS ID: wessexar1-309354)

The remains of two well-preserved mid- to late-19th century cementation furnaces were recorded. The refractory chambers ('chests') of the furnaces had been replaced, probably due to an inadequate provision of flues in the original design. Details of the furnaces were recorded, including the stoke hole entrance doors and the arrangement of 'fire bars' upon which fires were set in the underlying ash pits of the furnaces.

Metallurgical analysis supported the view that the refractory lining of the chests (the 'crozzle') was derived from 'wheelswarf' produced by edge tool grinding. For the first time, it was confirmed that this crozzle extended up the interior sides of the refractory chamber. Another apparently new observation is that of the impression of the ferrous bars in the surface of the crozzle layer. Two crucible furnaces were identified. The crucible furnaces could not be closely dated. The cementation furnaces and crucible furnaces were part of separate works and there is no evidence to relate them

To the north of the cementation furnaces was an area of slightly later development characterised by the use of black ash mortar rather than lime mortar. This area included extensive cellars supporting a network of flues. Domestic housing and public houses were also investigated. The pottery assemblage was unusually broadly dated for Sheffield and represents a significant result. The clay tobacco pipe assemblage was of interest and examples of pipes were illustrated. A medieval penny was also recovered from a 19th century context.


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