Series: Council for British Archaeology Research Reports

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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon John Magilton
No Abstract icon
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon B J Davies
Beth Richardson
Roberta Tomber
Describes pottery for the period AD~50--160, presenting it in terms of both typology and chronological group. The site at Newgate Street, excavated 1975--79, is of particular importance due to its well-defined stratigraphy and the quantity of pottery recovered, and this assemblage forms the basis of the corpus. Chapters cover the study methods, amporae, oxidised wares, reduced wares, and fine wares. There is also a chronological overview of early Roman pottery in London. Appendix one provides `Site summaries' (220--30) of nine excavations, listing samian stamps and coins. Other appendices comprise: a `Concordance of common name codes' (233) used for various wares; a `Summary of illustrated sherds' (234--8); a `Concordance of illustrated sherds in phase groups' (249--51); and `Raw data by site phase (Eves/weights)' (252--4).
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Derek A Roe
Essentially a guide to a continuously-maintained card index of sites. Over 3,000 site entries cover the British Palaeolithic sequence up to and including the Mousterian period. The entries are arranged alphabetically according to counties, and for each site the geographical location and principal sources of material (both museum collections and published references) are indicated. The finds are inventoried according to simple artefact classes such as "handaxes", "cores", "Levallois flakes", but no cultural or chronological classification is attempted. Apart from certain collections in private hands and in foreign museums, coverage of the extant material is virtually complete. PAM
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Grenville G Astill
Grenville G Astill
Third in the series of reports on work on the Cistercian Abbey of Bordsley. The report describes excavations and fieldwork undertaken between 1980 and 1991 in the eastern part of the precinct, the area of the monastic watermills and workshops, with the aim of elucidating the development of the part of the River Arrow valley in which the precinct is situated. The valley was cleared and drained in the third quarter of the twelfth century, and a workshop was constructed, followed by a pond and a leat within which was constructed the head race, wheel pit and tail race of a vertically-wheeled water mill. A large earthfast mill building containing hearths was also constructed. This was destroyed by fire in the late twelfth century, and a new tail race superimposed on the first. A mill building of similar proportions to the first was erected on padstones. In the early fourteenth century a new wheel trough and tail race were superimposed on the earlier structure, and a workshop built to the east of the mill. The wheel trough and tail race were later reconstructed, the wheel house demolished and the west wall of the mill building replaced and the interior partitioned. The number of hearths was reduced to one, which was relocated, and the building ceased to operate as a mill. A new, longer workshop was built to replace the previous one. The sequence is notable for the well-preserved timber remains of the mill races and the survival of some machinery, allowing a reconstruction of the mill workings. A reconstruction of the water supply is also possible. The hearths of the buildings and the find assemblage indicate that these were water-powered metalworking mills in which small items were made and repaired, probably for use in the precinct and on the granges of the monastery as well as for sale. The quality and range of evidence from excavated medieval smithies generally is reviewed. Includes French and German summaries.
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Reference record only icon Publication Type icon J D Hurst
Presents the results of excavations carried out in the 1980s. Upwich was historically the centre of salt production in the town as it contained a prolific source of brine from natural springs. The excavations confirmed the importance of the area during medieval and post-medieval periods, but also recorded evidence of earlier salt production extending back into the prehistoric period. Major structures included large Roman timber structures, sub-Roman/AS brine-boiling hearths, and the Upwich brine well itself (built in AD 1264--65) with its associated salt-making workshops and equipment. The `Introduction' (1--4) and an account of the `Background to the 1983--4 excavation' (5--8) are by J D Hurst. The structural phases are described and discussed in `The excavation' by J D Hurst & J A Hemingway (9--67). Finds reports comprise: `Pottery' by I J Lentowicz (68--89), covering IA to post-med and incorporating a `Note on samian ware' by B Dickinson (72--3 & microfiche) and a `Comparison of Upwich brine well group with other 13th century assemblages' by I J Lentowicz & J D Hurst (82); `Ceramic building materials' by J D Hurst & J Evans (89--90); `Clay pipe' by J D Evans, D Higgins & J D Hurst (90--3); `Ironwork' (93), `Copper alloy' (94), and `Lead' (94--6), all by I J Lentowicz; `Coins' (post med, except for a penny of Alfred the Great) by I J Lentowicz & W Seaby (96); `Glass' (mostly post-med wine bottles) by J Evans (96--8); `Worked stone' by F E S Roe (98--100); `Animal bone' by B Meddens (100--6 & microfiche), including worked bone; `Wooden artefacts' by J D Hurst (106--11); `An analysis of woodworking techniques and woodland origins of the Anglo-Saxon stakes' (111--19 & microfiche) and `Barrel hoops' (120--1), both by R A Morgan; `Tree-ring analysis and dating of timbers' by C Groves & J Hillam (121--6 & microfiche); `Leatherwork' (mainly med and later shoe parts) by Q Mould (126--33 & microfiche); `Textiles' (med silk and RB rope) by E Crowfoot (133); `Archaeobotany' by J Greig (133--45 & microfiche); `Mollusca', comprising `Snails' by D Williams (145--6) and `Other mollusca' (oysters) by J D Hurst (146); `Diatoms' by S Juggins (146 & microfiche); `Avian eggs' by D Brothwell (146--7); pine `Resin' by J Evans (147); `Beetles' by P J Osborne (147); `Radiocarbon dating' by R L Otlet & G W Pearson (148 & microfiche); `Infrared-stimulated luminescence dating' (of post-Roman alluvium) by M J Aitken (148); and `Miscellaneous artefacts' by J D Hurst (148). The final `Overview and conclusions' are presented by J D Hurst (149--52).
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Steven Willis
Peter Carne
The Roman villa at Ingleby Barwick, near Stocktonon-Tees in north-east England, is situated on a terrace on the south side of the River Tees some 40km south of Hadrian’s Wall. The villa is notable as one of the most northerly known in the Roman Empire. The excavation is important both for its scale and for being carried out under modern recording conditions. The site was discovered through a programme of aerial reconnaissance and evaluation in advance of a major housing development. Aerial photographs taken in the 1970s had revealed a layout of linear ditches and a probable sub-rectangular enclosure typical of later prehistoric and Romano-British occupation in the region. Trial excavation in 1979 recovered both Romano-British and Iron Age tradition pottery. Large-scale evaluation work in 1997–2000, including geophysical survey, trial trenches and an earthwork survey, identified the site of a Roman winged corridor villa, with outlying stone-built structures. A revised development plan allowed the preservation of the main villa building in situ, in an area of public open space, while extensive excavations were carried out over the other features in 2003–04. Features excavated included an aisled building, a stone circular structure, an isolated caldarium, and the fragmentary remains of several other structures. Around the buildings was an extensive layout of contemporary rectilinear enclosures. Within some of these, there was a variety of evidence for activity associated with the villa, including pits, ovens, burials, paved surfaces and wooden structures. There was limited evidence for settlement on the site in the Bronze Age. There was also evidence for enclosures and settlement, including a circular structure, which preceded the establishment of the villa, probably in the later Iron Age. It is suggested that there was a hiatus in occupation in the 1st and early 2nd century AD, before the villa and associated enclosures were established probably in the late 2nd century, continuing in use into the late 4th / early 5th century. Anglo-Saxon occupation at the site is attested, postdating the collapse of the stone structures, suggesting a rare example of continuity in this region. Pottery deposition has chronological peaks in the Antonine, mid-3rd century, and mid to late 4th century and a fairly detailed phasing of the site is proposed, based primarily on the pottery sequence. A relatively low frequency of finds was recovered, which is typical of the region, although these included highstatus material such as fragments of a rare glass bowl and a large metalwork hoard. There was no evidence for mosaics or tiled roofs. The palaeo-environmental evidence indicates the establishment was a working farm with varied agriculture, incorporating local cereal production. Civilian sites of the Roman era in the hinterland of Hadrian’s Wall are little known, with the focus of archaeological investigations having been principally upon the military. The presence of this villa and its role in the life of the region are discussed on the basis of the excavated evidence and its borderland setting.
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon D R Wilson
Papers from a symposium held in April 1974. Techniques of remote sensing and survey are treated by R J A Jones and R Evans (factors controlling development of soil and crop marks); D R Wilson (photographic techniques, equipment and procedures), J N Rinker (emulsions), W A Baker (infra-red) and I Scollar (manual or computer transformation of extreme oblique views to maps/plans). In the section on archaeological interpretation, D R Wilson illustrates some pitfalls, and is followed by writers on three different regions: R Agache (N France), C Leva and J J Hus (Belgium - low-level photography and magnetic/electrical checking on the ground of features seen from the air), and H C Bowen (development of landscape in S England). Section III is on availability and use of air-photographic information: J Hampton (organisation in Britain, especially the National Monuments Record), D Baker (relevance to planners) D Benson (Oxford region), C C Taylor (field archaeology) and H Thorpe (documentary and field study of Wormleighton). The need for a central air-photographic interpretation and dissemination centre is put by P J Fowler.
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Vera I Evison
Destruction by commercial gravel-digging in the fields north-west of the Roman town in 1952 produced evidence of AS graves near the known position of one of the Roman cemeteries surrounding the town. As a result of subsequent excavation on behalf of the Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments 161 inhumation graves, 33 cremation graves, 2 horse graves and 2 dog burials were uncovered, and the positioning of some of the graves, together with other evidence, indicated the earlier presence of tumuli. The adult female graves were well furnished with a variety of jewellery. Some of the men were provided with weapons as usual, but a large percentage of the graves were without weapons, and as some of these graves contained other items of some interest the identity of these men comes into question. There was an unusually large percentage of children's graves, probably reflecting a more accurate picture than usual of the normal mortality rate in AS times.There are specialist reports on `Bronze-bound buckets' by Jean M Cook (22-4), `The human remains' by Tony Waldron (52-64) including `Appendix 1: catalogue of skeletons from Great Chesterford' (59-63) and `Appendix 2: catalogue of pathological findings in human remains from Great Chesterford' (63-4). `The animal bones' by Dale Serjeantson (66-70) and `A possible identification of the bird portrayed by the brooch 68/1' by Dale Serjeantson (70-1) are followed by `Textiles' by Elisabeth Crowfoot (71-6) including `Appendix: fibre identification' (72). `Examination and analysis of the glass beads' by Michael Heyworth (77-80), `The petrology of the pottery' by D F Williams (81-2) `The Romano-British material' by C J Going (82-6), `Roman coins (1)' by R A G Carson (86), `Roman coins (2)' by John Kent (87), and `Roman coins (3)' by Roger Bland (87) are followed by `The Roman glass' by Jennifer Price (87-9). `X-ray fluorescence analysis of three pieces of Anglo-Saxon metalwork' by D R Hook (89) is followed by a `Catalogue' (90-121), `Bibliography' (122-7), tables providing `Concordance: Great Chesterford catalogue numbers and British Museum registration numbers' (128-34), many illustrations and plates. Au & IH
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Stephen J Sherlock
Martin G Welch
Report on the first large-scale excavation of an almost complete Anglo-Saxon cemetery, located in the frontier zone between Bernicia, the northernmost of the Northumbrian kingdoms, and Deira. Of the 120 burials recorded three were inhumations and the rest urned cremations. Grave finds cover most of the sixth century AD and possibly the early seventh, and indicate close links with sites from the Tyne valley in the north to Anglian England. `The Anglo-Saxon pottery' is described by Wendy Sherlock (54--5), the `Textile remains' by Penelope Walton (57--61), and a `Conservation report and technological examination' is provided by Carol E Brown (61--72). The discussion of the human remains in chapter six consists of `The population' by Mandy Marlow (107--18), `Skeletal pathology' by David Birkett (118--9) and `Cremations' by Sally Parker (119--20). A microfiche shows glass bead types.
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Philip A Rahtz
Robert Meeson
Part one summarises the history and archaeology of Tamworth and describes its topography and that of the excavated areas. The circumstances and methods of excavation are then briefly discussed. Part two places the results of the two campaigns in context and summarises their phasing and chronology. Each excavation is then considered in turn. The 1971 excavations at the mill and millpool area produced evidence for prehistoric activity, through Roman, to Saxon mill phases and finally medieval and post medieval. An account of the 1978 excavations covers the objectives of the excavation and continues with descriptions of the features, which included the mill leat, its revetment, and a possible bridge. The medieval town ditch and phases of industrial activity and building were also identified. The evidence from both excavations is then collated. Part three covers finds, with stone subdivided into sections on `Millstones' (70--9) and `Other stone' (79) by Susan M Wright, (with `Millstone petrology' by David Williams on microfiche 2F6--8). Short notes then cover fired and burnt clay, mortar, plaster, glass, metalworking residues and the steel bearing block. `Iron (IR)' is dealt with by Patrick Ottaway (80--6). Further notes cover copper alloy, lead, coins (which comprised a cartwheel and jetton), botanical and other organic residues, carved wood, animal bone/fibre and leather. `Pottery (P)' by Victoria Nailor with Susan M Wright includes thin-section analysis by David M Williams (110--122). Dendrochronology and radiocarbon determinations are mentioned in conclusion of this section. Evidence for the construction of the mill is finally considered in more detail. A possible reconstruction of the building, the way the machinery functioned and the effects of the mill on its immediate environment are discussed. A concluding summary is followed by a glossary of terms relating to watermills.
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Jeremy Taylor
No Abstract icon
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon J N L Myres
John G Hurst
Gerald C Dunning
No Abstract icon
Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Richard Hayman
Wendy Horton
Shelley White
A report on work undertaken in the Ironbridge Gorge Conservation Area and World Heritage Site, Shropshire, as part of the Severn Gorge Repairs Project. Six of the key archaeological monuments in Ironbridge are covered in detail, and these are: the Upper Works, Coalbrookedale; Upper Forge, Coalbrookedale; Bedlam blast furnaces; Blists Hill blast furnaces; Blists Hill Brick and Tile Works; the Hay Inclined Plane and Shropshire Canal. Appendices cover the `Approach to conservation in the Severn Gorge Repairs Project' (195--6), `Conventions for archaeological drawings' (197--9), `Project management' (200--3), and proposals for `Future management' (204--11)
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon David Miles
Excavations recovered much structural and environmental evidence and allowed tentative reconstruction of many activities of the Late Neo to Saxon farms. Both the Iron Age and the RB farmsteads were divided into domestic/storage and animal control/farmyard portions. The main villa, of cottage type, was a late 3rd century construction, while the Saxon settlement had seven sunken buildings, two framed structures, and other features. Possible models of the villa estate are offered, the preferred one requiring eight working adults and five extra at harvest. Communications with the region are reviewed and change/continuity discussed. No occupation after 6th century.
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon David G Buckley
An introductory paper by R H Allen and R G Sturdy (1-7) outlines the environmental background, geological history, and changes in vegetation and climate. J J Wymer (8-11) summarizes the main finds of Clactonian, Acheulian, and Levalloisian industries. The Upper Palaeo is not well represented; R Jacobi (12-13) considers isolated Late Glacial artefacts, and in a second paper (14-25) describes the Early Meso assemblages (particularly from Hillwood and White Colne) and major collections of Late Meso artefacts; non-microlithic equipment is illustrated as well as microliths. J D Hedges (26-39) collates information for Neo monuments and material culture, with a gazetteer of pottery-producing sites; there are several possible cursus monuments and small henges, and the Stour valley emerges as an important region during Late Neo. C R Couchman (40-6) offers a preliminary study of recorded evidence for BA settlement: EBA-MBA material had a riverine and coastal distribution, and LBA is additionally represented by metalwork concentrated around the Thames. P J Drury (47-54) surveys the Early and Middle Iron Age; hillfort occupation was largely replaced by oppida in late IA, and a trend from open to enclosed settlement occurred during the period, with a tendency to rectangular houses. A tentative framework for the development of IA ceramics is offered. C F Hawkes (55-8) identifies Caesar's 'maritime states' as the Trinovantes, seen as originating from Gaul (Ambiani) c 150 BC with appropriate equipment (chiefly swords, coins, and pottery). P J Drury and W Rodwell (59-75) discuss evidence for five aspects of Iron Age-RB settlement, arguing for landscape continuity between the two; military occupation, 'small towns', rural settlement, and the 'end' of Roman Essex are also treated. The development of Colchester from Roman times to the Norman conquest is discussed by P Crummy (76-81): he notes 5th-8th century occupation, a possible period of desertion 750-900, and reoccupation, first by Danes and finally by English in 0th century. M U Jones (82-6) reviews the Essex evidence for early Saxon rural settlement, and then concentrates on the evidence from Mucking of pottery, metalwork, and buildings. A catalogue of twenty-nine early Saxon cemeteries in Essex is provided by W T Jones (87-95). Mid-Saxon features at Wicken Bonhunt were excavated by K Wade; they represented a well-organised settlement of at least two phases with twenty-eight structures, using imported wares, and undergoing two later replannings (96-102). Certain features of the medieval landscape are surveyed by O Rackham, finding RB or even EIA origins and continuity of use from then on (103-7). C A Hewett (108-12) considers AS carpentry techniques, which displayed features and concepts which were archaic rather than crude; he lists Saxon/Saxo-Norman joints. A survey of twenty-four towns with urban status in the Middle Ages is given by M R Petchey (113-17), noting three phases of foundation - pre conquest, 12th century castle towns, and market-dominated towns of 1180-1260, many exhibiting evidence of deliberate planning. W Rodwell (118-22) discusses ecclesiastical sites and structures in Essex from Asperiodon, and K C Newton (123-5) evaluates the archaeological potential of four classes of archives. M C Wadhams (126-30) stresses the need for specialist knowledge and expertise in interpreting late vernacular architecture, and considers some specific recent research. D G
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Peter E Leach
Contains: Joan Sheldon (pp 1-2), The environmental background; R N L B Hubbard (3-7), The environmental evidence from Swanscombe and its implications for Palaeolithic archaeology; J J Wymer (8-11), The Palaeolithic period in Kent; R M Jacobi (12-24), Later hunters in Kent: Tasmania and the earliest Neolithic; A F Clarke (25-30), The Neolithic of Kent: a review; T Champion (31-9), The Bronze Age in Kent; Barry Cunliffe (40-50), Social and economic development in Kent in the pre-Roman Iron Age; T F C Blagg (51-60), Roman Kent; R J Pollard (61-3), Roman pottery in Kent: a summary of production and marketing trends; S C Hawkes (64-78), Anglo-Saxon Kent c 425-725; T Tatton-Brown (79-83), Canterbury and the early medieval towns of Kent; S E Rigold (84-6), Medieval archaeology in Kent; A D F Streeten (87-95), Potters, kilns, and markets in medieval Kent: a preliminary study; P E Leach (96-8), Coins, mints, and moneyers.
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Paul N K Frodsham
The volume is divided into two parts. In Part I (entitled `Long ago, in the land of far horizons . . .': an introduction to the archaeology of Northumberland National Park), following an introduction, the author presents a general overview of the archaeology and history of the Park in nine chapters which correspond to the main archaeological periods from the Mesolithic to the present day. This is followed in Part II (entitled `A decade of digging in the hills': recent archaeological work in Northumberland National Park) by a series of separately authored reports on particular projects, most of which are based on presentations given at a conference held in October 2000, entitled `Long ago, in the Land of the Far Horizons . . .'. Contributions include
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Peter L Drewett
The volume is dedicated to Eric Holden in recognition of his work in Sussex archaeology (pp 1-2, C F Tebbutt). Joan Sheldon (3-7) provides a discussion of the environmental background - pedological and vegetational history and palaeoecology. A G Woodcock (8-14) takes selected examples from the Lower and Middle Palaeo to provide a chronological and typological framework for the county; there is also a very little Upper Palaeo material. The Mesolithic is taken by R Jacobi (15-22) whose cluster analysis separated a 'Maglemose' style or Earlier Mesolithic, a microlithic triangle-and-rod Later Meso, and a third group, intermediate in date and unique to this area, from Horsham-Weald with its analogies in the French-Belgian Meso of c 7000. Ashdown Forest has a rich potential for providing an absolute chronology. In Neo Sussex P Drewett (23-9) defines some socially cohesive groups occupying adjacent territories along the South Downs, using a mixed farming economy and in several cases operating deep flint mines. Ann Ellison (30-7) defines two classes of BA pottery, for MBA and LBA respectively; among the settlements, Highdown Hill is distinctive in form and in metalwork and may have had a redistributive role. At Itford Hill four successive occupation units are defined, the third contemporary with the cemetery barrow. The Iron Age hillforts of the Weald are discussed by J Money (38-40) with particular reference to iron-making, while the settlement patterns and economy of the Downs and its coastal plain in the Iron Age are taken by O Bedwin (41-51). The Roman town of Chichester and its relationship to the surrounding countryside is Alec Down's subject (52-8), while Henry Cleere (59-63) summarizes the evidence for Roman iron-making in the Weald and suggests that an imperial estate covered much of the Weald. Moving on to Saxon Sussex, Martin Bell (64-9) considers the evidence for settlement and burial ground (Bishopstone providing a rare instance of both); a complex economic strategy is apparent, and the pattern for future settlement was well laid. The Saxon and medieval mints and moneyers are Caroline Dudley's topic (70-7), while the possibility of church archaeology helping the understanding of medieval settlement, both rural and urban, is set out by Fred Aldsworth (78-83), who also deals with the pre-Conquest church structures. For medieval Sussex, P Brandon (84-6) selects a few of the many issues needing study and presents his theory of Wealden-edge colonization. David Freke (87-92) gives an account of the development of urbanization, AD 900-1500. The late medieval housing of the Rape of Hastings is compared by David Martin (93-6) with evidence for land-holding, and some economic conclusions are drawn from such factors as cost-cutting in building design.
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Ian Haynes
Peter Johnson
A report based on papers presented at a conference organised by the Roman Research Trust at the Museum of London in 1991, its aim being to highlight some recent discoveries and current thinking on architecture in Roman Britain. The `Introduction' by J J Wilkes (1--5) outlines the differences and similarities of architecture in Britannia with the rest of the empire and points to the scarcity of inscriptions and other documentary evidence for buildings in this northern province. Part I of the report deals with exteriors, and begins with `The external decoration of Romano-British buildings' by T F C Blagg (9--18), including columns, sculptured decoration, use of colour, and contrasting building materials. Paul Bidwell (19--29) in `The exterior decoration of Roman buildings in Britain' concentrates on exterior decoration carried out with lime plaster and plain or coloured washes, and the use of building materials with contrasting colours.Part II is on elevations: David S Neal (33--43) considers `Upper storeys in Romano-British villas'. The tendency in the past has been to assume that most Roman buildings, especially villas, were single storeyed. One villa with an upper storey is reconstructed by Graham D Keevill (44--55) in `The reconstruction of the Romano-British villa at Redlands Farm, Northamptonshire'. Here, the east wing gable was found collapsed. An exceptionally well-preserved fallen wall of a late Roman aisled building was also found at Meonstoke, Hampshire, and this is discussed by Anthony King (56--69) in `The south-east façade of Meonstoke aisled building'. The unusual tower-like building at Stonea is described in `The Roman stonebuilding at Stonea, Cambridgeshire' by T W Potter (70--4).Part III is on military architecture, and begins with `An elliptical peristyle building in the fortress of Deva' by David J P Mason (77--92), which was excavated in the centre of Chester in 1939 and again in the 1960s. It was part of the legionary fortress and was apparently a range of tall open chambers around an oval peristyle court with an adjacent bath building; its interpretation remains disputed. Further work at Chester is outlined by T J Strickland (104--19) in `Recent research at the Chester legionary fortress: the curtain wall and the barrack veranda colonnades'. Tony Wilmott (93--103) in `Birdoswald: a military case study' discusses various architectural elements in the fort at Birdoswald, including gates, defensive walls, basilica, and horrea. Bridges, many probably constructed by the army, are dealt with by Neil Holbrook (120--32) in `Roman bridges in Britain'.The final part of the report is on late empire architecture, and Nicholas Hodgson (135--51) discusses `A late Roman courtyard house at South Shields and its parallels' -- the house has been excavated within the eastern part of the fort. It dates from the early fourth century and possibly housed the military commander.`Exotic structures in 4th-century Britain' are presented by Bryn Walters (152--62) -- a number of buildings in south-west Britain had elaborate structures, such as at Holcombe in Dorset and Littlecote, Wiltshire. LRA
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Download available from the ADS Publication Type icon Philip Crummy
Results from 1971-7 excavations are brought together with related material not previously published. For the post-Roman period there are two sunken huts, one built against a derelict Roman house, and some AS cemetery material. (Some late Roman military equipment is also discussed.) Evidence of late 8th and 9th centuries is rare. Historical evidence relating to Castle and Abbey is reviewed, and a small church was found to predate St John's Abbey. A typology of 10th to 12th century pottery is outined, four periods of pre-12th century planning are identified, and seven buildings made from reused RB stone noted. The plan of the Castle Keep is discussed.
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