Edited by Paul Gilman and Martin Newman

Published by English Heritage, The Engine House, Fire Fly Avenue, Swindon, SN2 2EH.

ISBN forthcoming

©English Heritage 2007

All figures unless specified are © English Heritage. Applications for the Reproduction of images should be made to the National Monuments Record.

We gratefully acknowledge permission from the following organisations to reproduce information and illustrations:

Aberdeenshire Council, figures 57 & 58; Archaeology Data Service, figures 19 & 27; Buckinghamshire County Council, figure 56; Central Counties Air Operations Unit, figure 11; Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust, figure 35; Cornwall County Council, figures: 48, 49 & 52; Essex County Council, figures: 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 39, 44, 45 & 55; exeGesIS SDM Ltd. figures: 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26 & 53; Hampshire County Council, figurer 42; Hertfordshire County Council, figures: 51 & 55; Historic Scotland, figure 68; Land Management Information System, figure 54; National Trust, figure 26; North Yorkshire County Council, figurers 23 & 24; Peterborough City Council, figure 59; Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Scotland, figures: 50, 66, 67 & 68; Somerset County Council, figures: 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 & 69; University of St Andrews, figures: 36, 37 & 38; West of Scotland Archaeology Service, figures 28 & 29; Worcestershire County Council, figures: 11, 12, 13, 30, 31, 32, 33 & 34.

Figures 11, 12, 13, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 42, 44, 45, 48, 49 , 50 , 51, 52, 55, 56, 57,58, 59 62, 66, 67, 68 & 69 are based on OS maps with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationary Office ©Crown copyright. All Rights reserved. Figures 32, 33 & 34 are based on British Geological Survey (BGS) data by Worcestershire County Council, BGS Digital License 2001/125. 2007. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. OS licence numbers for each organisation basing a figure on an OS map are given in the caption for the image.

English Heritage is the Government's Statutory adviser on all aspects of the historic environment. The National Monuments Record is the public archive of English Heritage.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A CIP catalogue record for this book will be available from the British Library

All rights Reserved
No part of this publication may be reproduced or translated in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher. HER Managers may photocopy this document or store an electronic copy for use within the HER.

Front cover designed by Agnes Bell. Website designed by Bruce Howard.

Cover: Moel Arthur Iron Age hillfort, Flintshire, ©Clywd Powys Archaeological Trust 84-c-0274; Fire in Park Quadrant, Glasgow in 2006, ©Crown Copyright: RCAHMS DP 009620; Shipwreck on coastline, Saltwick Bay, North Yorkshire, ©English Heritage Photo Library K020590; Archaeology, Ashby De La Zouch Castle, Leicestershire, © English Heritage Photo Library N060476.


This desk manual is the result of a partnership between the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), English Heritage, Historic Scotland, the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS), the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales (RCAHMW) and the Association of Local Government Archaeological Officers (ALGAO UK). The desk-manual project was managed by Bruce Howard, Martin Newman (as co-editor), and Matthew Stiff of English Heritage. Paul Gilman of Essex County Council acted as co-editor and ALGAO consultant, supported by Alison Bennett, and especially Caroline Ingle of Essex County Council who did most of the detailed editorial work, checking of web addresses, references and so forth. Special thanks are also due to Nick Davis, Rod Fitzgerald, Phil Garner and Lucy Richardson from the National Monuments Record for proof reading. The project steering committee was chaired by Dave Barrett (Derbyshire County Council), and its membership included Chris Martin (Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust), Rebecca Jones (RCAHMS), Catherine Hardman (ADS), Stuart Jeffrey (ADS), Peter McKeague (RCAHMS), Carol Swanson (West of Scotland Archaeology Service) and David Thomas (RCAHMW).

The first version of this manual was edited by Kate Fernie and Paul Gilman, with the following contributors: Kenneth Aitchison (Institute of Field Archaeologists), Tony Austin, Damian Robinson and William Kilbride (Archaeology Data Service), Alison Bennett and Caroline Ingle (Essex County Council), Rob Bourn (Babtie Group), Duncan Brown, Phil Carlisle, Kate Fernie, Bob Hook, Neil Lang, Gillian Sheldrick, Robin Taylor and Laurel Tilbury (English Heritage), Tony Hurley and Alison Tinniswood (Hertfordshire County Council), Emma Jones (Warwickshire County Council), Peter Rowe (Tees Archaeology) and Nigel Pratt (then of the National Trust). For the second edition, the contributors were: Ruth Atkinson (Humber Archaeology Partnership), Talya Bagwell (Somerset County Council), Kim Biddulph (Buckinghamshire County Council), Victoria Bryant, Neil Lockett and Deborah Overton, (Worcestershire County Council), Kieran Byrne, Edmund Lee (English Heritage), Quinton Carroll (Cambridgeshire County Council), Jill Collens (Cheshire County Council), Paul Cuming (Kent County Council), Tom Dawson (University of St Andrews), Lynn Dyson-Bruce (Essex County Council), Gail Falkingham (North Yorkshire County Council), Isobel Holroyd (British and Irish Archaeological Bibliography), Susan Lisk (Oxfordshire County Council), Bruce Mann (Aberdeenshire Council), Dorothy M. Maxwell (Highland Council), Robert Mowat (RCHAMS), Ben Robinson (Peterborough City Council), Jeff Spencer (Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust), David Wheatley (University of Southampton).

IFP 2 was peer reviewed by Louise Austin (Cambria Archaeology (Dyfed Archaeological Trust Ltd.)), Kate Geary (Institute of Field Archaeologists), Bruce Mann (Aberdeenshire Council), Sarah Poppy (Cambridgeshire County Council), Hedley Swain (Museum of London), Nigel Pratt (Hampshire County Council), and Professor Ian Ralston (University of Edinburgh). The steering committee wishes to extend its thanks to the peer reviewers and to all those who have been involved the project. The committee commends this desk manual to professional staff working in local authorities, students, volunteers, and project staff.

Dave Barrett, Derbyshire County Council, Chair of the IFP2 Steering Committee.