n.a., (2009). Archaeology in Wales.

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Archaeology in Wales
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Archaeology in Wales
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URI: http://cbawales.archaeologyuk.org/archinwales
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17 Feb 2015
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Toby Driver
3 - 10
Prior to 1995 only a single possible example of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure was known at Bryn Celli Wen, Anglesey, which was discovered during excavations in 1990. In 1995 and 1996 the Royal Commission aerial reconnaissance identified two further potential examples in the Vale of Glamorgan. The first, at Corntown, comprises an unusual multi-ditched enclosure which correlates with an exceptionally large early Neolithic flint scatter collected during fieldwalking. The second at Norton, Ogmore, is a more conventional causewayed enclosure in appearance but has yet to be closely dated despite being subjected to a gradiometer survey, fieldwalking and trial excavation. Since late 1990 two other causewayed enclosures discovered during aerial reconnaissance have been confirmed by excavation at Banc Du, Pembrokeshire and more recently at Womaston. The paper concludes with a brief description of other potential causewayed enclosures in Wales. Au/SH
Mark Corney
11 - 24
A strip, map and sample excavation undertaken to the north of the scheduled Romano-British enclosed settlement recorded evidence for late Iron Age and earlier Roman land divisions represented by a series of shallow ditches and gullies as well as two poorly preserved earlier Roman cremation burials. Prehistoric activity was represented by three pits, one of which produced an important assemblage of late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age ceramics.
Tim Morgan
25 - 32
Jane Kenny
Richard Cooke
Iwan Parry
George Smith
33 - 38
A programme of archaeological investigation comprising survey and limited excavation was undertaken ahead of plans to replace the water main between Llyn Eiddew Mawr, in the Ardudwy Uplands above Harlech, to the Rhiwgoch water treatment works through Snowdonia National Park. Many of the new features identified were the remains of field systems associated with the use of the uplands in the 18th and 19th century. Significant earlier features included a small burial cairn (SH 63321 32527) located close to the schedule Ffridd Fron kerb cairn (SAM Me208) and a possible ring cairn (SH 59848 30949) that may be related to the Garreg ring cairn (SAM Me107). Narrow ridge and furrow observed could be of Iron Age date and a hut circle may also date to the Iron Age or Romano-British period. Finds recovered from excavations included a Mesolithic end scraper and blade, an unretouched flake likely to be of late Neolithic date possibly imported into the area and a number of worked stone from the local area using pebble, including two thumbnail scrapers diagnostic of Beaker assemblages from the later 3rd millennium. A quartzite pebble imported from the coast was broken to provide a chopping tool edge. Au/SH
Shane Kelleher
39 - 52
Michael J C Walker
Sarah Jones
Jenny Hall
Paul Sambrook
53 - 58
A programme of coring and pollen analysis was commissioned to reconstruct the ecological history of Llyn Llech Owain lake (SN 568152). This short report presents the preliminary results of the analyses from the upper part of the profile (above 4m) where there appears to be evidence of human activity. Above the level of the core representing the mid-Holocene 'elm decline' there are indications of significant changes in the local and regional vegetation that may indicate human activity from the Neolithic that accelerated in the Bronze Age. This includes potential evidence for pastoral activity where openings in the vegetation were maintained through animal grazing and the presence of microscopic charcoal which could be anthropogenic or from natural fires. Au/SH
Philip N Wood
58 - 60
Excavations in the Dinorben hillfort conducted from 1912 until the 1970s suggest occupation starts on the site from the 9th century BC, continuing into the Iron Age, with further activity in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The recent excavations undertaken by Northern Archaeological Associates as part of the St George Quarry extension uncovered features including pits with some structural remains but relatively few ditches principally dating to the Neolithic period. Au/SH
Jane Kenney
Gwynedd Archaeological Trust carries out a programme of excavation at Parc Cybi between November 2006 and June 2008 funded by the Welsh Assembly Government in advance of a business park development. The excavations revealed several groups of pits and postholes close to a rectangular structure found in 2007, interpreted as a granary. There were few artefacts recovered but a complex of inter-cutting pots produced significant quantities of prehistoric pottery. Some of the features are believed to be Neolithic but others are potentially later indicating continued use of the site. The remains of a small compact group of Roman buildings was completely excavated and comprised a small rectangular building (5m x 4m internally) and a circular structure (inner diameter 6.5m) which was clay walled a probably contained a furnace. A stone-capped pit was found under the clay floor that was either contemporary with the building or pre-dated it. A variety of timber structures were indicated by multiple postholes, possibly barns or similar structures. Pottery suggests the Roman building complex dates to the 3rd and 4th centuries AD but its origin may have been in the 2nd century. Industrial activity was represented by the furnace but no evidence of metal-working debris was found despite extensive sampling. A terraced trackway through the building complex was continued as a well-preserved double walled trackway with metalled surface and roughly perpendicular ditches may be the remains of an associated field system. Some features associated with a 18th century farm were also recovered. Au/SH
Phil Poucher
62 - 64
Fieldwork at Llangynfelin as part of a study of Ceredigion's wetlands funded by Cadw investigated an Iron Age/Roman metal-working site overlaid by a timber trackway of 10th/11th century date. SH
Jemma Bezant
Jan Bailey
65 - 71
A survey at Dyffryn Crawnon led to the identification of a number of features including 12 trackways, 22 building platforms of varying sizes, relict field boundaries and enclosures, with many depicted on the 1st edition 6 inch Ordnance Survey map, and a significant dry-stone wall up to 6ft tall shown on a 16th century map. SH
Neil D Ludlow
Toby Driver
73 - 78
The dry summer of 2013 proved to be productive for cropmark aerial reconnaissance across many parts of south, south-west and north Wales where evidence for previously unrecorded archaeological sites emerged. Parchmarks of various structures within Pembroke Castle are known to become visible in these dry conditions and a Royal Commission aerial survey of the site in 2013 revealed footings of a large stone building within the curtain wall of the Outer Ward. This building footprint had been previously excavated in 1930-1 but no plan survived to show its shape or precise position. The building, interpreted as a Tudor Mansion and possible guest residence, is then discussed within the context of the arrival of Lady Margaret Beaufort at Pembroke Castle for the safe delivery of her baby - the future King Henry VII. Au/SH
Richard Scott Jones
79 - 82
During a watching brief in June 2012 several pieces of waterlogged timber and flints potentially of Mesolithic date were exposed. Once the timbers had been inspected off-site it was clear that one piece of oak (1.70m long x 0.26m width x 0.24m depth) was carved with a series of parallel running and alternating zig-zags as well as concentric ellipses on its rounded end. Radiocarbon dates indicated that the timber dates to the Late Mesolithic to Early Neolithic. If the carving is determined to be the result of human agency, it will make the find of national and potentially international significance. In December 2013 the timber was moved to York Archaeological Trust to undergo conservation work by Ian Panter. Once conservation is complete the timber will be added to the National Museum Wales collection after it was donated by the landowner in 2012. Au/SH
Gary Lock
John Pouncett
83 - 97
Report covering the 2nd and 3rd season of fieldwork to evaluate and interpret the earthwork survey and geophysical survey anomalies, re-interpret excavations carried out by Stapleton in 1908 and asses the threat from burrowing animals, livestock and vegetation. Three trenches were excavated with the first located on a probable house platform detected on the geophysical survey and a possible roundhouse that is yet to be confirmed by excavation with a spindle whorl found within the vicinity along with probably prehistoric heavily abraded pottery. The second trench investigated three large anomalies but the excavation proved inconclusive in terms of whether these were related to the Iron Age occupation of the hillfort and could be tree throws. A likely pit may relate to Iron Age activity based on its morphology. Trench three in the southern flat area of the hillfort investigated cut features which relate to the construction of the ramparts indicating that phase 1 was constructed entirely from dry-stone using shale pieces with large flat pieces used to create a vertical rear face. The excavation suggests that phase 2 of the rampart was constructed from a series of horizontal layers and that the upper layers collapsed inwards. Inside the rampart a shallow ditch probably provided much of the material for the rampart but it is not clear which phase it belongs to. Au/SH
Christopher Dickson
Nga Tram
98 - 106
Two erect stones, just over a meter high, possibly of prehistoric date, were found at Mynydd Mwyn Mawr Farm near Llanerchymedd. The stones are aligned with a spring and hilltop which along with the vertical erection and similar height suggests intentional configuration of the stones. The article reports on the results of site visits and preliminary metal-detecting survey. An unusual metal artefact 0.125m long was recovered and could be a chisel or other metal tool. The landowner had previous found a small stone implement approximately 700m south-east of the stones which could be a Bronze Age hammerstone. Based on the stone composition and selection, alignment, packing stones and site location, Dr George Nash believes that the site is of Bronze Age origin.
George Nash
Carol James
107 - 112
This paper discusses a stone engraved with a spiral and other other motifs in terms of its parallels with rockart found within the Irish Sea Zone. Recording sessions in 2013 revealed more about the construction of the spiral and based on the motifs, it is likely to be Neolithic in date. Several reoccurring traits such as directional rotation are likely to be associated with the chamber arrangement of passage graves. Parallels are drawn with the spirals depicted on the Calderstones monument at Allerton, Liverpool, which are the remains of a passage grave dismantled in the mid-19th century. Cupules engraved within the spiral are believed to represent a second phase of engraving. Au/SH
Jane Kenney
113 - 118
Current fieldwork at Hen Gastell has clarified details of the site, but there are other questions that remain unanswered. The excavation demonstrated that the ditch is a genuine cut feature, not a palaeochannel or other natural feature, and is more substantial than it appears on the surface. The lack of Roman pottery at the site suggests either a late prehistoric or possibly an Early Medieval data. Radiocarbon dates will be obtained from charred plant remains from the inner bank and buried soil beneath it. Further excavation will take place in July 2014 as part of a community excavation.
Oliver Davis
Niall M Sharples
Dave Wyatt
119 - 125
Between June and July 2013 three trenches were opened concentrating on the south-eastern area of the hillfort to try and better understand features revealed by Time Team in 2012. The structural remains and artefacts recovered in the 2013 season indicate that Cearau has a sequence of activities spanning the Neolithic through to the Medieval period, with occupation likely to have been episodic rather than continuous. A substantial pottery assemblage and well preserved animal bone was recovered. Au/SH
Nancy Edwards
Nikki Vousden
125 - 130
This article details the analysis of a piece of early medieval sculpture, rediscovered in May 2013 lying in the Nant Tawelan stream (SN 5712 5101), using digital photography and laser scanning. The stone confirms the existence of at least three early medieval stones at St Sulien's Church and its use as a place of burial in the 5th or 6th centuries. It is possible that archaeological features visible in the adjacent landscape may be contemporary.
Andrew Manning
Derek Hurst
130 - 138
This paper summarises the results of geophysical survey and excavation undertaken in 2007. Unstratified Neolithic finds recovered included a polished stone axe (probably Group VI Langdale or VII Penmaenmawr area of North Wales), a fragment of Peterborough Ware pottery and levallois-style discoidal flint core. A pit adjacent to where a barrow was later constructed contained charred grain and hazelnut fragments radiocarbon dated to 2340-2130 cal BC (SUERC-24179, 3795 ± 30 BP) and was associated with finely decorated beaker pottery. Early Bronze Age activity focussed around the partial ring-ditch of a ploughed-out barrow with an elongated pit and central pit for the primary cremation containing a deposit of burnt bone accompanied by flint artefacts and personal objects of worked bone and stone. The cremation deposit was radiocarbon dated to 2040-1880 cal BC (SUERC-24309, 3610 ± 30 BP). A second pit in the internal space of the ring-ditch could indicate that the barrow was reused for secondary burial which is common during the early post-Roman period. Other post-Roman features include corn dryers and the presence of free-threshing wheat including hulled 6-row barley, medieval ridge and furrow and post-medieval field boundaries. Au/SH
D McNicol
139 - 144
Archaeological works revealed a landscape of settlement activity dating from the Roman period up until the 20th century. Although no prehistoric activity was identified in the area it is possible that some of the field boundaries had their origins in earlier periods. The Roman roundhouse settlement (GAT HER 31969 and 36094) was partially investigated and showed that there were at least two roundhouses with a further two possible building platforms indicating a small settlement.