n.a., (1993). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 123. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 123
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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20 Jan 2002
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Susan Searight
1 - 8
More than 2,000 additional tools have been recovered from the shore of Lussa Bay since 1969. Blades, flakes, cores and scrapers are the most common forms. The assemblage is compared to the previous finds from the immediate area; of particular interest are the relatively large, broad trapeze--triangle microliths, noted elsewhere on Jura and thought to belong to a comparatively early phase within the Mesolithic sequence on the island.
John R Hunter
9 - 12
During the excavation of a series of post--medieval boat nousts at Hurnip's Point, Deerness, Orkney, in 1991 it was discovered that one of the nousts had been constructed against the side of an earlier cairn. Topographical and geophysical surveys showed the cairn to be tadpole--like in shape with a total length of some 60m. Exploratory excavation of the `tail' of the cairn suggested that the monument was probably a Neolithic passage grave.
Trevor G Cowie
13 - 41
Pottery from at least sixteen sites in eastern and central Scotland can be attributed more or less certainly to the Earlier Neolithic. Although the quality of much of the evidence precludes detailed classification, at least some of the groups, characterised by the presence of carinated bowls, may be presumed to date from an early stage of the Neolithic. Other types, including a range of heavy unshouldered bowls, were certainly current by the mid-- to late fourth millennium BC, in terms of calibrated radiocarbon dates, while the evidence from other regions suggests that some decorated pottery may have made a similarly early appearance. The Later Neolithic pottery from the region is discussed briefly, mainly to highlight some of the problems which may be resolved by future discoveries. Major domestic assemblages of Earlier Neolithic pottery are yet unknown; some material derives from intact contexts involving structured deposition, but much is from residual and unrepresentative scatters.
Gordon J Barclay
Christopher J J Russell--White
43 - 210
The portions of the Balfarg/Balbirnie ceremonial complex excavated between 1983 and 1985 are described and related to the portions dug previously: Balbirnie stone circle (76/3594) and Balfarg henge (83/10516).The prehistoric ceremonial use of the area seems to have lasted from early in the third millennium until late in the second millennium BC (in terms of uncalibrated radiocarbon dates). The sequence began with pit-digging and pottery deposition in two parts of the site, near Balfarg Riding School (BRS) and to the west of Balfarg henge. Then, two timber structures, possibly with a mortuary function, were erected at BRS, probably in the early/mid third millennium BC (uncalibrated). The later of the two was mounded over and surrounded by a circular ditched enclosure (a henge?); this activity was associated with the deposition of Grooved Ware. At about the same time, at the west end of the site, a similar deposition of burnt and broken Grooved Ware predates the construction of the Balfarg henge, with its timber and stone circles, and there is evidence of the first use of the Balbirnie stone circle.Later in the third millennium BC (uncalibrated) and in the second millennium, during the prolonged use of the Balfarg henge and the Balbirnie stone circle, a complex sequence of events unfolds at BRS, including the digging of a ring--ditch and the erection of two concentric ring--cairns and a further cairn.Late in the use of the complex there are episodes of burial associated with Beaker and Food Vessel pottery. Most burials are simple cremations, mainly in the area of Balbirnie stone circle, all apparently late in the sequence of the sites on which they are found. At the west end of the complex, cremations were deposited in simple urns.There are specialist contributions as follows. `Summary report on the topography, soils and sediments' (54--6), `Soils buried beneath ring--cairn A' (121) by D Jordan; `The prehistoric pottery: an introduction to the reports' (56--7) and `Catalogues of pottery' (microfiche A5--C9) by T G Cowie & A S Henshall; `The Neolithic pottery: vessels P1--P40: plain Neolithic pottery (Group 1 & Group 2)' (65--76), `Later Neolithic Impressed Ware: vessels P83--P114' (121--6), `Beaker pottery: vessels P115--P153' (127--35), `The Food Vessels P154--P155' (138--40), and `The Bucket Urns: vessels P156--P158' (145--6) by T G Cowie; `The Grooved Ware: vessels P41--P82' (94--108) by A S Henshall; `Basketry and textile impressions on the Grooved Ware' (108) by V J McLellan; `An assessment of the residues on the Grooved Ware' (108--10) by B Moffat; `The jet: summary and discussion' (140--2) by I A G Shepherd; `The stone assemblage' (151--9) and `Catalogue of stone artefacts' (microfiche C10--D4) by C R Wickham--Jones & D Reed; `The charcoal samples and radiocarbon dates' (159--60) by G Cook & R McCullagh; `The calibration of the radiocarbon dates' (161) by M Dalland; `The fieldwalking exercise' (162--5) by J Downes & C Richards; `Contextual analysis of the Grooved Ware at Balfarg' (185--92) by C Richards; and `Analysis of the timber structures' (169--75) by D J Hogg. BOC
Gordon J Barclay
Graeme Whittington
211 - 213
During excavation of Bronze Age cists, samples were obtained for pollen analysis. One cist, at Upper Kenly Farm, Kingsbarns, yielded no particularly informative pollen. Material from two cists at Dalgety Bay yielded very low concentrations of pollen from grass, plantain, and, probably, hazel, but high concentrations of meadowsweet pollen. Flowers of meadowsweet were probably deposited in these graves at the time of burial; their absence from the Kenly burials may be because those burials took place in winter.
Stephen P Carter
215 - 233
A 27ha area of prehistoric settlement and field systems was surveyed at Tulloch Wood in 1990. Sample excavation was carried out in 1991 and fifteen radiocarbon dates were obtained from beneath a range of monument types. Negative features overlain by later banks and cairns were found to be Mesolithic in date, but may not have been man--made. The earliest dated surface feature is a clearance cairn which is no older than c 2000 bc A coaxial bank system, established at about 1350--1100 bc, may be contemporary with at least one of the hut circles. Three other hut circles, and modifications to the bank system, appear to be Iron Age in date, c 450 bc to ad 250.
Stephen P Carter
Stephen P Carter
Christopher J Russell-White
235 - 243
An archaeological assessment of the proposed line of the Inverness Southern Distributor Road led to the excavation of two cropmark sites, the Hilton `pit alignments' and the Glendruidh `timber halls or enclosures'. Neither site was located in excavation. It is concluded that the pit alignment cropmark could be the product of recent agricultural activity, but the cause of the Glendruidh cropmark, and therefore the existence of the timber halls or enclosures, remains uncertain.
B A Crone
245 - 254
New radiocarbon dates for south--western Scotland are presented. The relationship between Irish and Scottish crannogs is analysed in the light of these dates and it is suggested that the notion of the crannog, a defended lacustrine homestead consisting of an artificial island encircled by piling, appeared in Scotland early in the first millennium BC and reached Ireland in the late sixth century AD.
Gordon J Barclay
255 - 268
The excavation was undertaken to test hypotheses relating to the interpretation of cropmark pit circles: were they Neolithic or Bronze Age ceremonial or funerary structures, or were they Iron Age houses, and to what extent could the two classifications be differentiated on aerial photographs? The excavation revealed the remains of four circles of large post--holes, fence lines, and many other pits and post--holes. Radiocarbon dates place the post circles late in the first millennium BC uncalibrated. The pit circles may be interpreted as the main structural elements of four substantial round houses, two of which burned down. Mesolithic flint tools were recovered.There are the following specialist contributions. `Charcoal identification and radiocarbon dating' by Anne Crone & Gordon Cook (262), `Report on the flint tools recovered at Romancamp Gate' by Alan Saville (262--3 & microfiche) and `The botanical remains from Romancamp Gate' by T G Holden (263--5). BOC
Gordon J Barclay
B A Crone
John W Barber
Caroline Earwood
Roger F Miket
D Roberts
269 - 275
This wooden bowl is described and compared with the bowl from Talisker, Skye (84/222). Both are similar in design and technology and radiocarbon dates place their manufacture sometime in the first to second centuries AD. Comparisons are also made with other wooden vessels from Scotland and Ireland.
Ian M Rogers
277 - 290
Limited excavations at Dalginross, Comrie, Perthshire, uncovered an entrance of the Stracathro type and showed that the camp was of two phases of construction; at Dun, Angus, only the enclosure ditches were identified. There are specialist contributions by Stephen Carter `Micromorphological analysis' (283--5) and Sheila Boardman `Charred plant material' (285, 288--9 & microfiche).
Ian M Rogers
David J Woolliscroft
291 - 313
This paper attempts to describe the signalling arrangements along the Gask Ridge in Strath Earn, and the influence these may have had on the general layout of the system of Roman installations, in an effort to understand the purpose and layout of the Roman line. It also reports on the re--excavation of a possible Roman fortlet close by the Gask Ridge tower of Midgate, Findo Gask, Perthshire. This juxtaposition suggests that the Gask Ridge fortlets may not be exactly contemporary with the towers. Although there is insufficient evidence to prove that the fortlets belong to another Flavian period, or to a different period altogether, the former may still appear more likely.
Dennis B Gallagher
A Clarke
315 - 318
Five graves of Romano--British date, possibly associated with the fort or vicus at Inveresk, were revealed during building. The remains of one individual were recovered. There are specialist reports (317 & microfiche) on `Pottery' by Dennis Gallagher, `Human Bone' by Margaret Bruce, and `Animal bone' by Andrew Barlow.
Dennis B Gallagher
Fraser Hunter
319 - 336
Four decorated antler mounts found at Bu Sands in 1990 are described. Relevant parallels are studied, from which a Roman or early Anglo--Saxon date is proposed, with manufacture in southern Britain. Consideration of the evidence for Orcadian contacts at this time suggests a late Roman date is most likely and that the mounts ornamented a box which arrived in Orkney as a prestige gift in the third or fourth century AD. An Appendix (331--3) describes a find of a stone `egg' amulet of the first few centuries AD from the same site and discusses similar amulets.
Magnar Dalland
337 - 344
Describes the excavation of three long cists. Two skeletons were dated and the results are discussed in relation to radiocarbon dates from other long cist cemeteries. Daphne Home Lorimer reports on `The human bones' (341).
Thomas Owen Clancy
345 - 353
The Drosten Stone (St Vigeans 1) is a Pictish carved stone of the ninth century AD. This paper seeks to interpret the inscription on that stone as containing a Gaelic time expression coupled with a personal name: i ré Uoret. This would allow for close dating of the stone, to 839--842, the dates of the Pictish king Uurad, son of Bargoit. Evidence is introduced from inscriptions elsewhere in the insular world, both to reinforce the suggested time expression, and to suggest the purpose of the stone and the possible nature of the persons commemorated on it.
Caroline Earwood
355 - 362
Topological links between wooden artefacts and those made from stone, pottery and metal facilitate the dating of some distinctive styles of wooden container. However, radiocarbon is in many cases the only method of dating those wooden troughs and dishes that are typologically indistinct. This paper reports on the radiocarbon dating of a number of wooden vessels from Scotland.
Ian B D Bryce
A V Roberts
363 - 372
David H Caldwell
373 - 380
In the sixteenth and early-seventeenth century many Scots used lead seal matrices with simple heraldic designs. This note describes seven which have survived, and presents analytical information which suggests that their makers often mixed tin with the lead to make it harder.
Moira K Grieg
Moira K Greig
Bill Lindsay
Stewart Thain
Gordon Williamson
381 - 393
Excavation in 1990 revealed the remains of the east wall and part of the south wall of the original barmkin, along with two contemporary stone drains and a few post--holes. Coins, pottery, and glass were also recovered.
Colvin K Greig
Julian Goodare
395 - 418
Robert A Dodgshon
419 - 438
Before their reorganisation into crofts or clearance for sheep, farming townships of the west Highlands and Islands were generally arranged around small irregular clusters of settlement, known as clachans or bailtean. For some, these clusters are an archaic settlement form with roots in late prehistory. This paper argues for a different interpretation of their character and chronology. Using a mix of documentary, cartographic, and field data, it argues that the settlement morphology of bailtean was not fixed or stable, but in a continuous state of flux, with individual house--sites being regularly abandoned and reoccupied. Their nucleated form may have replaced a more diffused pattern, and the switch between the two may not have begun until the late medieval period and may have still been incomplete even in the eighteenth century. It is argued that this adjustment of settlement accompanied a shift from a field economy based on enclosures to one based on runrig open fields.
Athol L Murray
Charles J Burnett
439 - 452
Coleen E Batey
453 - 454
Lecture summary.
Michael G Fullford
454 - 455
Summary of a lecture discussing trading contacts.
Mary Davis
Alison Sheridan
455 - 456
Lecture summary.
Alex Morrison
458 - 460
Summary of a lecture covering periods from the Neolithic to the nineteenth century.
Bill Finlayson
461 - 462
Lecture summary.
Sally M Foster
463 - 464
Lecture summary.
481 - 488