E: Geographic Information Systems (GIS), mapping and spatial data#

HERs comprise both textual records of historical and archaeological sites (or events), and also a map based record of their locations. Historically, in paper-based HERs, the textual (attribute) record was stored on a card index or record sheet, while the locations (geographic information) were marked on a series of related maps. HERs in England usually hold paper maps showing the location of archaeological sites but while computerised databases have now largely replaced card indexes for handling attribute data, it has not been until relatively recently that Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have begun to replicate and enhance the geographic component of HER data.