Series: East Anglian Archaeology

East Anglian Archaeology
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ADS Collection DOI https://doi.org/10.5284/1042744
Primary Contact: Jenny Glazebrook: email
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Edward A Martin
Max Satchell
Keith Wade
The Historic Field Systems of East Anglia Project was carried out with support from English Heritage's Monuments Protection Programme. The project formulated a way of analysing the historic landscape in terms of eight basic 'land types' that could be further broken down into eighteen sub-types. Of especial significance were common fields and their antithesis, ancient 'block holdings' or holdings in severalty (farmsteads surrounded by their own group of fields). This form of analysis was applied to twelve detailed case studies of historic land use that were carried out across the region: three in Norfolk, four in Suffolk, three in Essex and one each in Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire. In each place the landscape was categorised, mapped and quantified according to the land types. The varying percentages of all the land types was calculated and common fields were shown to be most prevalent in the north and west of the region, while block holdings dominated in the south, with some areas showing no evidence of ever having had common fields. By using trend lines derived from the computer-based Historic Landscape Characterisation mapping (recently carried out in the region under another English Heritage sponsored project) in conjunction with a variety of other data sets, it was possible to suggest a wider context for the case-study based conclusions. Of particular, and unexpected, importance was a division running diagonally across the claylands of central Suffolk, approximately on the line of the River Gipping. To the south of this there is gently undulating land which had a high potential for arable farming in pre-modern times, while to the north there is mainly flat land, with an historic tendency towards dairy farming. It was also possible to demonstrate a high incidence of block holdings in the southern area and, conversely, a link with a form of common fields to the north. But beyond these topographically explicable differences, it was also apparent that the 'Gipping divide' was a significant cultural boundary. This can be seen in vernacular architecture, both in constructional methods and in plan forms; in the terminology used to describe greens and woods; and in inheritance customs. The patterns seen in south Suffolk extend into Essex and those in north Suffolk extend into Norfolk, indicating that this was a boundary of regional importance that has a greater cultural significance than the existing county boundaries. The report has therefore pulled together a key collection of historical descriptions of the nature and management of field boundaries across the region, as an aid towards the informed conservation of the East Anglian landscape in the twenty-first century.
Abstract icon
2008
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Stanley E West
It is eighty years since a comprehensive survey of Suffolk Anglo-Saxon material was published by R.A.Smith in the Victoria County History, and thirty years since R.Rainbird-Clarke's provocative discussion in his East Anglia. The great surge of interest that has occurred since the 1950s — excavations, field surveys, and the rapidly increasing reported discoveries — combine to make a new survey and catalogue highly desirable. The corpus includes as much of the previously unpublished material as possible, but the treatment of some categories of finds, particularly from the recently published sites, has had to be selective. The work is essentially a catalogue, presented at a time of rapidly-changing views and approaches to the Anglo-Saxons and the appreciation of their ongoing contribution to our heritage. It is intended that it should be used as a primary source for the artefacts and their distribution in Suffolk as a basis for the greater understanding of the mechanics of the establishment and development of Anglo-Saxon East Anglia.
Abstract icon
1998
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Paul R Sealey
Jenny Glazebrook
In 1982 Jim Bennett, an amateur archaeologist, excavated a late Iron Age warrior burial at Kelvedon in Essex. It was a discovery of national importance because there are so few warrior burials of the period. After the death of the excavator, the finds were dispersed but they were eventually assembled at Colchester Museums for exhibition, study and publication. The warrior was laid to rest c.75–25 BC with a sword, spear and shield. His bronze scabbard is decorated — uniquely — with a strip of applied tin. Other finds included copper-alloy fittings from a tankard, and a bronze bowl from the Roman world. The style of fighting exemplified by Kelvedon developed on the European mainland in the 3rd century BC but was not adopted in Britain until much later. The Kelvedon shield boss and spear are the products of armourers who worked across the English Channel. The warrior might have been a Briton recruited to fight in the Gallic Wars or a Gaulish refugee from the conflict. Kelvedon is only the third Iron Age warrior burial from Britain with pottery, in this case a pair of Aylesford-Swarling pedestal urns. There is no consensus about when such pottery emerged in Britain and the start date is fully discussed in the report as part of the assessment of the date of the grave. Other topics addressed in the report include the incidence of warfare in late Iron Age Britain, the part warfare played in state formation and the social complexion of an Iron Age war band. The Kelvedon warrior was an elite fighter; he was not a typical Iron Age combatant because most other contemporary warriors had to make do with just a spear.
Abstract icon
2007
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Andrew Rogerson
A hoard of coins of the shadowy East Anglian King Beonna triggered off a project which revealed not only late Neolithic activity but also a Viking burial and a small part of a rural settlement of the 8th to 13th centuries AD. Saturation coverage by metal detector at all stages of the work produced a large assemblage of metal objects which suggests that the 'normal' quantity and range of finds collected from conventionally excavated sites may often fall short of the true population.
Abstract icon
1995
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Paul Spoerry
Rob Atkins
Botolph Bridge, now within urban Peterborough, lay beside an important crossing of the River Nene and once formed part of a well-known medieval vill, referenced in Domesday Book. Botolph Bridge was noted for its well preserved medieval earthworks but since the late 1980s these have gradually been destroyed by housing development. An earthwork survey carried out in 1982 amply demonstrated the complexity and importance of the site, showing a church and manorial complex with house plots strung out along an adjacent road and fields separated from the main settlement by a hollow way. Excavation demonstrated that the manorial enclosure had replaced earlier house plots by c.1200. In the later 14th century, there was considerable investment by the manorial holders, the Draytons. A manorial farm was built above earlier fields, with stone buildings constructed around a courtyard including a farmhouse, dovecote and ancillary buildings. Within the manorial enclosure itself, further agricultural buildings were laid out. All these buildings had been abandoned by c.1600. The church, located just north of the excavation area, was finally demolished in 1695. Earthwork survey in 1982 demonstrated the site's importance, showing a church and manorial complex with house plots along a road and fields beyond. Excavation demonstrated that the manorial enclosure had replaced earlier house plots by c.1200. In the later 14th century, there was considerable investment by the manorial holders, the Draytons.
Abstract icon
2015
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Kasia L A Gdaniec
Mark Edmonds
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Construction of a water supply pipeline in Cambridgeshire provided an opportunity to sample the prehistoric landscape along a transect that crossed several major geological boundaries. This narrow window ran from the Lower Chalk of the ancient peninsula of Isleham, across the heavy low-lying clays of Soham and down into the peat fen of Stuntney and south-east Ely. Within the constraints set by the development, field investigation and subsequent analysis were conducted at several scales. In the initial stage, attention focused on predicted occupation areas (principally at the fen margins), while the intervening landscape — between these areas and known sites — was sampled. Along with palaeoenvironmental data, samples of flint, burnt flint and other materials provided a context within which to explore specific models for interpreting the character of later prehistoric landscape occupation across a diverse set of conditions. As a consequence of landscape sampling, six significant site areas were designated for archaeological investigation. These were located at the neck of the sand and chalk peninsula of Isleham, extending down its gradually sloping western edge towards the braided palaeochannels of the River Snail. This occupation-rich zone on the chalk contrasted sharply with areas of the fen that showed little evidence of early occupation where crossed by the pipeline. Two of these sites saw more extensive fieldwork funded by English Heritage, and these form the main body of the report. These different scales and intensities of work in the field are reflected in the structure of the report. The extensive survey and evaluation is dealt with in Chapter 2 and provides a full record of work conducted along the length of the pipeline corridor. Chapter 3 documents the more limited investigations conducted at four of the site areas identified in stage 1. The core of the volume lies in Chapters 4 and 5, which deal with the more substantive records arising from work at Prickwillow Road and around the palaeochannels of the River Snail. Dominated by Early Bronze Age and Earlier Neolithic material respectively, these 'sites' add a significant body of information to our understanding of the later prehistoric sequence in the area, data which are set in broader context in Chapter 6.
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2007
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Heather Wallis
Sue Anderson
During the construction of Ormesby bypass in east Norfolk, human bones were found by the contractors. Excavation revealed that these were not isolated burials but part of a cemetery. Sixty articulated burials were excavated which, along with unstratified bones, represented a minimum of forty-five adults and seventeen children. A date range of 11th–14th centuries has been suggested by radiocarbon determinations which were calibrated with consideration of the marine protein component of the diet of the individuals. Demographic, metrical, morphological, dental and pathological aspects of the population have also been studied, and compared with other contemporary Norfolk groups. Demographic analysis suggests a trend towards death in old age amongst the men and in young adult life for the women. Metrical analysis showed a similarity with medieval groups in Norfolk, and non-metric traits suggested a close affinity with people from a nearby Saxon cemetery and a medieval group from Norwich. Ormesby had four churches during the medieval period: the locations of three (St Margaret, St Michael and St Peter) were known, and the location of the fourth (St Andrew) suggested, prior to this excavation. None of these were adjacent to the burials. Consideration of the archaeological evidence along with aerial photographs, cartographic and secondary documentary evidence allows an alternative location to be suggested for the church of St Andrew, adjacent to the burials.
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2009
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Nigel Brown
Throughout the medieval period the manor of Southchurch Hall belonged to Christ Church Canterbury, and many of its tenants were prominent in local and national politics. In 1922 Southchurch Hall was still operating as a farm but under serious threat of destruction from the rapid expansion of Southend. Fortunately, a group of prominent individuals linked by membership of the local antiquarian society and the Society of Antiquaries, actively sought to preserve the threatened building and its earthworks. The group attracted C.R. Peers to examine the standing structure and Mortimer Wheeler the surrounding earthworks. Southend Borough Council acquired the hall, which was extensively restored in the late 1920s and opened as a branch library in 1931, with the earthworks preserved as a public park. By the early 1970s the hall was about to become a branch of Southend Museums. Excavations were begun to locate remains of the numerous manorial buildings known from documentary sources. In part the work was threat led but most of the areas examined were chosen specifically to address questions, some originally posed by Wheeler in the 1920s, regarding the development of the moat, mound and other structures and their relationship to the documentary resources. The excavations revealed the remains of an early 13th-century manorial centre enclosed by a ditch and then a moat. Major 14th-century refurbishments included an imposing gatehouse and the rather more modest timber-framed hall which survives today. Large assemblages of artefacts were recovered, notably pottery, metal objects, leather work and glass. The material reflects widespread contacts facilitated both by the site's geographical location on the Thames estuary, and by the social prominence of its occupants. A full survey of the timber-framed hall was carried out, and selective analysis of the extensive documentary sources relating to the site. These are used together with the excavated evidence to provide an integrated account of the site and its setting.
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2006
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Trevor M Ashwin
Andrew Tester
This synthetic report presents the results of very large-scale excavations during 1993–4 at the Roman settlement at Scole, in advance of highway construction. Scole is located on the border between the present-day counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, at the point where the main road from Camulodunum to Venta Icenorum crossed the River Waveney. As well as describing settlement morphology and development over an extensive area, it includes a number of specialist studies of exceptional importance — notably those dealing with a large body of waterlogged Roman structural timber, with the character and context of metalworking within the settlement, and with the environmental sequence recorded in a palaeochannel of the river. Other highlights include an account of a possible maltings complex, and a critical study of the formation of 'dark earth' deposits which draws upon the evidence of artefact distributions and soil chemistry.
Abstract icon
2014
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Caroline J Ingle
Helen Saunders
In Essex, the Mapping Programme has been carried out by Historic Environment, Essex County Council as part of the English Heritage national initiative. It is part of the continuing development of a broader historic environment record for Essex that includes thematic information. The mapping project covered 190 Ordnance Survey 1:10,000 quarter-sheets and the available aerial photographs from several different sources were examined for visible archaeological features. More than 10,700 archaeological sites have been mapped and recorded, of which 13.2% were new to the Essex Historic Environment Record. GIS has allowed the mapped archaeological features to be viewed in a landscape context and in conjunction with other geographical information such as geology, topography and historic mapping. This has both aided the interpretation of features and allowed new classifications to be established. Consequently, detailed analysis has been carried out on Neolithic monuments within their surrounding landscapes, as well as an assessment of prehistoric and Roman settlement within Essex. Many aspects of the medieval landscape still exist in Essex today, and some have been mapped as part of the programme. Field boundary loss that has occurred since the Second World War has also been mapped, and this, combined with settlement patterns, has allowed analysis of the medieval landscape to be completed. Essex is a county with a long and varying coastline and many new coastal sites were mapped, including fish weirs, red hills and oyster pits, all of which have given an insight into the use of the coastal resource. Without the mapping programme, many of these sites would have gone unrecorded and, in some cases, unprotected. Instead, the mapping allowed some fish weir sites to be managed and scheduled. The final aspect examined in this report concerns the varied monuments of the Second World War, many of which have been recorded and mapped for the first time. Aerial photography is often the only record for these sites and by examining RAF and other contemporary photography, a better understanding of the defences within the county has been gained.
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2011
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon C Philip Clarke
Nicholas J Lavender
The excavation of a sub-circular cropmark feature overlooking the Colne estuary to the north-west of Brightlingsea revealed a sequence of recutting indicative of a protracted programme of maintenance during the Early Neolithic period. A concentric inner ring-ditch was either earlier than or contemporary with the digging of the outer ditch, but had gone out of use before the abandonment of the site. The remains of a cremation burial and a series of deliberate deposits of flint artefacts and Mildenhall-style pottery indicate the date and ceremonial nature of the monument. Four hundred metres to the south-east lay a Middle Bronze Age cremation cemetery comprising at least thirty-one ring-ditches and forty-eight burials. The burials were found to be distributed mostly between the ring-ditches, although a few were inside. It is suggested that this spatial pattern reflects the chronological development of the cemetery. Comparisons are drawn with the funerary complex at Ardleigh and other sites in the region. Data collected during survey by fieldwalking within a 580ha area around the excavated sites is presented and discussed. The burnt flint spreads differ in character from one another with a string of very densely nucleated scatters between 5m and 10m OD interpreted as ploughed-out burnt flint mounds. Lithics concentrations almost certainly represent sites disturbed by ploughing. There is a long swathe of multi-period occupational remains on the southern crest of the peninsula's 20m plateau.
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2008
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon T Ennis
An early Anglo-Saxon cemetery was identified and excavated within the grounds of the former Park School, Rayleigh, in advance of development. The remains of 145 cremation burials, a further four possible cremation burials, a single possible inhumation burial and sixteen cemetery-related features were excavated over an area of 4325 sq m, most of which had been severely truncated. Although the majority of the cemetery appeared to be within the area of excavation, it is highly likely that further burials lie beyond the southern limit of the development. Pottery vessels, metalwork and glass beads recovered from the burials indicate that the cemetery was in use from the second half of the 5th century through to the mid 6th century AD, and possibly into the late 6th. A relative paucity of higher status objects, including a complete lack of copper-alloy jewellery, suggests that the interred were part of a low-status, but fairly average, agricultural community. Some of the styles of pottery decoration have parallels in the cemetery at Mucking and in cemeteries in North Kent, indicating cross-Thames movement of goods and craftsmen and perhaps a shared ethnic identity. A range of pyre goods were recovered in addition to the cremated human bone; all had been burnt at high temperatures. No pyre locations were identified, however. Pyre goods included the remains of food animals, secondary pottery vessels, glass beads and drinking vessels, copper-alloy bucket fittings, iron buckles, knife blades and possible shield rivets. One pit contained a relatively large amount of pyre goods and debris that appeared to have been deliberately buried. The possible inhumation burial contained a complete unburnt glass, amber and jet bead necklace, an iron knife blade and a copper-alloy suspension ring. The Rayleigh cemetery was situated on the edge of a localised high point overlooking the floodplain of the River Crouch. It may have served a nearby settlement or a number of dispersed rural communities situated on the lower ground to the north and west. Underlying the cemetery was a scatter of prehistoric and Roman features that attest to earlier occupation of the landscape. Early Saxon cemeteries in Essex usually contain inhumation burials or a mix of inhumation and cremation burials. The Rayleigh cemetery is therefore unusual in being predominately comprised of cremation burials. However, it is unlikely that the complete cemetery was excavated and it is possible that further inhumation burials exist to the south of the development area.
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2008
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Tony James Wilkinson
et 18 alii
This report describes the results of rescue excavation along the route of the A13 and M25 motorways, near Grays, Essex. The excavations include small Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age sites at Rectory Road and Baker Street, Orsett; Iron Age, Roman and Early Saxon occupation at Stifford Clays and Ardale School; Iron Age and Roman settlement at Belhus Park; and three medieval settlements near North Ockendon. The multi-period site at Ardale included a small Early Saxon settlement and cemetery. The geology, topography and landscape changes are described. Sections through Holocene valley floor deposits provided valuable information for environmental change and the impact of human activity in the area. The increase in population in the Iron Age was linked with a decline in woodland and valley bottom sedimentation. This sample of sites of all periods across South Essex has provided material for an examination of landscape change from the Neolithic to the Medieval period, and raises questions about the supposed Roman origin of the rectilinear landscape system — although further work is needed on this problem.
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1988
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Charles A I French
Francis M M Pryor
Ben Robinson
Jenny Glazebrook
A long-term, low-cost rescue project was undertaken in response to gravel quarrying at Maxey between 1983 and 1990. Throughout, the archaeological focus was the more or less concurrent excavation taking place at the Etton causewayed enclosure, a site which was effectively a central point within this part of the lower Welland valley. The Etton Landscape consists of the relict river systems, former floodplain and lowermost parts of the Welland First Terrace gravels between the modern villages of Maxey, Etton and Northborough. Situated on the fringe of this seasonally wet landscape was a series of later Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments and more enigmatic areas of occupation. The principal monuments, other than the Etton causewayed enclosure, were three small henges which exhibited several phases of re-modelling, a C-shaped enclosure, the Etton Woodgate contour ditched 'enclosure' and associated settlement, and four barrows (out of many more that are in the vicinity). The occupation areas were relatively few and ephemeral, often only consisting of a 'spread' of occupation or midden material within the buried soil, a few post-holes and/or pits in no apparent pattern or structure. There is also evidence of field demarcation on the floodplain edge in the later Neolithic. All of these sites straddled the period of later use of the causewayed enclosure, in the third millennium and early second millennium BC. There seems to have been at this time a mosaic of 'old' and 'new' environments, ranging from old woodland to pasture and small zones of scrubby, fen-like carr, with the stream zones being affected by seasonal freshwater flooding and the minor deposition of silty clay alluvium. By the middle part of the second millennium BC, field systems laid out at right angles to the contemporary streams were in use, with successive versions of the same general layout continuing on into the Roman period. Throughout the last two millennia BC there was a gradual opening up of the landscape, on the face of it largely pasture, but probably with some arable cultivation on the higher and better drained ground. By the later Roman period, it appears that the area was more and more affected by the seasonal deposition of alluvium and overbank flooding, which led to the establishment of a loose and scattered layout of farmsteads and associated field systems on the higher parts of the first terrace. By medieval times, the higher parts of the terrace were completely given over to ridge and furrow cultivation, with villages established to the north and south, and the lowest zones occupied by infilled stream courses still remaining seasonally wet and possibly used as seasonal, unenclosed pasture. This more or less remained the case until 1953, when the enlargement of the Maxey Cut effectively drained the lowest parts of the terrace and permitted an expansion of arable agriculture onto the most thickly alluviated parts of the lower Welland valley between Maxey and the fen-edge.
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2005
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Steven Wallis
Mags Waughman
This report presents the results from three excavations in the lower Blackwater valley. The sites were identified as cropmarks on aerial photographs and were excavated in advance of large-scale gravel extraction. All three sites revealed evidence of changing landscape use. The cropmarks belong to an extensive series running along much of the north side of the Blackwater estuary, and results from other sites and recent excavations are included in the discussion which forms the final chapter of the report. The main discoveries at Slough House Farm were a Neolithic enclosure, Iron Age settlement, Saxon timber-lined wells and a Saxon pit containing metalworking debris. At Chigborough Farm, a putative Neolithic building, enclosures and field systems of Late Bronze Age and Iron Age date, and a probable Saxon 'boat-shaped' building were of particular significance. The much smaller site at Howell's Farm revealed a Bronze Age structure and part of an Iron Age settlement.
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1998
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Tony James Wilkinson
Peter L Murphy
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a number of archaeologists and naturalists showed that numerous archaeological sites were present within the intertidal zone in Essex, and that it presented considerable potential for integrating archaeological research within a firm environmental framework. The County Archaeological Service undertook a detailed survey of the Hullbridge area which produced such promising results that the project was extended to cover the major estuaries in Essex, plus the Clacton and Dovercourt areas. This report contains an introductory stratigraphic and environmental framework. The period-by-period site descriptions which follow reflect the changing nature of the archaeology during the transgression. Hence, dryland Mesolithic and Neolithic sites that existed when sea-levels were considerably lower are followed by Bronze and Iron Age sites where waterlogged wood was common. The importance of Red Hills to the late Iron Age and Roman economies is shown, and the major drainage projects and sea-wall construction of the medieval and post-medieval periods are also covered.
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1995
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Tony James Wilkinson
Peter L Murphy
Nigel Brown
Ellen M Heppell
The unusual diversity of archaeological evidence found at the Stumble is described here, and viewed within its immediate and regional environmental setting and within the archaeological landscape of the region, a landscape that is becoming better known thanks to recent rescue excavations at nearby Chigborough and Slough House Farms. The Stumble is named after a mud bank in the Blackwater Estuary 700-800m to the east. The site is fully estuarine, being covered at high tide by some 3m of water, and positioned between 10 and 250m from the seaward edge of the saltmarsh. The occupation phases — earlier and later Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and post-medieval — are all well-represented on neighbouring dry land sites so the excavation of the Stumble, in view of the technical problems involved, requires some justification. Primarily, the types of evidence found at this site can usually only be found together on intertidal or wetland sites. Hence the Neolithic is represented by an intact land surface strewn with occupation debris and peppered by pits of various dimensions. Neither of these things would have survived the millennia of ploughing that have transformed most inland Neolithic habitation sites into little more than lithic scatters. This virtually intact Neolithic site was occupied during the 3rd millennium BC and a little earlier, when sea levels were significantly lower, so there is no preservation of waterlogged wood on the Neolithic site. Nevertheless, the quantity and quality of remaining inorganic remains is sufficient to justify excavation. The later Neolithic record is of a similar 'dry land' site inundated by a gradually rising sea level, but by the Iron Age the archaeological record had become quite different. Occupation debris, sherds and other artefacts are virtually absent, and instead wooden structures, single or multiple posts, brushwood and interwoven wattles remain. Clearly, at this stage of the Holocene marine transgression the locus of settlement had moved inland beyond the tidal fringe and the evidence from the Stumble must therefore represent activity that took place on salt marshes, along tidal creeks or on the mudflats.
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2012
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Richard Brown
Alan Hardy
Oxford Archaeology (OA) carried out a programme of archaeological work in King's Lynn integrated with redevelopment of the Vancouver Centre and construction of the Clough Lane multi-storey car park. Despite extensive modern construction, archaeological features, structures and deposits of medieval date (12th–15th centuries) were recorded along the existing frontages of Broad Street and New Conduit Street. Archaeological deposits, building foundations and yard surfaces of late medieval/post-medieval date (15th and 16th–18th centuries) were recorded in localised areas in the car parks to the rear of Sainsburys', the rear of Broad Street and to the south west of New Conduit Street. In addition to the archaeological remains, burials were exhumed and re-interred from a Quaker Cemetery to the north of New Conduit Street and a Baptist Cemetery to the rear of Broad Street. Piezometers were installed in order to carry out a two-year monitoring programme on the physical and chemical effects of the development's piled construction on the underlying, and otherwise unexposed, reclaimed marine and estuarine sediments.
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2011
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Kenneth Penn
Birte Brugmann
Karen Høilund Nielsen
In the 1970s, excavations were carried out at the four cemeteries of Morning Thorpe, Bergh Apton, Spong Hill and Westgarth Gardens. Catalogues were published in East Anglian Archaeology but full discussion of the results was withheld, with the intention that catalogue publication would be followed by a single discussion of the four cemeteries. As a result of this publication policy, East Anglia is particularly well represented in national samples of Anglo-Saxon cemeteries. The 500 or so inhumations from the four cemeteries form 15–20% of the total number of inhumation graves recorded in East Anglia since the 19th century and had produced the largest body of early Anglo-Saxon material from formal excavations until, in 1997, a large part of an inhumation cemetery was excavated at Lakenheath in Suffolk. This report presents an analysis of the material culture and inhumation burial practice at the four cemeteries as a source of information on Anglo-Saxon social structure. For this purpose, a chronological framework has been created which allows for distinctions between developments over time and contemporary diversity in the material culture and burial practice at the four cemeteries. This required a selective grave-good analysis focussed on a typology of objects suitable for correspondence analysis, on external dating evidence for types of grave-goods, and on the use of material culture in Anglo-Saxon burial practice.
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2007
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Carolyn Dallas
David Sherlock
David G Buckley
Jenny Glazebrook
Baconsthorpe Castle was a fortified manor house near Holt in north-east Norfolk. It was first purchased by the Heydon family in the early fifteenth century and remained in their hands until about 1680. The property comprised, at various stages, an inner moated enclosure, an outer court and gatehouse, a barn, a mere, formal gardens and park. The fortunes of the Heydon family prospered until the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century and much imported pottery and glass has been found on the site. The report records the small amount of archaeological excavation which has taken place at Baconsthorpe, contains an analysis of the buildings, a survey of the earthworks, and draws together all finds and documentary evidence extant for the site and its owners.
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2002
 
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