n.a., (1997). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 127. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 127
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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127 (1)
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Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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20 Jan 2002
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Alan Saville
1 - 16
The occurrence and typology of artefacts of handaxe type in Scotland are reviewed and it is concluded that, though some are genuine Lower Palaeolithic implements, none of these finds provides convincing evidence for Early Palaeolithic human presence in Scotland.
Derek Alexander
17 - 27
This report describes a number of pits and a linear feature close to the scheduled cropmark site at Farrochie. The remains of a shallow curvilinear ditch and eight pits were recovered in one area which produced evidence for possible Mesolithic and Neolithic activity. In another trench a number of truncated pits with no associated artefacts were recorded. There are notes on: `The chipped stone' by B Finlayson (20); `Palaeoenvironmental results' by C Clarke (20--1); and `The Neolithic pottery sherds' by T G Cowie (22--4).
James S Rideout
29 - 68
Excavations undertaken in 1984 and 1985 on cropmark sites identified as pit and post alignments revealed a bow-ended pit-defined enclosure dated to late-fifth to mid-fourth millennium BC, a post-defined enclosure dated to the mid-fourth to early-third millennium BC, and possible domestic activity. The pits of the enclosure showed up to three phases of use with deposits containing Carinated Bowl-type pottery in the later phases. Medieval or post medieval `rig & furrow' overlay the site and a small assemblage of medieval pottery is also described. There are notes on: `Geology, geomorphology, and soils' by David Jordan (29--31); `Archaeological background' by J S Rideout (31--2); `The palaeochannel' by David Jordan (43--4); `Neolithic pottery' by Trevor Cowie (44--7); `Stone artefacts' by Ann Clarke (48--51); `Radiocarbon dated charcoals' by Michael Cressey (51); the results of radiocarbon dating; `Macroplant assessment' by Tim Holden (53--4); and `Appendix 1' (60--5) presenting tabulated information of phases in pits, and `Appendix 2: medieval and later features' (65--6) including `Medieval pottery' by D Hall (65--6) and cartographic sources.
Tony Pollard
69 - 121
Reports a site consisting of the remains of several structures, possibly small houses, and various pits and post-holes. Finds included a small assemblage of Grooved Ware which had been deposited in pits. This material, and the presence of cremated human bone in one of the Grooved Ware pits probably represents ritual activity on the site. A series of six radiocarbon dates was obtained, suggesting a sequence of activity stretching from the mid-fourth to the mid-third millennium BC. There are specialist reports on: `Ceramics' by Andrew Jones (89--96); `Flaked stone objects' (96--100) and `Coarse stone tools' (100--1), both by Tony Pollard; cup marked stones; `Burnt bone' by Jacqueline I McKinley (103); `Micromorphological analysis' by Stephen Carter (103--5); `Phosphate and magnetic susceptibility surveys' by Iain Banks (105--7); and finally, `Plant remains' by Sheila Boardman (107--9).
Lionel Masters
123 - 183
Pre-cairn activity was identified and light was cast on the structural sequence of the cairn. The validity of the current reconstruction is discussed. There are notes on `The pottery' by Audrey S Henshall (155--60) and `The flaked stone' by Caroline Wickham-Jones (160--71).
Daniel A Johnston
185 - 253
A fieldwalking exercise by Lanark and District Archaeological Society (LADAS) on moorland recently ploughed for forestry revealed the presence of an extensive Early Neo, Late Neo and EBA artefact scatter, a long mound and five round cairns. Excavation of two of the round cairns revealed them to be simple, single-phase monuments of Beaker date, sealing possibly cultivated soils. The long mound was a complex, multi-phase monument of Early Neo date which contained two secondary burials of a later date; one contained Late Neo artefacts (a Seamer axe and a large leaf-shaped knife), and the other contained three Beakers and a polished stone axehead. The mound overlay three phases of earlier activity: a stake-built structure which produced two Late Meso radiocarbon dates; a possibly cultivated soil deposit; and a series of bonfires (containing Early Neo pottery) which produced two Early Neo radiocarbon dates. This phase may be contemporary with stone structures whose relative stratigraphic position could not be ascertained. Excavation in the artefact scatters revealed evidence for widespread Neo domestic activity. There are specialist reports on: `The artefact scatters and areas of sample excavation' by Daniel A Johnston & Tam Ward (198--202); `Pottery' by A Sheridan (202--23); `Chipped stone; hammerstone and axeheads' by Bill Finlayson (223--34); and `Stone axehead from cairn 2' by Roy Ritchie (234). The Palaeoenvironmental remains section includes: `The charred plant remains from cairns 2 & 3' by Sheila Boardman (234); `Charcoal from the pre-mound deposits under cairn 2' by Anne Crone (234--5); `Palynology of old ground surfaces beneath cairns 1 & 3' by Richard Tipping (235--6); `Micromorphology of the soils buried by cairns 1 & 3' (236--7) and `Soil chemistry from the Historic Scotland sites' (237) both by Stephen Carter; `Charcoal identifications from sample areas 2 & 5' by Sheila Boardman (237--8); and `Carbonized plant remains from sample areas 2 & 5' by Ruth Pelling (238--9). `Dating evidence' is discussed by Daniel A Johnston & Tam Ward (240--3).
Thomas Rees
255 - 279
The ring-cairn was completely excavated prior to its reconstruction nearby. The site originally comprised an arc of pits, in use by the Neo period (4320±80 BP -- GU-4402) surrounding a stone circle which may have been of similar date. After a long hiatus, a pyre was burnt within the stone circle (3070±60 BP -- GU-4399). A timber enclosure, with an entrance to the south, was then erected within the stone circle and five urned cremations interred in pits in the centre of the enclosure. Later the timber enclosure was replaced by a stone ring-cairn which respected the interior area delimited by the timber enclosure. This ring-cairn was subsequently expanded to incorporate the stone circle. There are notes on: `Cremated bone' by Kath McSweeney (265--6); `Botanical remains' by Tim Holden (266--8 & 269); `Pottery' by Ann MacSween (268--71); `Lithics' by Thomas Rees (271--2); `Charcoal samples' by Alan Duffy (272); `Calibration' of seven radiocarbon dates by Magnar Dalland (272); and `Analysis of the radiocarbon dates' by John Barber (272--3).
Roger J Mercer
Magdalena S Midgley
281 - 338
The excavation of the cairn in 1988 revealed a complex sequence of EBA funerary activities. These comprised several episodes of pyre cremation, construction of a large central cist, and six smaller satellite cists all of which had cremations deposited within them. This `cemetery' area was later surrounded by an eccentrically positioned ring-cairn which, subsequently, was covered by a massive mantle of stones. Burial and other ceremonial activities continued in the vicinity of the cairn, taking the form of further cremation deposits within a succession of at least three ring-groove palisade, and a minor cairn finally covered these structures as well. Two final cremations in pits atop this cairn, marked by small upright boulders, attest the longevity of the funerary tradition associated with this monument. There are specialist reports on: `The pottery' by Colin Burgess (305--9); `The plano-convex knife' by Bill Finlayson (309--10); `Cremated human remains' by Kath McSweeney (311--18); `Plant remains' by Camilla Dickson (318--22); `The soil and pollen stratigraphy beneath the cairn' (322--5) and `Palynology of the cist deposits' (326--7), both by Richard Tipping; `Minerals' by J G MacDonald (327--8); and `Kerb stones of the ring-cairn: size, type and colour' by Richard Tipping (328--31).
Dave Pollock
339 - 358
Part of a complex cropmark site was investigated during the winter of 1982-83. A large circular building (radiocarbon dated to 1970±50 BP) and at least one ring-ditch house (dated to 2340±50 BP) were excavated together with rectangular four-post and six-post structures. An exploratory trench through deep hillwash located stratified deposits which could be related to the structures.
Diana Murray
Ian Ralston
359 - 386
This report describes the excavation in 1977 of a square-ditched barrow probably dating from the first or second century AD, together with the damaged remains of a second square-ditched barrow, a crescentic feature (possibly the very damaged remains of a ring-ditch or ring-ditch house), and a circular enclosure, possibly of Neo date and measuring 18cm in diameter. A burial accompanied by a Beaker was recovered from the quarry shortly after the main excavation. There is a note on the `Radiocarbon dates' by Patrick J Ashmore (376 & 377) and an `Appendix 1: the Beaker burial' by Lisbeth M Thoms (381--3) which includes notes on `The Beaker' by Ian A G Shepherd (382--3) and `The skeletal remains' by Mary Harman (383).
Anne Crone
J O'Sullivan
387 - 405
Excavation recorded a large, sub-rectangular, ditched enclosure, previously identified from aerial photographic evidence as a cropmark. The deep U-shaped ditch contained waterlogged deposits with preserved organic materials. The radiocarbon dates obtained from waterlogged seeds in the ditch indicate two phases of activity, one in the fourth to second centuries BC and one in the first to second centuries AD. Analyses of the macroplant and insect assemblages from these deposits have provided evidence of the environment within, and immediately surrounding, the ditch as well as some slight evidence of human activity. No significant features or artefacts were recorded in the interior, probably as a result of extensive plough damage. A hollow feature with possible floor layers and a hearth was excavated outwith the south-west perimeter of the enclosure and is tentatively identified as a remnant sunken house floor. There are separately authored reports on: `The macroplant assemblage' by T Holden (395--6); `The invertebrate assemblage' by H Kenward, F Large, J Carrott & M Issitt (396--400); `Flint' by Thomas Rees (400); and `Animal bone' by Tanya O'Sullivan (400--1).
Richard Hingley
H L Moore
Jon Triscott
G Wilson
407 - 466
Two small `forts', probably large round houses, occupying a natural eminence and further defended by banks and ditches, were excavated in advance of road building. Construction began at Site 2 between the first and second centuries BC and at Site 1 between the second and third centuries AD. Two major phases of occupation were found at each site. There are notes on: `Natural topography and landuse' by I D Máté (411--12); `Charcoal identification' by R McCullagh (431--2); `Radiocarbon dates' by P J Ashmore (432--6); `Metalwork' (436--9), `Ceramics' (439), `Querns and worked stone' (439--44), all by H E M Cool; `Petrology of the stone artefacts' by D Dixon (445); `Chipped stone' by D Lehane (445); `Metalworking debris' by R M Spearman (445--6); `Animal bone' by F McCormick (446); and `Human bone' by K McSweeny [K McSweeney] (446).
John Crawford
467 - 511
Over the past twenty years, large collections of surface finds have been retrieved from erosion areas within the sandhills on the Argyll island of Coll. A selection of these finds has been catalogued and illustrated to draw attention to the range of evidence that is available, including material representative of virtually all periods from the Mesolithic to the recent past. There is a brief discussion of the contribution that this fieldwork has made to understanding of the development of settlement on Coll. Together with the archaeological Inventory (RCAHMS 1980), it is hoped that the results of this field prospection will be the catalyst for future archaeological work on the island. There are notes on: `The lithic collections' by Bill Finlayson (495--6); `The pottery collections' by Alan Lane & Trevor Cowie (496--502); `Copper alloy metalwork' by John Crawford & Trevor Cowie (502--3); `The cannel coal bead from Feall' by Alison Sheridan (504); and finally a `General discussion' by Trevor Cowie (505--9).
Fraser Hunter
513 - 525
A Corieltauvian plated stater recently discovered at Galadean, Borders, is described and the few other IA coin finds from Scotland are summarized. Attempts are made to explain why the people of northern Britain did not adopt coinage, in terms of relationships between the area and the coin-using south in the late pre-Roman IA. There is an `Appendix: Iron Age coins from northern England' (522--3).
J D Bateson
Nicholas M McQ Holmes
527 - 561
David J Woolliscroft
Birgitta Hoffmann
563 - 576
Geoff B Bailey
577 - 594
Alexander Derek
595 - 600
Alastair Roy Rees
W L Finlayson
601 - 607
Jane M Downes
Christopher D Morris
609 - 626
Kenneth Veitch
627 - 647
Caroline Paterson
649 - 657
Derek W Hall
David Bowler
659 - 675
Derek Alexander
677 - 685
John Lewis
687 - 695
John Lewis
697 - 705
Colm Moloney
Russel J Coleman
707 - 782
Edwina V W Proudfoot
Christopher Aliaga-Kelly
783 - 842
John Cannell
John Lewis
843 - 853
Malcolm Thurlby
855 - 888
Rosalind K Marshall
889 - 898
Ian Armit
899 - 919
Athol L Murray
921 - 944
Stephen Jackson
945 - 956
Philip J Watson
957 - 962
963 - 968
969 - 986
987 - 997