Roman Amphorae: a digital resource

University of Southampton, 2005 (updated 2014)

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Dr David Williams
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University of Southampton (2014) Roman Amphorae: a digital resource [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor]

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Dressel 2-4 Italian

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Dressel 2-4 Italian Dressel 2-4 Italian
Campanian 'Black Sand' fabric


Equivalent to: CAM AM 1 of the National Roman Fabric Reference Collection (Tomber & Dore, 1998: 88)

Visual characteristics

This is especially distinctive in the hand-specimen as the fabric appears to contain much 'black sand' - caused by the presence of dark green augite crystals (Peacock, 1971: Fabric 2). This distinctive fabric has been sourced to the area around the bay of Naples, and is especially associated with the towns of Herculaneum and Pompeii (Peacock, 1977d; see also Williams, 2005). However, one must be careful when dealing with undiagnostic bodysherds since the same fabric is also used for Dressel 1A, Dressel 1B, Dressel 1C, Dressel 2-4 Flat-based and the Campanian almond-rimmed type.


Thin sectioning shows frequent subrounded grains of green and colourless augite, together with quartz and sanidine feldspar, and lesser amounts of volcanic rock and glass fragments, brown hornblende, biotite and yellow-brown garnet (Peacock, 1971; 1977d).