G. J Barclay and A. Ritchie, eds., (2008). Scotland's Parliament Site and the Canongate: . Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

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Scotland's Parliament Site and the Canongate:
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archaeology and history
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Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series
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Monograph Chapter (in Series)
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Gordon J Barclay
Anna Ritchie
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Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
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Russel J Coleman (Author contributing)
Simon Stronach (Author contributing)
Stephen P Carter (Author contributing)
E P Dennison (Author contributing)
Richard Tipping (Author contributing)
Adrian Cox (Author contributing)
Derek W Hall (Author contributing)
John Lowrey (Author contributing)
Thomas Addyman (Author contributing)
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28 Jan 2016
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Russel J Coleman
Simon Stronach
2 - 8
This chapter presents the background to the project, outlines the chronological organisation of the volume and the research objectives which were framed at the outset. This is followed by a section on methodology which covers, evaluation, excavation, recording of Queensberry House and monitoring of landscaping works.
Stephen P Carter
E P Dennison
Richard Tipping
9 - 14
This chapter considers the sources of evidence for the pre-burghal evolution of Edinburgh, the natural setting of the site, topography and ancient rivers and lochs. Most of the evidence comes primarily from the archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. Documentary references are limited to a very few sources in the latter part of the first millennium AD. The chapter includes a summary of the evidence for Edinburgh's prehistoric origins and the evidence for settlement before 1128.
16 - 58
This chapter describes the main archaeological features encountered during the excavation, and the artefactual and environmental evidence where appropriate. The results are prefaced by a summary of the main archaeological findings. At the end of the chapter is a brief discussion od how the archaeological results shed light on the main research questions posed at the beginning of the project. The results are organised chronologically beginning with early features, mainly represented by a small residual lithic assemblage. Subsequent sections are organised as follows: period 1 - 12th-14th-century ditch; period 2 - 14th-15th century burgage plots (medieval accumulation, boundaries and backlands, a possible vennel); period 3 - 16th-17th-century tenements and gardens (possible tanning pit); period 4 - 17th-18th-century townhouses and formal gardens (Haddington House, Balmakellie and Queensberry House, Canongate frontage, Lothian Hut), period 5 - 19th-century military barracks and modern features (Haddington House. Quartermaster's store and military features, tenement and Queensberry House). A separate section considers the artefactual evidence for each of the periods identified and there is a brief account of the environmental evidence.
E P Dennison
58 - 68
This chapter considers the founding of the burgh, the laying out of the burgh and the emerging town plan, the homes of the burgesses and indwellers, the early royal presence in the burgh, the rural atmosphere in the medieval town, lifestyles in the town, the town market and the influence of the church. Burghs are first documented in Scotland early in the 12th century, although there is no doubt that a number of small settlements were already, before this time, exhibiting characteristics that might be defined as urban. Edinburgh may have been once such settlement.
69 - 88
Royalty had been frequent visitors to the guest house of the Abbey of Holyrood throughout the Middle Ages, but from the 15th century there is increasing evidence that the Stewart Kings found the abbey precincts, with their gardens and orchards, a commodious place to stay. The palace underwent major remodelling and refurbishment in the reign of James V and again in 1554 when the Queen Mother, Queen Regent Mary of Guise, restored Holyrood. The building work encompassed not only prestigious accommodation for royalty and its entourage, but also gardens and courtyards and the more mundane essentials such as stables, workshops and storerooms for hay for the king's carthorse. Edinburgh had become effectively the sole capital of Scotland, and the small burgh of Canongate would be increasingly drawn into the limelight of national politics.
89 - 104
After the Union of the Crowns, in 1603, when James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, the royal court was removed to Westminster. Many Canongate people considered this to be a loss of status. Indeed, the residents petitioned the Privy Council in 1629 over their perceived poverty after the Crown's departure. The Privy Council was regularly meeting in the capital, however, and although crown and immediate court had largely departed, Canongate was, in reality by no means an abandoned town. This chapter considers James VI and the royal visit to Holyrood Palace in 1617, Charles I's coronation, his visit to the Canongate, Civil War and the Commonwealth, life in 17th-century Canongate and concludes with the great reconstruction of Holyrood, 1671-8.
105 - 106
107 - 119
Queensberry House has long been known as a major, if much abused, survivor of a group of aristocratic town mansions that occupied the lower Canongate in the 17th and 18th centuries. As the largest of these, in its heyday it dominated this area of the Edinburgh townscape. The approach taken to the renovation of Queensberry House allowed an unusual level of recording of surfaces. The plans and internal and external elevations have been analysed in detail, allowing the preparation of complex digital drawings in which the fabric assigned to each phase resides on a different 'layer' of the drawing, and can be colour-coded. It is thus possible to 'edit away' later interventions from a drawing to display only that fabric that can be assigned to a specific phase. An archaeological/historical study was made of the evidence for the belvedere tower, along with a general review of historical sources and an assessment of historic visual source material. \r\n
120 - 148
The archaeological evidence strongly suggests that the original house constructed by Dame Margaret Douglas of Balmakellie was substantially the same as the house later purchased by Charles Maitland of Hatton, although he improved and somewhat extended it. For this reason, some mentions is made of Hatton's house in this chapter and the plans mostly apply in his case also, although his house is examined in the next chapter. It seems most likely that the motivation in acquiring and developing the house was different in each of these two cases, and the significance of the house to each of them consequently differed. The Balmakellie Lodging successfully combined a number of fairly traditional and some rather advanced elements. In the 1670s it was one of the largest townhouses in Edinburgh.
149 - 165
A brief account of Charles Maitland of Hatton is followed by information on how he acquired the site, the physical evidence and the belvedere tower, the layout of the house and its presence in artists' depictions. It is noted that without the surviving documentation it would be very difficult to distinguish any Hatton phase alterations from the physical evidence
John Lowrey
167 - 173
If Hatton had failed to impress the Duke of York during his sojourn in Edinburgh in the early 1680s. he was even further out of favour when the Duke became James VII and II in 1685. The combined consequences of political failure, allegations of corruption and crippling debt ultimately lay behind Lord Hatton's decision to sell the house in 1686 to William, first Duke of Queensberry. Much detail about the house and its contents is provided by an inventory of 1695.
174 - 208
With the accession of James, second Duke of Queensberry in 1695, Queensberry House entered its most important period as the Edinburgh base of one of the most powerful political figures in Scotland and as a location of some significance in the lead-up to the Act of Union. This chapter presents the background to the rebuilding of the house and provides a detailed account of the work involved. There then follows a detailed account of the archaeological evidence for rebuilding. The discussion of the planning of the house at this stage is based on a combination of archival research and archaeological investigation which allows a reconstruction of the plan to be made. A discussion of the furniture, furnishings and function follows with a final section on the link between the house and the Union of 1707.
John Lowrey
209 - 223
The relationship between town and garden in the medieval burgh was a close one. One of the main reasons for a burgh's existence was to bring about a concentration of people to provide a market for goods and to provide a focus for local agriculture. In the Canongate there is a long history of gardening, of a grander and more specialist kind, and on a more ambitious scale than the rest of Edinburgh. The more complex typology of the garden in this area is related partly to topography but mainly to the proximity of Holyrood Palace and its predecessor, Holyrood Abbey.
224 - 246
This chapter considers to what extent the Canongate was affected by the Union negotiations and the political unrest of the 18th century. By 1795 it is estimated that there were approximately 6200 people of varied social background living in Canongate. Edinburgh became the fashionable role model for cultural activities and the city had its own school of artists. Apart from the impressive dwellings that graced Canongate, probably the outstanding feature of the 18th-century townscape was the multiplicity of closes that grew up in the backlands behind the street frontages.
248 - 288
The 19th century saw the hastening of a number of trends that were already evident in the 18th. In domestic architecture, the age of the great aristocratic townhouse was over. Subdivision, demolition or non-domestic use was the fate that awaited most of the great mansions. New housing was tenemental and, as the century wore on, often of very poor quality. One reason for that was the intensification of industrialisation in the area and the influx of workers, often immigrants from Ireland or the Highlands, needed to supply these industries. The social profile of Canongate changed enormously over the 19th-century and nowhere was this better illustrated than Queensberry House, which began its descent in the scale of degradation in 1803. The story of this process starts with the conversion into a barracks and hospital at the beginning of the century. but, in order to understand it in its wider social, urban and architectural contexts, this chapter, having sketched out this transfer process, will go on to explore the built environment of the Parliament site and the wider Canongate in relation to the key themes of hospitals and refuge, trade and industry, and finally, housing.
289 - 294
The monograph concludes with a brief overview of the Canongate in the 20th century when its population had become much depleted. The main focus is on the housing improvements of the 20th century.
295 - 296
297 - 302
303 - 306
Holyrood Archaeology Project Team
The choice of the Holyrood area for the site of the new Scottish Parliament involved as a first stage of its development both archaeological excavation and architectural analysis, the results of which are described in this volume. Situated in Canongate at the foot of the Royal Mile in Edinburgh, the site encompassed the former Scottish and Newcastle Breweries and Queensberry House. The area was known to have been part of the medieval burgh of Canongate and in the 17th and 18th centuries to have included two other major townhouses, Haddington House and Lothian Hut, in addition to Queensberry House. The history of the site has been intensively researched alongside archaeological investigation and spans nine hundred years of urban life from the 12th to the 20th century. Holyrood Abbey, which was founded in the 12th century was allowed to found a burgh in order to attract commerce and create wealth: the burgh of Canongate, which was separate from the burghs of Edinburgh and Leith. Canongate became a fashionable place for Scotland's leading noble families to build townhouses and remained so until the later 18th century, when its fortunes declined and the fine houses were gradually replaced by slums, hospitals for the poor and breweries. Iron working and possibly tanning of hides were among the activities that appear to have taken place in the burgage plots of the Canongate.