n.a., (1919). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 54. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. https://doi.org/10.5284/1000184.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 54
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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08 Dec 2008
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1 - 19
George MacDonald
20 - 44
W D Simpson
45 - 50
The Barmekin fort consists of five concentric lines of defence, the inner enclosing a roughly circular courtyard, about 340 feet in diameter. The stone defences are well constructed and as much as twelve feet thick and five feet high. A number of stone\r\ntraverses connect the two inner walls to restrict movement of any possible intruders. There are three possible entranceways. No trace of hut-circles survives within.
Alexander O Curle
54 - 124
Further excavation on the higher levels revealed stone foundations for turf walls, and hearths representing successive periods of occupation. The artefacts are described and illustrated in detail. Early activity is represented by two stone axes and a few Bronze Age objects. Personal items from the main period of occupation include brooches, rings, glass beads, glass and shale armlets, and clasps. Harness mountings, terrets, iron tools, spearheads, coins and pottery. The discovery of a hoard of Roman silver plate is particularly noteworthy. It included bowls, cups, spoons, a miscellaneous collection of pieces of plate and four coins which suggest a date in the early fifth century. Certain of the pieces have a religious character and all are described in detail. The hoard is provisionally interpreted as spoils from a variety of European locations.
J G Callander
124 - 131
The hoard consisted of two spearheads, a socketed axe, a socketed, curved tool, and a razor. It was discovered by workmen while digging a drain. The hoard is important since it confirms deductions which have been made from previous discoveries. It almost certainly contains the weapons and instruments of a single individual, perhaps his complete kit of metal tools. Both the curved tool and the razor are quite rare in Scotland.
W D Simpson
134 - 145
The castle was erected by Gilbert de Moravia, Bishop of Caithness, between 1223 and 1245, at the orders of Alexander II and entrusted to the hereditary wardenship of the local feudal landholders, the Earls of Mar. It is one of the most splendid examples of a great medieval fortress in Scotland, and is distinguished by its unusual size and architectural development. The ruins consist of a high and massive wall of enceinte, enclosing a spacious court, and defended by six strong round towers, of which two flanked the great gateway in the south front, while a third at the north-west corner, much larger than the others, and known as the Snow Tower, was the donjon. Excavation focussed on the foundations of the gatehouse. The great well in the Snow Tower was also investigated.
W W Watts
146 - 147
The St Andrews Cup under consideration was made in London, and bears the hall-mark for 1613-14. It is an uncommon form of secular wine-cup and is unlikely to have been used as a chalice since the nature of the decoration precludes the satisfactory cleansing of the bowl after use. Secular vessels have frequently been presented to churches and used for chalices, but at the period when this cup was made there was a definite prescribed form of communion cup in England which was in general closely adhered to.
John R Findlay
150 - 153
Little is known of the earlier Scottish watchmakers, though one of the most notable of early watchmakers in this country and the first master of the Incorporated Clockmakers was a Scot, David Ramsay, whom James VI, on his accession to the throne of England, appointed keeper of his clocks and watches. There are in existence a considerable number of watches signed by him, one of which bears the legend, "David Ramsay Scotus me fecit." On the face of this watch, above the dial, it bears the\r\nScottish crown surmounted by the Scottish lion sejant, and below the dial the fleur-de-lys surmounted by a crown. The representation within the dial is identified as Edinburgh Castle and its environs.
James Ritchie
154 - 172
The circle forms part of a notable group of prehistoric monuments which has been extensively written about. A second larger circle was destroyed in the eighteenth century. Four stone cists included two which contained double burials and a unique horn spoon. An avenue extends from the circle to the area in which the cists were found. The surviving circle comprises a circular ditch and bank with a circle of stones within and a number of associated cremation deposits. A cist at the centre contained a skeleton and a cremation burial. One of the stones forming the circle is carved with the long-jawed animal usually called the elephant, and beneath it the crescent.\r\ncrossed by the V-shaped rod.
T Lindsay Lindsay Galloway
Thomas H Bryce
172 - 191
The cairn appears to be oval although almost half has been washed away by an adjacent burn. The whole of the surviving cairn was investigated. The burials lie at somewhat different levels, and were both cisted and uncisted; and a much disturbed passage chamber and a portion of a marginal setting of stones were revealed. The cists numbered twelve and are described in detail. In the main they contained cremated human bone although skeletons were present in a few. One cist contained both burnt and unburnt bone. Artefacts included food vessels, jet beads, bronze sheeting, beakers and a flint knife. The interior of the cairn was almost entirely composed of loose stones, amongst which at various places were noticed small collections of human osseous remains. In most cases these were inhumed and not associated with any special arrangement of the stones. There were also a few isolated fragments of bones, mostly unburnt, and a few cremated. The article includes a report on the human bone.
Angus Graham
194 - 204
Thomas M'Laren
204 - 210
Duncan's Camp is a fort which occupies Duncan's Hill. The camp is roughly oval and it main axis running north-south is eighty yards in length. There are artificial defences on the north side while the others are naturally steep. On the upper surface of a large bench of undisturbed rock at Birnam Hill which slopes slightly towards the west is a group of twenty cup-marks, most of which are well formed and deeply cut. A detached mass nearby has three cup marks. Rohallion Castle lies in a hollow on the hillside completely dominated by a rocky eminence less than 100 yards\r\naway and its dimensions are very much smaller than is customary in ancient Scottish defensive buildings. It consists of a central block, oblong on plan with round towers at two diagonally opposite corners, and a series of outer defences.
Archibald Fairbairn
210 - 212
Pottery fragments were recovered within a floor level during excavation of a hut-circle and comparison with material from other sites suggests a Bronze Age date for the sherds.
D Hay Fleming
216 - 248
On the 6th of October 1681, there was laid before the Privy Council of Scotland a supplication by Dr Alexander Skene, Provost of St Salvator's College (otherwise the Old College) of St Andrews, for himself and in name and behalf of the masters and members of that college that a warrant might be granted for a voluntary, charitable contribution throughout the kingdom to enable repairs. This was granted and the details of all the volunteer subscribers are presented in Skene's accounts.
W C Crawford
248 - 252
The cross of blue slate is free standing, with curved hollows at the intersection of the arms. In the centre of the head there is a large raised boss covered with spiral ornament, and having a central depression containing three small bosses. On the top arm there is an angel treading on a serpent, and two small animals on a background of interlaced work. On the bottom arm an ecclesiastic or saint is giving the benediction with the right hand, and holding a book in his left. On each of the side arms are two beasts, the two lower ones licking the face of the saint. On the shaft at the top is a diagonal key pattern. On the shaft in the middle are four hearts on a background of interlaced work. On the shaft at the bottom there is spiral work. In addition there are fifteen grave slabs with significant carvings.
253 - 276