The Virtual Amarna Project

Barry Kemp, 2011

Data copyright © Egypt Exploration Society, Amarna Trust unless otherwise stated

This work is licensed under the ADS Terms of Use and Access.
Creative Commons License

Primary contact

Prof Barry Kemp
McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research
Downing Street

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Resource identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are persistent identifiers which can be used to consistently and accurately reference digital objects and/or content. The DOIs provide a way for the ADS resources to be cited in a similar fashion to traditional scholarly materials. More information on DOIs at the ADS can be found on our help page.

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Barry Kemp (2011) The Virtual Amarna Project [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor]


A series of significant objects form the Egyptian site of Amarna were digitized using a Konica Minolta Vivid 9i triangulation laser scanner. The digital objects are part of the Virtual Amarna Museum - a web based "museum" providing public access to these objects as part of the Amarna Project's web materials. A range of objects were involved - including stone stele, ceramics, pendants, moulds and selected architectural elements. A portion of the scanned objects were used as part of the LEAP II project and were placed in the ADS archive as part of that effort. The LEAP II project produced an article in Internet Archaeology that addresses the application of high-precision 3-D recording methods to heritage materials (portable objects), the technical processes involved, the various digital products and the role of 3-D recording in larger questions of scholarship and public interpretation. It argues that the acquisition and creation of digital representations of heritage must be part of a comprehensive research infrastructure (a digital ecosystem) that focuses on all of the elements involved, including (a) recording methods and metadata, (b) digital object discovery and access, (c) citation of digital objects, (d) analysis and study, (e) digital object reuse and repurposing, and (f) the critical role of a national/international digital archive.

Data formats provided in the archive are:

  1. Images - these are standard digital photographs provided as jpg files.
  2. 3D PDF files - 3D PDF is an Adobe Acrobat file format and files in this format can be read by the free Adobe Acrobat Reader software (versions 8.1 and later).
  3. Meshes (obj) - Meshes are the result of the conversion of a point cloud into a triangulated mesh - with the texture (that is color imager) applied to the resulting triangulated facets. The mesh format is immediately usable by many software products including most animation and visualization software. Additionally the obj format can be viewed using a number of free 'viewers' that allow detailed manipulations, measurement and other operations. The Guides to Good Practice Laser Scanning Guide (Section 3.5) provides information on a number of these viewers.
  4. Point clouds - there are the digital data in a standard ASCII format where each point is represented by X,Y and Z and color readings. Most point cloud software can import this data format.

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