n.a., (1913). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 48. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 48
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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08 Dec 2008
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1 - 17
Alexander O Curle
18 - 24
The mote, in the usual form of a truncated cone, rises steeply from ground level to a height of just over 28 feet and appears to be entirely artificial in its formation. Excavation revealed a ditch around the mote. The ditch appeared to be flat-bottomed, and from the difference in depth on the higher and lower sides it is evident that the mote had been constructed on a level platform cut out of the sloping ground. Numerous fragments of wheel-made pottery were recovered along with some glazed earthenware. A silver short cross penny of the first issue of Henry II of England (1154-1189) was found at the base of the ditch. It is argued that the evidence indicates Anglo-Norman occupation of a mote hill.
W Meyer-Griffith
25 - 30
The ruins of Ruthven Barracks consist of two blocks of buildings with an open space\r\nbetween them, possibly once walled in. The barracks were built by General Wade in 1737 on the site of an old castle which was once the residence of the Wolf of Badenoch. The ruins are described and illustrated in detail. The absence of any sort of gun emplacement proves that Ruthven was essentially a barracks rather than a fort. It was captured and partly destroyed by the Jacobites just before the battle of Culloden in 1746.
A Sutherland Graeme
Graeme A Sutherland
31 - 51
In common with most other brochs, iron implements were found within the walls of this building and it is evident that weapons of iron were in use before the demolition of the broch. Of more interest is the mass of conglomerate which was found amid a bed of clay on the floor level, and surrounded with much broken pottery. The adjacent part of the main wall showed signs of fierce fire, and the fragments of pottery fused into the conglomerate point to some attempt to smelt either the metal or the ore. A section through a passage in one of the outbuildings shows that in successive layers different types of fuel were being burnt. All the artefacts are catalogued and there is a report on the human and animal bone.
A E Henderson
A Henderson Bishop
52 - 108
It is argued that this site has much in common with Mas d'Azil in France. The characteristic implements of both sites are flat harpoons of bone and deer-horn, sometimes with one, sometimes with two rows of barbs, and generally perforated near the base. Other implements common to both sites are shoe-horn-like chisels of deer-horn and bone pins, along with pieces of pumice stone. However, the convex faceted chisels (limpet gouges)are peculiar to Scottish sites. The object of the paper is to demonstrate through excavation the existence of human habitation on or about the line of the 25-30 feet beach at a time when the sea had not permanently retired from that level and to reveal the Azilian nature of the culture indicated in the occupation, and thus to correlate it directly with that of the Oban caves. The excavation of the shell mound at Cnoc Sligeach is described in detail with many plans and sections. An appendix lists all the animal bone, fish bone and shells recovered.
James Edward Cree
112 - 124
The cairn had been disturbed prior to excavation. Some of the stones had been removed for road building and both cists had been opened. The smaller secondary cist contained cremated bone, a flint arrowhead, two flint scrapers, a mussel shell and several small white quartz pebbles. The arrowhead and scrapers had been burnt which is rare in Scotland. All that remained in the large central cist were a few fragments of unburnt bone and two sherds of pottery. Two concentric settings of large rounded stones completely encircled the cists.
Alexander O Curle
125 - 168
At each point where a section was made through the defences, the construction was the same. At the outer edge there appeared a kerb of boulders; behind this rose a structureless rampart of earth and stone, containing a roughly built wall, and firmly coagulated with vitrified matter from top to bottom. No vitrifaction\r\nappeared in the rampart either in front or in rear of this wall, and it is thus a fair assumption that the wall was built and vitrified previous to the erection of the rampart against it. Excavation in the interior revealed evidence of occupation and the recovery of substantial numbers of moulds and glass fragments. It is argued that the number and variety of the moulds suggest a founding factory, established for the purposes of trade. There is evidence of two phases of occupation, one in the Roman period followed by a second phase in the ninth or tenth century.
Francis C Eeles
169 - 183
The Celtic Church seems to have been specially rigid in the matter of orientation. Churches were built east and west, the altar being at the east end, the clergy and people in chancel and nave in front of it. This was also the case with side chapels, and the lesser altars which multiplied so greatly in the large town churches in the later Middle Ages. A list of churches with their orientations and dedications is appended.
W Beveridge
184 - 192
Dundargue Castle sits on a rocky promontory and is thought to date from at least the 14th century. Excavation confirmed the existence of a triple rampart and triple ditch which probably predate the stone buildings within. Artefacts included a coin of Edward I and post-medieval tokens. Pottery sherds from a minimum of fourteen or fifteen vessels are 14th century in date. The stone circle was broken up during the first half of the 18th century. Ploughing in the vicinity revealed flints and a stone axe. Four pits containing cremated bone were excavated. A stone-lined oval grave contained 'some bone' and one of the stones was cup marked.
J G Callander
Thomas H Bryce
194 - 205
A short cist was found at Gifford during ploughing. The badly damaged skeleton was identified as an adult male. A small quantity of charcoal was also found. A flexed skeleton deposited in a natural rock cavity was accompanied by twenty snail shells. It is suggested that the skeleton may have been a dwarf. An earth-house on a ridge at Cairn-na-Bhodachid was discovered during gravel quarrying. It was dry-stone built with undressed blocks and had an entranceway leading into a gallery. The floor of the gallery had a covering of clay. Artefacts included pottery, animal bone and a possible hammer-stone. A Latin cross had been painted on to one of the lintels.
Douglas Gordon Barron
206 - 209
The tombstones were discovered during the lowering of the graveyard. These were a fragment of a medieval stone with Calvary cross and sword; a stone with a double headed cross composed of two circles connected by a long narrow shaft and a sword; and a memorial to William Greig, carved in high relief and decorated with a pair of pincers, a dagger, pistol, hammer and anvil.
Alan Reid
210 - 229
A description of the ruined church of St Helen's is presented. Memorials surviving in the graveyard include a medieval cross slab, a coped grave-cover decorated with a man on horseback, a portion of a hog-backed grave cover and four tapering grave covers. The church at Cockburnspath is better preserved. A hand bell or 'deid-bell' is preserved in the manse. Notable memorials in the graveyard include one to a blacksmith.
W T Oldrieve
230 - 270
The construction of David's Tower began in 1367 and took more than ten years to complete. Excavation revealed the lower entrance to the ground floor of the putative tower. The doorway was medieval in character and a number of masons' marks were revealed in the stonework. The structure was filled with loose soil and debris. Artefacts included cannonballs, burst iron shells, coins of Edward I or II, glass wine flagons, clay pipes, pottery vessels and a soldier's iron helmet. The nearby well, first documented in 1313 was also examined. The results of the excavation are combined with documentary and cartographic evidence to suggest that the structure is indeed David's Tower.
Symington Grieve
272 - 291
The mound was excavated in 1891 and artefacts included an oblong bronze brooch, a portion of a bronze penannular brooch of Celtic form, a portion of a small oval bronze ring, a bead of serpentine, a bead of amber, an iron knife-blade, six fragments of sheet bronze, a quantity of iron rivets or clinker nails and a stone sinker. Two extended skeletons, an adult male and female, were revealed. Further excavation revealed a pair of iron shears. The burial of persons wearing pagan ornaments, on Oronsay, which had for at least between one and two centuries prior to this time been a sanctuary of the early Celtic Church, is worthy of notice. The mound is situated some distance from the Christian Cemetery, but is within the sanctuary. An account of the historical background provides a context for the burials.
James Curle
292 - 315
A detailed account of the objects recovered from Carn nan Bharraich clearly state that the objects including brooches, shears and a probable dress fastener must have been buried with a female. The oval brooches in particular are definitively Viking. A skeleton at Reay was buried with a pair of oval brooches, a bridle-bit of iron, a\r\nbronze pin and buckle, a spindle-whorl of stone, an iron buckle and a small cross of the same metal. The oval brooches from both burials belong to a distinct group but differ markedly in the form of decoration and it is argued in chronology. with the help of Scandinavian studies, the writer attempts to show the gradual process by which such ornaments were gradually evolved, and to deal with the chronology of those found in Scotland.
John Hewat Craw
316 - 333
Cairn 1 consisted of three concentric circles of stone. Three cists and two pits were contained within the inner circle. The north cist contained a Food Vessel, four flint implements, charcoal and partially cremated bone. The south cist contained a Food Vessel, a flint knife and some charcoal. A third smaller cist was robbed during the excavation. A pit to the west of the south cist contained a human femur and some charcoal. A second pit contained charcoal and hazelnuts. A greenstone axe-hammer was found within the body of the cairn. Cairn 2 was circular and comprised earth and stones. A central cist with a D-shaped stone structure around it contained a pottery sherd, charcoal and eight flint flakes. A nearby cist discovered in 1885 contained the bones of a young adult. A further pair of cists had been disturbed by ploughing and only charcoal and three pieces of flint were found. The report includes an account of the bones and previous discoveries in the vicinity. A cist at Edington Mill was originally surrounded by a cairn of which only traces remained. It contained a Food Vessel, part of a probable drinking vessel, charcoal, a few fragments of skull and some teeth.
Alexander O Curle
J G A Baird
333 - 335
Three surviving items from a hoard discovered in 1837 are described. They are slender tapering blades with a fine green patina and measure 20, 18.2 and 14 inches. Each has a marked midrib with flutings along the sides. The bases were notched rather than perforated for the rivets. An iron double-edged sword was found in a quarry. The tip is missing and the surviving length is 2 feet 6 inches. The pommel is trilobite and rests on a forked plate acting as an upper guard.
John M Corrie
338 - 343
On the basis of the fact that only two burials were encountered during excavation it is argued that a cemetery must exist on the outskirts of the fort. With this in mind a systematic search recovered a collection of objects which included twenty three burnishers or polishers, fourteen gaming pieces, ten fragments of beads, a portion of a glass armlet and a brooch.
W B Stewart
W Boyd Dawkins
344 - 355
Excavation revealed a complex of stone built chambers linked by passageways, one of which was roofed. A number of hearths were identified. Finds included pottery, limpet shells, red deer, ox and whale bone, an incised stone ball and stone mace-heads. The presence of a twig rune on a loose stone is evidence of later activity.
Clarendon Hyde Creswell
356 - 364
In 1636 the Superiorities of the Canongate fell into the hands of the city of Edinburgh. This meant that the barbers of the Canongate who had been free traders up until then came under the jurisdiction of the Surgeons and Barbers of the city of Edinburgh. The dispute concerned Robert Preist of Canongate who started operating as a barber within the city walls without permission. He was finally forced to move back to the Canongate in 1654 by order of George Monck who was a lieutenant of Oliver Cromwell.
Mungo Headrick
365 - 369
The source of a Food Vessel in the National Museum of Scotland is identified as a mound in the lands of Broich which contained two stone-built cists as reported in newspapers in 1860. The Earls of Strathern held court here until 1665 when the old Tolbooth was built in Crieff. Some documents relating to the activities of the court still exist.
J G A Baird
Alexander O Curle
373 - 381
The first hut-circle was situated on a gentle slope. Removal of turf and heather exposed a rough pavement of water-worn stones of all shapes and a considerable boulder at the entrance. There was also removed a large quantity of small stones, and debris, which presumably filled the spaces between the uneven stones and made a more or less level floor. A hearth was located in the interior with sherds of pottery nearby. The less well preserved second hut-circle lay on fairly flat ground. The circle seems to have been divided into quadrants three of which had probable hearths. A pit in the centre of the circle contained fragments of an urn. A third excavated structure was rectangular with a hearth in its north-west corner. Both glazed and unglazed pottery were found.
J Robison
Alexander O Curle
381 - 394
The first documentary reference to the castle is in 1288 when John Comyn was its guardian. Excavation revealed the entire ground plan of what would have been an extremely large and formidable fortress. It was surrounded by a deep moat with deep ditches on three sides and was bounded by the sea on the fourth. The surviving castle dates mainly from 1588 and was probably rebuilt from the remains of the earlier castle. Small quantities of pottery dating from the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century were recovered along with a small toothed comb, an iron knife and a small iron pick.
George MacDonald
395 - 402
A hoard of late Romano-British coins was found at Balgreggan Quarry in Wigtownshire. A total of 125 coins had been concealed in an earthenware jug. Both the coins and the jug were in poor condition. The hoard is thought to have been deposited after AD 354. A fourteenth-century hoard from Kirkcudbrightshire comprised 2222 coins. They included Scottish single long-cross pennies of Alexander III, John Balliol and Robert Bruce along with more than one thousand pennies of Edward I, II and III. They are thought to have been deposited after 1330. A collection of 692 coins of sixteenth century date were found in the recess of a wall during demolition of an old building in Ayr.
Sherriff Shennan
403 - 407
Two groups of standing stones are described. A group of four at Duachy and a group of three at Lagavulin. It is suggested that they may represent a class of ancient monument consisting of two upright monoliths standing more or less north-south with a recumbent stone between them pointing east. Apparently disconnected monoliths may be linked by way of distance and direction.
Ludovic Maclellan Mann
407 - 420
Carved stone balls occur mostly in Scotland and all the examples are in stone except one of bronze. They have been variously assigned to the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and early Christian period. The author favours an origin in the Iron Age and suggests that they may have functioned as movable poises on primitive weighing machines.
R A S MacAlister
421 - 430
The inventory comprises the following: carved slabs with crosses, crosses with Irish inscriptions, crosses and foliageous ornament, stones with floral scrolls, slabs with swords, slabs with galleys, slabs with ecclesiastical effigies, slabs with military effigies, free standing crosses and a miscellaneous category.
D Hay Fleming
431 - 432
The author is protesting against the proposal to open the National Museum of Scotland on the Lord's Day.
433 - 447