n.a., (1917). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 52. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. https://doi.org/10.5284/1000184.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 52
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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52
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295
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https://doi.org/10.5284/1000184
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Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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1917
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11 Oct 2013
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Abstract
1 - 12
W M Flinders Petrie
12 - 26
Britain is remarkable in Ptolemy's work for the amount of distortion and much analysis is required to understand how his errors arose, and from what material he was building. The author considers, absolute positions, coasting distances, inland distances in England, the Lowlands and the Highlands to try to ascertain what date Ptolemy used, and how he worked.
J G Callander
26 - 31
A copper alloy brooch was found at Bannockburn in 1850. It is very well preserved and in working order. The original pin of the hinge was replaced in antiquity. Two brooches of very similar shape, with hinged pin and solid cross piece, were found at Traprain Law. An unprovenanced trumpet brooch in Perth Museum exhibits to a marked degree the special characteristics of one of the varieties of the La Tene brooch as it was developed in Britain with a large box foot, pronounced moulding round the bow, a top ring and enamelling.
Alexander O Curle
32 - 34
A short cist contained a crouched skeleton lying on its left side. The remains were those of an ageing adult. A long cist found nearby contained charcoal, a number of red pebbles and burnt bone identified as an adult.
Henry Coates
35 - 37
A stone-built short cist contained a skull, mandible and a few pebbles.
George MacDonald
38 - 48
The stone was built into the wall of a garden and was examined in situ. It is possibly part of the upper half of an altar comprising a very substantial remnant of a dedication to the threefold group of " mother goddesses," whose worship was so popular in certain districts during the earliest centuries of the Christian era. As many as four or five hundred monuments relating to their worship have survived. Some\r\nof these are reliefs; some are inscriptions; many are combinations of the two. It was probably set up by Roman auxiliary troops in the first or second century. There is no other evidence of Roman activity at Colinton so it is likely to have been brought from elsewhere, possibly nearby Cramond.
James Balfour Paul
49 - 60
The Standard, which was very long and narrow in proportion to its length and terminated in a pointed, rounded, or swallow-tailed end was originally designed for fixing immediately below the head of a lance, and then styled a Pennon, gradually evolved a much more ornate character. The flag was no longer an appendage to a\r\nlance but was carried on a pole shaft of its own, and served as a rallying point or as indicating the noble or knight to whom his attendant "plump of spears" and other vassals belonged. The Cavers Standard, the Standard of Keith, Earl Marischal, the Bellenden Standard and the Marchmont Standard are described in detail.
G P H Watson
60 - 66
The mound is 15 feet high. The crest diameter is 25 feet; the diameter at base is 103 feet by 73 feet. On the north there appeared to be the outline of a ditch and rampart, and on the west a feature resembling a berm. It was concluded that the mound is largely if not entirely artificial, that it had an elevation of only 10 feet above the glacis, and now lies entirely below its covering of blown sand, that any defences must have been of an extremely light nature, and, that the occupation was spread over a considerable period, dating from the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries.
Alexander O Curle
66 - 70
These sherds consisted of the remains of numerous round unglazed vessels, with thin walls, mostly blackened with the action of fire, obviously cooking-pots, and also of a\r\nlesser number of fragments of partially glazed pitchers.
Robert Scott-Moncrieff
72 - 81
The Rehoboam set is one of two of sixteenth-century date depicting the history of Rehoboam. Two hangings in the National Museum depict Queen Elizabeth receiving\r\nan embassy, probably the proposal of marriage from Philip of Spain and the Queen of Sheba before Solomon. The story depicted in the Dalmohoy set has not been identified. A detailed analysis of the costumes is depicted with a view to determining the date of the hangings.
W B Stewart
82 - 85
This cloth of estate, which is traditionally said to have been worked by Mary Queen of Scots and her ladies, is the property of Miss Power, who succeeded to it through her ancestors the Jermyns of Rushbrooke Hall, Suffolk. The cloth has been in possession of the Jermyn family for several generations, but how they became possessed of it is not known, nor is there any history of it prior to that time. It has unfortunately been 'restored'. In the inventory of the effects of Mary of Guise handed over to her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots, in November 1561, there is a description of a cloth of estate which is very similar.
James Ritchie
86 - 121
The cup-marks have been arranged according to their occurrence on stone circles, on standing-stones unconnected with circles, and on rock surfaces. The cup-marks on\r\nstones which form parts of circles are all found either on the recumbent stone or in its immediate neighbourhood, nor do they occur on all the circles in the county. The possible function of the cup-marks in considered.
Angus Graham
122 - 125
The cresset is a block of stone roughly squared, and bearing on one face circular cups disposed like the pips of a five of hearts. The rock-garden in which it was discovered is largely composed of fragments of dressed and carved stone'”the remains of window-sills, capitals of pillars, and ornamental mouldings. These fragments are known to have come from the old church of Hassendean, which used to stand not more than 300 yards away. As regards its use, the only probable suggestion that has been made is that it was a lamp-stand of that primitive kind which is properly known as a " cresset."
D Hay Fleming
126 - 130
All three cross-slabs were standing upright when found, and had been damaged, two of them very seriously, by previous grave-diggers. Two appeared to be in their original location. All have crossed and interlaced or plaited decoration. With the exception of the handle, hinge, and lid, which are of malleable iron, the crusie is of cast iron, and has been cast in a piece. The total weight is over 6 pounds. The advantage of a crusie having a lid was that tallow could be used when oil was scarce. A piece of burning peat was put on the top of the lid to melt the tallow.
J G Callander
131 - 139
Three urns were buried together and two of them appear to have had sandstone lids. Fragments of cremated bone adhered to some of the sherds. A large flat stone nearby had four cups and a chiselled groove. An unusual structure of small sandstone pieces may have been a cist but the nature of its construction is not typical and it was empty. A block of sandstone was scored by a number of grooves cut by a chisel. Its date and function is unclear.
Ludovic Maclellan Mann
A Scott
W M Flinders Petrie
140 - 149
The volcanic glass of Scotland and Ireland is called pitchstone, and the often more solid and homogeneous natural glass found in foreign places is known as obsidian. The pitchstone of Ireland and of Scotland, except that of the Island of Arran, is apparently too much cracked into small pieces to be of use. Pitchstone is rare in Scotland, and the Island of Arran possesses most of the outcrops. Pitchstone when splintered presents razor-like edges nearly as useful as those on flint flakes for scraping, cutting, boring, and piercing. It is more brittle than flint, and does not allow of the same delicate secondary workmanship as, for example, is entailed in the cutting out of barbs on arrowheads. No worked pitchstone seems to have been recorded from Britain outside of Arran, Bute, Ayrshire, and Wigtownshire, and the only source\r\nof supply of the raw material seems to have been Arran. No prehistoric British or Irish pitchstone drippings or anciently-worked pieces are apparently to be found in English or Irish collections. There is no clear evidence as to pitchstone chippings or implements having yet been discovered in Ireland. The use of pitchstone spans the Neolithic and Bronze Age with sporadic early Iron Age examples in Scotland. The Greek island of Melos has abundant sources of obsidian while pre-dynastic artefacts are known from Egypt.
James Primrose
151 - 158
The art of seal-engraving was far advanced in Scotland in the thirteenth century. Among the early specimens of ecclesiastical seals those of Glasgow present features of great excellence, especially those executed during the episcopate of Robert Wishart (1272-1316). It is suggested that the representations of churches engraved on\r\nthirteenth-century seals are not conventional but real '” not necessarily accurate, however'” of the churches as they stood and that this applies not only to the churches and their style of architecture, but to the costumes of the clergy, the altar furniture, and the symbols depicted. The seal in question is the second chapter seal of Glasgow appended to a document circa 1280 A.D., that is, during the episcopate of Bishop Robert Wishart, who befriended Wallace and Bruce in the Great War of Scottish Independence. The extent to which the seal depicts actual details of the cathedral is considered.
James Balfour Paul
159 - 170
Some time before 1888, a Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into the subject of market rights and tolls within the United Kingdom, and the Commissioners during the ensuing years published a series of volumes dealing with the minutes of evidence taken before them, statistics regarding the various markets and fairs, and their reports thereon. Altogether nearly 900 places are mentioned in which fairs are or were held, and of the latter some 311 are specified to have been held on the anniversary day of some particular saint. A synopsis of saints' names with the places in which fairs named after them were held is presented.
F J Haverfield
174 - 181
Excavations intended to explore the Antonine Wall and its defending forts built by the Emperor Pius, about A.D. 140-145 demonstrated early on that that some, at least, of the forts of Pius stood on sites which had been fortified by Agricola sixty years earlier. Evidence from the forts at Barhill, Rough Castle, Camelon, Castle Cary and Cadder is considered.
J Storer Clouston
182 - 203
The sources considered are the more ancient tombstones in St Magnus Cathedral, and certain seals attached to early fifteenth-century Orkney documents now in the Danish Record Office at Copenhagen. Of the stones dealt with, all in fact, save one, come from St Magnus. The exception is a stone that was found in Orphir churchyard. The earliest stones considered are dated to the fourteenth century. The native Orkney arms noticed in this paper are those of Paplay, Flett, Halcro, Skea, and Clouston, and very possibly of Rendall.
George Macdonald
203 - 276
A detailed inventory of all the discoveries in Scotland is presented. The first phase of Roman occupation which opened in 80 A.D., did not come to an end with Agricola's own recall in 84. It lasted up to and beyond the accession of Trajan in 98 A.D., possibly even until after that emperor's death in 117. During this period, however, the Forth and Clyde isthmus was garrisoned only for a short time, the Roman hold over the country being maintained by a longitudinal line or lines of forts stretching north to Inchtuthil. Everything that has come to light since 1899 has gone to confirm the soundness of the inference then drawn by Professor Haverfield as to the duration of the period whose beginning is associated\r\nwith the erection of the Forth and Clyde Wall about 142 A.D. It is clear that southern Scotland was abandoned by the Romans early in the reign of Commodus'”that is, soon after 180. When Severus invaded the country in 207 A.D., he transported his\r\ntroops by sea, making his headquarters at Cramond. His expedition was mainly directed against the tribes that occupied what are now the counties of Fife, Forfar, Kincardine, and Aberdeen. Its influence was transitory, and can hardly have\r\nlasted much beyond 211, when the emperor died on the eve of a' second campaign.
277 - 295