n.a., (1994). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 124. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 124
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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20 Jan 2002
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Richard Tipping
1 - 54
Provides an attempt to reconstruct both the natural distribution and composition of Scotland's woodlands, and the spatial patterning, timing and causal mechanisms in their removal. Particular attention is given to recent models of vegetation change, new ideas concerning Mesolithic woodland manipulation, the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition and the current status of elm decline, and to the interplay of climate change and human activity. An appendix provides a directory of published and unpublished works concerning regional-scale mid-late Holocene vegetation history (51--4).
Graeme Whittington
Kevin J Edwards
55 - 65
Considers the depth and varied nature of palynological data and suggests its use to pose and isolate problems for archaeological investigation rather than be used only as a post-excavation study.
Ian Armit
67 - 93
Survey results suggest a series of settlement discontinuities in the IA, Norse, and medieval periods.
Ian Armit
Douglas Baird
Bill Finlayson
95 - 101
Describes work in 1990, concluding that little of the site itself survived.
Alan Saville
103 - 111
A newly recognised stone implement is described. The implement is of expedient nature and its schematic incised motifs suggest a trial piece, perhaps linked to the design of pottery decoration.
Ian Armit
Trevor G Cowie
Ian Ralston
113 - 127
Limited excavations were carried out in advance of pipeline construction in the area between two adjacent cropmark enclosures. The principal features comprised three pits which produced an assemblage of Grooved ware, strengthening the possibility that one of the enclosures may have been a henge monument and inviting speculation as to the date and relationship of the other enclosure, hitherto identified tentatively as a later prehistoric settlement. An isotopic date for one of the pits is discussed. `Other finds' are discussed by Bill Finlayson & Ann Clarke (125), `Environmental evidence' by Geraint Coles & Sheila Boardman (125--6).
Ian Armit
Robin Hanley
Alison Sheridan
129 - 139
An unusually small cist is described, containing two `Late Northern/step 5' Beakers (one normal sized, the other small), and with chemical traces suggesting the former presence of unburnt human remains.
Jane M Downes
141 - 154
An earthen burial mound with a surrounding kerb was excavated in 1990. The central cist contained a cremation of an adult, possibly female. A polished stone axe lay outside the cist. A radiocarbon date from charcoal within the cist showed the remains to be of Early/Middle Bronze Age date. The cist and kerb were constructed before the mound, which was built up from successive deposits of turves and soil. Palaeobotanical and micromorphological analyses demonstrate the landscape to have been open grassland and heathland. There are reports on `Mound sequence: the preparation of the ground' by J Downes & C French (143--4), `The contents of the cist' by C Dickson, J Downes, J I McKinley & P Hinton (146--7), `The structure of the mound' by J Downes, C French, P Hinton & R Scaife (147--8).
Coralie M Mills
Anne Crone
Kevin J Edwards
Graeme Whittington
155 - 171
Reports probing, excavation, microfossil analysis, and radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon dates indicate construction in the first half of the first millennium BC. Pollen analysis revealed contemporary poor heath-grassland with no apparent arable farming. Microscopic charcoal evidence indicates burning activity in the second millennium BC.
Christopher Lowe
173 - 187
Proposes an alternative identification for a nineteenth-century drawing of Petrie's and thus questions the interpretation of Castle of Bothikan as a bona fide broch.
Ywonne Hallen
Marion O'Neill
189 - 231
Analyses extensive collections from two IA wheelhouse complexes to ascertain species and anatomical parts used. Comparison is made with contemporary assemblages and a picture of the exploitation of animals on these sites is attempted. Primary tools, ornaments, working debris, and part-finished objects were identified. Some manufacturing processes are determined in detail, adaptation to local resources is apparent in the use of whalebone, and there was a clear appreciation of the functional value of different materials and bone types. Previously unrecognised objects were identified, including a whalebone vertebral disc, used as a trial piece for interlace decoration. There is an appendix providing evidence for colouring and inlay (228).
Ywonne Hallen
Daniel A Johnston
233 - 291
Cropmarks of a square, double-ditched IA/RB enclosure, a Roman temporary camp and another sub-rectangular enclosure were excavated in advance of road building. All monuments were plough damaged. The square enclosure contained six intersecting circular buildings, one surrounded by a ditch, and three sunken features with charcoal rich fills. A cobbled surface in the south-east corner may indicate a Roman road. Radiocarbon dates from the enclosure ranged from 145~BC to AD~415 and 1285~BC to 230~BC. The Roman camp contained postholes rich in charred barley and wheat. The third and earliest enclosure was defended by a ditch and palisade; the temporary camp re-used part of its ditch. An oven, probably associated with the Roman camp, was also found in the third enclosure. Three cremation burials were found north of the square enclosure. Two were contained in collared urns, which were found in small cists. The third was in a pit and unaccompanied. There are notes on: `The pottery' by A MacSween (264, 265); `Thin section petrology of the vessels' by D Dixon (264); `The cremated bone' by S Parker (264, 266); `The trumpet brooch' by L Allason-Jones (266--7); `The penannular brooch, sword and sickle' by O Owen & R Welander (267--8); `Other copper alloy and iron objects' by B A Ford (268); `The glass' by J Henderson (268--9); `The coarse stone' by A Clarke (269); `The vitreous waste from enclosure A' by E Slater & D A Johnston (269); `The charred plant remains' by S Boardman (270); `The soils' by S Carter (271--2); `Radiocarbon dates' M Dalland (273).
Daniel A Johnston
David N Dumville
293 - 298
Early modern antiquarian evidence for the terminus location.
Geoff B Bailey
299 - 314
A paper suggesting that temporary bath houses were provided in the Wall forts until a planned vallum could be completed behind the Wall. Once the vallum plan was abandoned annexes were attached to each fort and the internal bath houses demolished to be replaced by larger bathing complexes.
Val Turner
315 - 325
A lightly incised, animal-headed, Pictish figure is described and analysed in the context of Pictish art and of its find spot. A seventh-century date is proposed.
Jerry O'Sullivan
327 - 365
Remains of an earlier building and graves dating from the early medieval to early modern era were recorded. The antiquity and origin of the women's cemetery is considered and some Irish parallels drawn. There are specialist reports on: `Pottery' by Gordon A Turnbull (343--4); `Soil samples analysis' by Stephen Carter (344--5); `Mortar analysis' by Dianne Dixon (345--7); `Human bones' by Daphne Home Lorimer (347--53). There is an `Appendix: The Iona Cathedral Trust' (362).
J O'Sullivan
Neil Manson Cameron
367 - 378
An article challenging the mid--late twelfth-century date for St Rule's, presenting a new interpretation of the structure. Also considered are other church buildings in eastern--central Scotland which, it is argued, provide evidence of a well-established tradition of church construction in stone before the twelfth century.
John Cannell
Christopher J Tabraham
379 - 390
Reports the results of limited excavations in the bailey during 1984 and 1985 -- before and after work to stabilise the curtain wall. Clear evidence for primary occupation in the twelfth century and a substantial masonry building phase in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was revealed.
Finbar McCormick
391 - 432
A report on excavations on the western side of the Priory in 1990. Features investigated include the western end of the nave, a series of burials, a stone-lined pit containing a rich organic deposit, and walls associated with the medieval monastic complex. There are separately authored reports on: `Outline of the pre-Reformation history of Pluscarden Priory, 1230--1560' by Dom Ambrose Flavell (391--6); `The Priory church' by Richard Fawcett (396--403); `Service trench outside north transept' (410) and `Watching brief report of work undertaken in the south-east vaults' (410--11) both by Dom Ambrose Flavell; `Human bones' by Daphne Home Lorimer (411); `The bird and fish bones' by Sheila Hamilton-Dyer (414); `Feathers from deposit F23 in the stone-lined pit (F22)' by Ruby CerĂ³n-Carrasco (414); `Microfossil analysis of the organic deposit F23 in the stone-lined pit (F22)' by Coralie M Mills (415--17); `A beetle fauna from the organic deposit F23 in the stone-lined pit (F22)' by P C Buckland (417--18); `Analysis of fly remains from F23 in the stone-lined pit (F22)' by P Skidmore (418--19); `Parasite ova from the organic deposit F23 in the stone-lined pit (F22)' by J B Pennington, J P Middleton, C Nicholson & A K G Jones (420); `The soils from pit F22' by Stephen Carter (420); `Report on textiles' by Thea Gabra-Sanders (420--3); `Window glass' by Barbara Ford (424--5); `The medieval pottery' by Charles Murray (425--6).
Finbar McCormick
Alastair M T Maxwell-Irving
433 - 454
A summary of research carried out by the writer considering the first appearance, construction techniques, and location of yetts and window-grilles. Appendix one provides an `Analysis of the yett at Comlongon' in Dumfriesshire (448--50), and appendix two details `Yetts recorded by Christison' (451).
Margaret Swain
455 - 466
Discusses the original location of the wall-hangings thought to have been made in an Edinburgh workshop in the early-seventeenth century.
David Bowler
Ray Cachart
467 - 489
Excavation confirmed the sixteenth-century and later harbour site -- the second of three known locations. There are notes on `The finds' by Adrian Cox (481--4), `The pottery' by Peter Cheer (484), `The animal bone' by Catherine Smith (484).
Jerry O'Sullivan
491 - 508
Reports a deliberately constructed, sub-rectangular pool cut into the gravels of the stream course, along with several large post-pits. Specialist reports include `Macroscopic plant remains' by Sheila Boardman (497--8) and `Palynological assessment' by Richard Tipping (498--9).
J O'Sullivan
John A Atkinson
509 - 523
Presents a survey of the industry in its economic context using documentary sources and structural survey.
Ronald W M Clouston
525 - 541
Catalogues the sixty-three bells, including eight pre-Reformation bells and one from 1340. There is a brief historical account.
Mike R McCarthy
543 - 565
567 - 579