A. Simon Esmonde Cleary, ed., (2007). Britannia 38. Malet Street: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.

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Britannia 38
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A Simon Esmonde Cleary
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Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies
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URI: http://www.romansociety.org/frame.htm
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10 Dec 2007
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John H Williams
1 - 11
Recent developments in the reading of Iron Age British coin-legends have added considerably to knowledge of Latin in pre-conquest Britain. The author claims that the picture that is now emerging is of the nuanced and sophisticated use of Latin over quite a wide area of southeast England from the late-first century b.c. onwards. The implications of this material for understanding of key developments in the culture, politics and societies of southeast England in the decades before the Roman invasion are considered.
Nick Holder
13 - 34
The paper examines the corpus of over 500 Roman inscriptions from London by studying them as a unique category of archaeological find, one with data relating to the object, the inscription, and the find-spot. The author uses information published in the fascicules of Roman Inscriptions of Britain and in Britannia and links this data to maps of Roman London created for The Archaeology of Greater London (2000). Evidence for `zoning' within Roman London is considered by comparing official and private inscriptions. Inscriptions suggesting retail activity are examined, as are the types of inscription found in London's waterfronts, which are used to suggest different areas of specialism within London's port. Finally, the paper looks at the inscriptions written by men and women, and by citizens and non-citizens.
Alex Mullen
35 - 61
Based on a new online database of Celtic personal names, the research demonstrates how the study of Romano-British onomastics can shed light on the complexities of linguistic and cultural contacts, complementing archaeological material and literary sources. After an introductory section on methodology, Part One analyses naming formulae and expressions of filiation as evidence for both continuity and change dependent on social and geographical factors. Confusion and contamination between the Latin and Celtic systems proved much less common than on the Continent, where earlier contact with Roman culture and the written tradition for Continental Celtic occasionally facilitated an unusual form of syncretism. Part Two examines the naming formulae attested at Roman Bath and the mechanisms by which Celts adopted Latin names. The case-study of Bath relates continuity and change in both naming formulae and nomenclature to an acceptance of, or resistance to, `Romanization' in Britain. Includes
Roger Ling
63 - 91
The article reviews the principal surviving examples of inscriptions on mosaic pavements and wall-paintings in Roman Britain. For some of these it makes tentative suggestions towards new readings or seeks to adjudicate between the conflicting readings of earlier commentators. The eleven inscriptions examined belong to different classes: signatures, dedications, good luck messages, labels, and literary or pseudo-literary glosses upon figure-scenes. The existence of the inscriptions implies that viewers were expected to be literate, or at least that being literate, if not actually well-educated, was socially important.
J G F Hind
93 - 106
Three aspects of Cassius Dio's account of the Claudian invasion of Britain are discussed. First, the convention, by which ancient historians routinely introduced their detailed narrative of military campaigns with a summary, allows the two first battles in the sequence to be eliminated as separate events. Secondly, the kings, Togodumnus in Cassius Dio and Cogidumnus in Tacitus' Agricola, are taken to be the same individual, who after defeat was reconciled to be Claudius' client-ruler. Thirdly, the argument is restated that the invasion took place through the harbours of West Sussex on a route suggested by the description given by Dio and by the evidence of place-names, known from the Geography of Ptolemy and the Antonine Itinerary.
Malcolm Todd
107 - 123
The large hillfort at Hembury, near Honiton (Devon), occupied in the Neolithic and Iron Age, was taken over by a Roman force about or shortly before AD 50. Substantial timber buildings were constructed, including a probable fabrica, in which iron from the adjacent Blackdown hills was worked. The Roman site was abandoned by the early Flavian period and not reoccupied. Though not evidently a conventional fort, Hembury joins a list of hillforts in southwest England which were used by the Roman army in the early decades of conquest. These include Hod Hill and possibly Maiden Castle (Dorset), Ham Hill and South Cadbury (Somerset). Includes
Geoffrey B Dannell
121 - 122
Tim Neighbour
125 - 140
Excavation carried out prior to the development of Park Lane Hospital, Musselburgh revealed the partial remains of a probable ring-groove house of first millennium b.c. date and a later sub-rectangular, post-built structure attached to a curving fence line. Although initially interpreted as a Roman granary, it now seems likely that the features were the partial remains of a timber amphitheatre associated with Roman Inveresk. Ditches and a number of negative features of unknown date and function were also recorded. Separately authored contributions include
G Thomas
130 - 132
Ciara M Clarke
Alison Locker
141 - 180
Fish bone assemblages from 109 sites were analysed for evidence of Roman influence on fish consumption. Temporal divisions within the period were not informative, but sites were divided by region. Secondary evidence, including amphorae and fishing tackle, was also considered. Eel was most common overall but some species were regionally important, e.g. salmon. Towns and villas showed the greatest range of fish, from freshwater and inland marine fisheries and also imported salted fish and fish-sauce. Native sites continued to show restricted fish consumption from very local sources, while Roman sites suggested an increase in variety and some evidence for status, which may result from cultural change in culinary practices. Includes
159 - 175
tables of species; sites with fish bone divided by region; total number of fish for each region by NISP total and occurrence; and seven tables listing fish from site in the North, Midlands, South/south-east, London, Southwark, east London cemeteries, and South/south-west
Marijke Veen, van der
Alexandra Livarda
Alistair Hill
181 - 210
The archaeobotanical record of Britain in the Roman period is reviewed. The data are plotted against area of the country, phase of occupation, type of site, and mode of preservation. Lacunae in the dataset are identified and research priorities formulated. It is suggested that more data are needed, especially from southwest and northwest England, Wales and Scotland, from major towns (especially from waterlogged deposits), from rural sites with waterlogged preservation (all parts of the country), and from burials and temple/shrine sites. Matters of concern are the identification of a downward trend in the average number of samples analysed from the 1990s onwards, and poor access to unpublished archaeobotanical reports (grey literature). Possible solutions to redress these are offered.
Kris Lockyear
211 - 224
In the wake of the publication of English Heritage's guidelines for the analysis and publication of coins from excavations, the paper takes the opportunity to look back over what specialists in the field have been doing, consider what the guidelines suggest, and makes recommendations as to where future directions. In particular it argues that specialists should be making more of existing database technologies and the Internet, and that the analysis of coins should be integrated with other aspects of the archaeological record. The paper is intended not as a new set of guidelines, but to stimulate debate.
Nina Crummy
225 - 230
The attributes of Mercury include his purse and winged sandals and one of his animal companions is the cockerel. Purse brooches are few in number, but shoe sole and cockerel brooches occur at Temple 10 at Colchester, a centre of the god's cult, and at other temples, and both also occur in graves, reflecting Mercury's role as the guide of dead souls. Fly brooches have been found at both Temple 10 and Uley, also a centre for Mercury worship, and in a grave, and may be a fourth type associated with the god.
Louise Revell
230 - 237
Bath-houses are a frequent part of Roman military installations in Britain. The work explores differences in the social meaning of bathing between legionary fortresses and auxiliary forts. It demonstrates variations in the scale of and investment in these facilities between the two groups. It also argues for greater complexity in the legionary bath-houses, with duplication of facilities, and more activities being catered for. A comparison of the proportion of space allocated for bathing and non-bathing activities reveals that the two groups respond to different ideas of what a visit to the bath-house entailed.
M P Speidel
237 - 239
New interpretations are suggested for two terms in Docilis' letter found on a wooden tablet from Carlisle and published in Britannia 29 (1998), 34--84, no. 16 (= AE 1998, 839). It is contended that Lanciarius does not refer to all the horsemen of ala I Gallorum, but only to those equipped with lancea-spears and lancea are not weapons but felt-padded, rainproof doublets worn under the armour.
241 - 365
Summaries of fieldwork undertaken and of finds and inscriptions reported during 2006, in or relating to Roman Britain. Most entries are broadly arranged by unitary authority, and then by town or parish, within the following sections
242 - 254
254 - 260
260 - 263
Barry C Burnham
263 - 272
272 - 283
Paul Booth
283 - 286
286 - 294
294 - 296
296 - 302
303 - 344
345 - 365
divided into A. Monumental and B. Instrumentum domesticum